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1.  Pertussis: Challenges Today and for the Future 
PLoS Pathogens  2013;9(7):e1003418.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003418
PMCID: PMC3723573  PMID: 23935481
2.  The role of upregulated miRNAs and the identification of novel mRNA targets in prostatospheres 
Genomics  2011;99(2):108-117.
TICs are characterized by their ability to self-renew, differentiate and initiate tumor formation. miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that bind to mRNAs resulting in regulation of gene expression and biological functions. The role of miRNAs and TICs in cancer progression led us to hypothesize that miRNAs may regulate genes involved in TIC maintenance. Using whole genome miRNA and mRNA expression profiling of TICs from primary prostate cancer cells, we identified a set of up-regulated miRNAs and a set of genes down-regulated in PSs. Inhibition of these miRNAs results in a decrease of prostatosphere formation and an increase in target gene expression. This study uses genome-wide miRNA profiling to analyze expression in TICs. We connect aberrant miRNA expression and deregulated gene expression in TICs. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing TIC development/maintenance and the role that miRNAs have in the fundamental biology of TICs.
doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2011.11.007
PMCID: PMC3430075  PMID: 22206861
Tumor-initiating cell; Prostatospheres; Prostate Cancer; Cancer Stem Cells; microRNA
3.  DISRUPTION OF URINARY ODOR PREFERENCE AND LORDOSIS BEHAVIOR IN FEMALE MICE GIVEN LESIONS OF THE MEDIAL AMYGDALA 
Physiology & behavior  2011;105(2):554-559.
Previous research showed that axonal inputs to both anterior and posterior subdivisions of the medial amygdala from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs of female mice, respectively, process volatile and non-volatile pheromonal signals from male conspecifics. In the present study we found that bilateral electrolytic lesions that included posterior portions, but not the anterior subdivision alone of the medial amygdala (Me) blocked the preference of estrous female mice to investigate volatile urinary odors from testes-intact vs. castrated males. Similar results were obtained in separate tests in which nasal contact with urinary stimuli was permitted. In addition, total time investigating volatile urinary stimuli was reduced in subjects with posterior Me lesions. Subjects were able to discriminate volatile urinary odors from testes-intact vs. castrated male mice, suggesting that this disruption of odor preference did not result from the inability of females given amygdaloid lesions to discriminate these male urinary odors. Bilateral lesions of the Me that were either restricted to the anterior or posterior subdivisions, or included areas of both regions, caused significant reductions in the display of lordosis behavior in estrous female mice. Our results suggest that the Me is a critical segment of the olfactory circuit that controls both mate recognition and mating behavior in the female mouse.
doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.09.014
PMCID: PMC3279192  PMID: 21945865
Sexual behavior; partner preference; estradiol; progesterone
4.  Age-Related Differences in Patterns of Increased Bordetella pertussis Antibodies 
During the period 2008 to 2010, we identified 11,386 serum samples with increased (positive) levels of antibodies recognizing Bordetella pertussis antigens. We sought to characterize the distribution of positive antibody result patterns in relation to patient age. IgG and IgA antibodies recognizing pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) were quantified using a multianalyte immunodetection assay. Four mutually exclusive positive result patterns were observed: increased FHA antibodies only, increased PT IgA but not IgG, increased PT IgG but not IgA, and increased PT IgG and IgA. In patients <21 years old, the predominant pattern was increased PT IgG but not IgA, whereas in patients ≥21 years old, it was increased FHA antibodies only. The proportion of positive serum samples exhibiting increased PT IgA but not IgG was <20% in all age categories but showed a stepwise rise with age. The proportions of positive serum samples exhibiting increased PT IgG and IgA were similar (26 to 32%) in the age categories spanning 11 to 60 years of age but lower in the <11- and >60-year-old groups. In 3 of 5 age categories, a significant rise in the proportion of positive serum samples exhibiting increased FHA antibodies only occurred in 2010. Patterns of positive B. pertussis antibody results varied with age. The predominance of increased FHA antibodies only in patients >20 years old suggests that many adults thought to have B. pertussis infections actually have other infections that induce FHA-reactive antibodies. Similarly, the 2010 rise in the frequency of increased FHA antibodies only in some age groups suggests an increase in non-B. pertussis infections.
