Trace elements have been cited as both inhibitory and causative agents of cancer but importantly exposure to them is potentially modifiable. This study aimed to examine toenail trace element status and risk of Barrett’s oesophagus (BO) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Toenail clippings from each hallux were obtained from 638 participants of the FINBAR study (Factors Influencing the Barrett’s Adenocarcinoma Relationship) comprising 221 healthy controls, 98 reflux oesophagitis, 182 BO and 137 OAC cases. The concentrations of eight toenail trace elements were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Using multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs were calculated within tertiles of trace element concentrations. A two-fold increased risk of BO was observed, but not OAC, amongst individuals in the highest tertile of toenail zinc status OR 2.21 (95% CI 1.11–4.40). A higher toenail selenium status was not associated with risk of OAC OR 0.94 (95% CI 0.44–2.04) or BO OR 0.89 (95% CI 0.37–2.12). A borderline significant increased risk of BO was detected with a higher toenail cobalt concentration, OR 1.97 (95% CI 1.01–3.85). No association was found between toenail levels of chromium, cerium, mercury and OAC or BO risk. This is the first case-control study to investigate a variety of trace elements in relation to OAC and BO risk. Despite antioxidant and proapoptotic properties, no associations were found with selenium. Higher concentrations of toenail zinc and cobalt were associated with an increased BO risk, but not OAC. These findings need confirmation in prospective analysis.
trace elements; Barrett’s oesophagus; oesophageal adenocarcinoma; selenium; case-control study
We conducted a genome-wide association study of gastric cancer (GC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in ethnic Chinese subjects in which we genotyped 551,152 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We report a combined analysis of 2,240 GC cases, 2,115 ESCC cases, and 3,302 controls drawn from five studies. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and study, multiple variants at 10q23 had genome-wide significance for GC and ESCC independently. A notable signal was rs2274223, a nonsynonymous SNP located in PLCE1, for GC (P=8.40×1010; per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.31) and ESCC (P=3.85×10−9; OR = 1.34). The association with GC differed by anatomic subsite. For tumors located in the cardia the association was stronger (P=4.19 × 10−15; OR= 1.57) and for those located in the noncardia stomach it was absent (P=0.44; OR=1.05). Our findings at 10q23 could provide insight into the high incidence rates of both cancers in China.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether intakes of total fat and fat subtypes were associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia or gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma. From 1995–1996, dietary intake data was reported by 494,978 participants of the NIH-AARP cohort. 630 EAC, 215 ESCC, 454 gastric cardia and 501 gastric non-cardia adenocarcinomas accrued to the cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between the dietary fat intakes, whilst adjusting for potential confounders. Though apparent associations were observed in energy-adjusted models, multivariate adjustment attenuated results to null (e.g. EAC energy adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.66 (1.27–2.18) P for trend <0.01; EAC multivariate adjusted HR (95%CI) 1.17 (0.84–1.64) P for trend=0.58). Similar patterns were also observed for fat subtypes (e.g. EAC saturated fat, energy adjusted HR (95%CI) 1.79 (1.37–2.33) P for trend <0.01; EAC saturated fat, multivariate adjusted HR (95%CI) 1.27 (0.91–1.78) P for trend=0.28). However, in multivariate models an inverse association for polyunsaturated fat (continuous) was seen for EAC in subjects with a body mass index (BMI) in the normal range (18.5–<25 kg/m2) (HR (95%CI) 0.76 (0.63–0.92)), that was not present in overweight subjects (HR (95%CI) 1.04 (0.96–1.14)), or in unstratified analysis (HR (95%CI) 0.97 (0.90–1.05)). P for interaction=0.02. Overall, we found null associations between the dietary fat intakes with esophageal or gastric cancer risk