doi:10.1128/CVI.05725-11
PMCID: PMC3318290  PMID: 22357646
5.  Clinical Definitions of Pertussis: Summary of a Global Pertussis Initiative Roundtable Meeting, February 2011 
Existing clinical case definitions of pertussis are decades old and based largely on clinical presentation in infants and children, yet an increasing burden is borne by adolescents and adults who may manifest distinct signs/symptoms. Therefore, a “one-size-fits-all” clinical case definition is no longer appropriate. Seeking to improve pertussis diagnosis, the Global Pertussis Initiative (GPI) developed an algorithm that delineates the signs/symptoms of pertussis most common to 3 age groups: 0–3 months, 4 months to 9 years, and ≥10 years. These case definitions are based on clinical presentation alone, but do include recommendations on laboratory diagnostics. Until pertussis can be accurately diagnosed, its burden will remain underestimated, making the introduction of epidemiologically appropriate preventive strategies difficult. The proposed definitions are intended to be widely applicable and to encourage the expanded use of laboratory diagnostics. Determination of their utility and their sensitivity and/or specificity versus existing case definitions is required.
doi:10.1093/cid/cis302
PMCID: PMC3357482  PMID: 22431797
6.  Different Profiles of Main and Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral/Tufted Cell Projections Revealed in Mice Using an Anterograde Tracer and a Whole-Mount, Flattened Cortex Preparation 
Chemical Senses  2010;36(3):251-260.
A whole-mount, flattened cortex preparation was developed to compare profiles of axonal projections from main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) mitral and tufted (M/T) cells. After injections of the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, mapping of labeled axons using a Neurolucida system showed that M/T cells in the AOB sent axons primarily to the medial and posterior lateral cortical amygdala, with minimal branching into the piriform cortex. By contrast, M/T cells in the MOB displayed a network of collaterals that branched off the primary axon at several levels of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT). Collaterals emerging from the LOT into the anterior piriform cortex were often observed crossing into the posterior piriform cortex. M/T cells in the dorsal MOB extended fewer collaterals from the primary axon in the rostral LOT than did M/T cells from the anterior or ventral MOB. MOB M/T cells that projected to the medial amygdala did not do so exclusively, also sending collaterals to the anterior cortical amygdala as well as to olfactory cortical regions. This arrangement may be related to the ability of social experience to modify the response of mice to volatile pheromones detected by the main olfactory system.
doi:10.1093/chemse/bjq120
PMCID: PMC3038272  PMID: 21177285
axon collaterals; lateral olfactory tract; medial amygdala; PHA-L; piriform cortex
7.  A SEX COMPARISON OF THE ANATOMY AND FUNCTION OF THE MAIN OLFACTORY BULB-MEDIAL AMYGDALA PROJECTION IN MICE 
Neuroscience  2010;172:196-204.
We previously reported that some main olfactory bulb (MOB) mitral/tufted (M/T) cells send a direct projection to the ‘vomeronasal’ amygdala in female mice and selectively respond to volatile male mouse urinary odors. We asked whether MOB M/T cells that project to the vomeronasal amygdala exist in male mice and whether there is a sexually dimorphic response of these neurons to volatile male urinary pheromones. Gonadectomized male and female mice received bilateral injections of the retrograde tracer, Cholera toxin-B (CTb) into the medial amygdala (Me), which is part of the vomeronasal amygdala. All subjects were then treated with estradiol benzoate and progesterone before being exposed to volatile male urinary odors whereupon they were sacrificed 90 min later. Sections of the MOB were immunostained for Fos protein and/or CTb. Male mice, like females, displayed a small population of MOB M/T cells that project to the Me. While the general localization of these cells was similar in the two sexes, there were statistically significant sex differences in the percentage of MOB M/T cells in the anterior and posterior medial segments of the MOB that were retrogradely labeled by CTb. Male urinary volatiles stimulated equivalent, significant increases in Fos expression by MOB M/T neurons projecting to the Me in the two sexes. By contrast, in the same mice exposure to male urinary volatiles stimulated a significant increase in Fos expression by mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) only in female subjects. Thus any sexually dimorphic behavioral or neuroendocrine responses to male urinary volatiles likely depend on the differential processing of these odor inputs in the AOB and/or other downstream forebrain structures after their detection by the main olfactory system.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.11.003
PMCID: PMC3010476  PMID: 21070839
pheromone; accessory olfactory bulb; Fos protein; estradiol; progeste
8.  Tumor and reproductive traits are linked by RNA metabolism genes in the mouse ovary: a transcriptome-phenotype association analysis 
BMC Genomics  2010;11(Suppl 5):S1.
Background
The link between reproductive life history and incidence of ovarian tumors is well known. Periods of reduced ovulations may confer protection against ovarian cancer. Using phenotypic data available for mouse, a possible association between the ovarian transcriptome, reproductive records and spontaneous ovarian tumor rates was investigated in four mouse inbred strains. NIA15k-DNA microarrays were employed to obtain expression profiles of BalbC, C57BL6, FVB and SWR adult ovaries.
Results
Linear regression analysis with multiple-test control (adjusted p ≤ 0.05) resulted in ovarian tumor frequency (OTF) and number of litters (NL) as the top-correlated among five tested phenotypes. Moreover, nearly one-hundred genes were coincident between these two traits and were decomposed in 76 OTF(–) NL(+) and 20 OTF(+) NL(–) genes, where the plus/minus signs indicate the direction of correlation. Enriched functional categories were RNA-binding/mRNA-processing and protein folding in the OTF(–) NL(+) and the OTF(+) NL(–) subsets, respectively. In contrast, no associations were detected between OTF and litter size (LS), the latter a measure of ovulation events in a single estrous cycle.
Conclusion
Literature text-mining pointed to post-transcriptional control of ovarian processes including oocyte maturation, folliculogenesis and angiogenesis as possible causal relationships of observed tumor and reproductive phenotypes. We speculate that repetitive cycling instead of repetitive ovulations represent the actual link between ovarian tumorigenesis and reproductive records.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-S5-S1
PMCID: PMC3045792  PMID: 21210965
9.  Antibody Response Patterns to Bordetella pertussis Antigens in Vaccinated (Primed) and Unvaccinated (Unprimed) Young Children with Pertussis▿  
In a previous study, it was found that the antibody response to a nonvaccine pertussis antigen in children who were vaccine failures was reduced compared with the response in nonvaccinated children who had pertussis. In two acellular pertussis vaccine efficacy trials in Sweden, we studied the convalescent-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) geometric mean values (GMVs) in response to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae (FIM 2/3) in vaccine failures and controls with pertussis. In Germany, the antibody responses to Bordetella pertussis antigens PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 were analyzed by ELISA according to time of serum collection after onset of illness in children with pertussis who were vaccine failures or who were previously unvaccinated. Antibody values were also compared by severity of clinical illness. In Sweden, infants who had received a PT toxoid vaccine and who were vaccine failures had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigen FHA compared with the response in children who had received a PT/FHA vaccine. Similarly, infants who had pertussis and who had received a PT/FHA vaccine had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigens PRN and FIM 2/3 compared with the response in children who were vaccine failures and who had received a PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM 2/3 vaccine. In Germany, in sera collected from 0 to 15 days after pertussis illness onset, the GMVs for all 4 antigens (PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2) were significantly lower in an unvaccinated group than in children who were diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine failures. In the unvaccinated group, the GMV of the PT antibody rose rapidly over time so that it was similar to that of the DTaP vaccine recipients at the 16- to 30-day period. In contrast, the antibody responses to FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 at all time periods were lower in the diphtheria-tetanus vaccine (DT) recipients than in the DTaP vaccine failures. In both Sweden and Germany, children with less severe illness had lower antibody responses than children with typical pertussis. Our findings indicate that upon exposure and infection, previous vaccinees have more-robust antibody responses to the antigens contained in the vaccine they had received than to Bordetella antigens that were not in the vaccine they had received. In addition, over time the antibody responses to FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 were greater in children with vaccine failure (primed subjects) than in unvaccinated children (unprimed subjects) whereas the responses to PT were similar in the primed and unprimed children, as determined from sera collected after 15 days of illness. Our findings lend support to the idea that DTaP vaccines should contain multiple antigens.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00469-09
PMCID: PMC2863370  PMID: 20335431
10.  Aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression is associated with a family history of upper gastrointestinal cancer in a high risk population exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons 
Background
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and PAHs are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study measured the expression of AhR and related genes in frozen esophageal cell samples from patients exposed to different levels of indoor air pollution, who did or did not have high-grade squamous dysplasia (HGD), and who did or did not have a family history (FH) of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGI Ca).
Methods
147 samples were evaluated, including 23 (16%) from patients with HGD and 48 (33%) from patients without DYS who heated their homes with coal, without a chimney (a “high” indoor air pollution group), and 27 (18%) from patients with HGD and 49 (33%) from patients without DYS who did not heat their homes at all (a “low” indoor air pollution group). Nearly half (64 (44%)) had a FH of UGI Ca. RNA was extracted and Quantitative-PCR analysis was performed.
Results
AhR gene expression was detectable in 85 (58%) of the samples, and was more than 9-fold higher in those with a FH of UGI Ca (median expression (IQR) -1964 (-18000, -610) versus -18000 (-18000, -1036) Wilcoxon P = 0.02). Heating status, dysplasia category, age, gender, and smoking were not associated with AhR expression (linear regression, all P-values ≥0.1).
Conclusion
AhR expression was higher in patients with a FH of UGI Ca. Such individuals may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of PAH exposure, including PAH-induced cancer.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-1098
PMCID: PMC2796959  PMID: 19690180
Gastrointestinal tract cancer; Esophagus; Aryl hydrocarbon receptor; family history of cancer; gene expression; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
11.  Evidence of Bordetella pertussis infection in vaccinated 1-year-old Danish children 
European Journal of Pediatrics  2010;169(9):1119-1122.
We measured IgA and IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) in sera from 203 1-year-old children who had received one to three doses of a monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine. Ten children (5%) had IgA antibody to PT indicating recent infection; seven of these children had received three doses of vaccine. PT IgA responders did not have significantly longer coughing episodes than PT IgA non-responders. Since an IgA antibody response occurs in only ∼50% of infected children, the actual infection rate in our cohort is estimated to ∼10%. The apparent high Bordetella pertussis infection rate in Danish infants suggests that the monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine used in Denmark has limited efficacy against B. pertussis infection. A prospective immunization study comparing a multi-component vaccine with the present monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine should be undertaken.
doi:10.1007/s00431-010-1192-9
PMCID: PMC2908438  PMID: 20373111
Pertussis; Pertussis toxin; Pertussis IgA; Pertussis epidemiology
12.  A direct main olfactory bulb projection to the ‘vomeronasal’ amygdala in female mice selectively responds to volatile pheromones from males 
The main olfactory system, like the accessory olfactory system, responds to pheromones involved in social communication. Whereas pheromones detected by the accessory system are transmitted to the hypothalamus via the medial (‘vomeronasal’) amygdala, the pathway by which pheromones are detected and transmitted by the main system is not well understood. We examined in female mice whether a direct projection from mitral/tufted (M/T) cells in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) to the medial amygdala exists, and whether medial amygdala-projecting M/T cells are activated by volatile urinary odors from conspecifics or a predator (cat). Simultaneous anterograde tracing using Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and Fluoro-Ruby placed in the MOB and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively, revealed that axons of MOB M/T cells projected to superficial laminae of layer Ia in anterior and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala, whereas projection neurons from the AOB sent axons to non-overlapping, deeper layer Ia laminae of the same subdivisions. Placement of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B into the medial amygdala labeled M/T cells that were concentrated in the ventral MOB. Urinary volatiles from male mice, but not from female conspecifics or cat, induced Fos in medial amygdala-projecting MOB M/T cells of female subjects, suggesting that information about male odors is transmitted directly from the MOB to the ‘vomeronasal’ amygdala. The presence of a direct MOB-to-medial amygdala pathway in mice and other mammals could enable volatile, opposite-sex pheromones to gain privileged access to diencephalic structures that control mate recognition and reproduction.
doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06638.x
PMCID: PMC2669936  PMID: 19187265
anterograde; mating; pheromone; retrograde; sex; vomeronasal organ
13.  Visualization and Identification of IL-7 Producing Cells in Reporter Mice 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(11):e7637.
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is required for lymphocyte development and homeostasis although the actual sites of IL-7 production have never been clearly identified. We produced a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse expressing ECFP in the Il7 locus. The construct lacked a signal peptide and ECFP (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein ) accumulated inside IL-7-producing stromal cells in thoracic thymus, cervical thymus and bone marrow. In thymus, an extensive reticular network of IL-7-containing processes extended from cortical and medullary epithelial cells, closely contacting thymocytes. Central memory CD8 T cells, which require IL-7 and home to bone marrow, physically associated with IL-7-producing cells as we demonstrate by intravital imaging.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007637
PMCID: PMC2770321  PMID: 19907640
14.  Accessory olfactory neural Fos responses to a conditioned environment are blocked in male mice by vomeronasal organ removal 
Physiology & behavior  2006;87(4):781-788.
The ability of an anesthetized estrous female to induce a conditioned place preference (CPP) response was assessed in male mice from which the vomeronasal organ (VNO) had either been removed (VNOx) or left intact (VNOi) in an initial effort to assess the possible contribution of VNO-accessory olfactory inputs to the intrinsically rewarding properties of opposite-sex body odorants. Both VNOi and VNOx male mice acquired a CPP after repeated pairing of an initially non-preferred test chamber with an anesthetized estrous female mouse, suggesting that odorants detected by the main olfactory system and/or visual and tactile cues from the anesthetized estrous female can compensate for absent VNO inputs to establish a CPP. Subsequent exposure to this conditioning chamber alone caused significant increases in the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the mitral and granule cell layers of the accessory olfactory bulb as well as in the medial amygdala and ventral tegmental area of VNOi but not of VNOx males. These results suggest that activity in distal segments of the VNO-accessory olfactory pathway, in addition to the mesolimbic dopamine reward system, can be conditioned to respond to non-odor cues.
doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.01.020
PMCID: PMC2263135  PMID: 16516252
Conditioned place preference; Accessory olfactory bulb; Ventral tegmental area; c-fos; Pheromones; Anesthetized estrous female
15.  Effect of Vomeronasal Organ Removal From Male Mice on Their Preference for and Neural Fos Responses to Female Urinary Odors 
Behavioral neuroscience  2006;120(4):925-936.
Four experiments were conducted to determine whether vomeronasal organ (VNO) inputs in male mice mediate the rewarding properties of estrous female urinary odors. Sexually naive male mice with either an intact (VNOi) or lesioned (VNOx) VNO preferred to investigate female urine over water in Y-maze tests. Subsequently, VNOi males ran significantly more quickly and remained in nasal contact longer with estrous female urine than with male urine, whereas VNOx males investigated these odors equally. In home-cage habituation–dishabituation tests, VNOi males also investigated female urine significantly longer than did VNOx males, although both groups investigated female urine longer than other non-body odors. Finally, female urinary odors induced Fos in the nucleus accumbens core of VNOi males but not of VNOx males. Our results suggest that female urinary odors retain some incentive value in VNOx males. However, once direct nasal contact is made with female urine, VNO inputs further activate forebrain mechanisms that amplify the reward salience of this stimulus for the male mouse.
doi:10.1037/0735-7044.120.4.925
PMCID: PMC2263134  PMID: 16893298
accessory olfactory bulb; nucleus accumbens; pheromones; sexual behavior
16.  Mucosal tolerance to E-selectin and response to systemic inflammation 
Mucosal tolerance to E-selectin has been shown to prevent stroke and reduce brain infarcts in experimental stroke models. However, the effective E-selectin dose range required to achieve mucosal tolerance and the precise mechanisms of neuroprotection remain unclear. We sought to examine the mechanisms of cytoprotection using gene expression profiling of tissues in the setting of mucosal tolerance and inflammatory challenge. Using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), we achieved immune tolerance with 0.1 to 5 μg E-selectin per nasal instillation and observed a dose-related anti-E-selectin immunoglobulin G antibody production. We also show the distinct patterns of gene expression changes in the brain and spleen with the different tolerizing doses and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Prominent differences were seen with such genes as insulin-like growth factors in the brain and downregulation of those encoding the major histocompatibility complex class I molecules in the spleen. In all, mucosal tolerance to E-selectin and subsequent exposure to LPS resulted in significant tissue changes. These changes, while giving an insight to the underlying mechanisms, serve as possible targets for future studies to facilitate translation to human clinical trials.
doi:10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600308
PMCID: PMC1853373  PMID: 16596122
E-selectin; gene expression; immune tolerance; inflammation
17.  Molecular Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, and Clinical Manifestations of Respiratory Infections Due to Bordetella pertussis and Other Bordetella Subspecies 
Clinical Microbiology Reviews  2005;18(2):326-382.
Bordetella respiratory infections are common in people (B. pertussis) and in animals (B. bronchiseptica). During the last two decades, much has been learned about the virulence determinants, pathogenesis, and immunity of Bordetella. Clinically, the full spectrum of disease due to B. pertussis infection is now understood, and infections in adolescents and adults are recognized as the reservoir for cyclic outbreaks of disease. DTaP vaccines, which are less reactogenic than DTP vaccines, are now in general use in many developed countries, and it is expected that the expansion of their use to adolescents and adults will have a significant impact on reducing pertussis and perhaps decrease the circulation of B. pertussis. Future studies should seek to determine the cause of the unique cough which is associated with Bordetella respiratory infections. It is also hoped that data gathered from molecular Bordetella research will lead to a new generation of DTaP vaccines which provide greater efficacy than is provided by today's vaccines.
doi:10.1128/CMR.18.2.326-382.2005
PMCID: PMC1082800  PMID: 15831828
19.  Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infections of Adults and Children 
Western Journal of Medicine  1976;125(1):47-55.
Although the hallmark of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is pneumonia, the organism is also responsible for a protean array of other symptoms. With an increased awareness of the board clinical spectrum of M. pneumoniae disease and the ready availability of the cold agglutinin and M. pneumoniae complement-fixation tests, interested clinicians will note additional clinical-mycoplasmal associations in their patients.
PMCID: PMC1237178  PMID: 782043
20.  Simple Parabiotic Chamber for the Study of Microorganisms in Organ Culture 
Applied Microbiology  1973;25(3):491-492.
A simple parabiotic chamber which is easy to manipulate, does not leak, allows microscopic examination of organ cultures, and is easy to sterilize is described.
PMCID: PMC380834  PMID: 4735448
21.  Modified Procedure for the Microscopic and Macroscopic Study of Viral Plaques 
Applied Microbiology  1967;15(2):243-244.
A virus plaque method that consistently gives good visual contrast for macroscopic observation and also permits microscopic study is described. Cells are grown in plastic flasks and the gelled overlay medium can be of any desired agar concentration or volume. A fixing solution is used prior to removal of the agar overlay, and dye is added to the fixing solution or staining can follow fixation and agar removal. The bottom of the flask with the fixed monolayer is separated from the rest of the container and handled as a slide. A new mounting medium is described.
PMCID: PMC546886  PMID: 4166077

Results 1-21 (21)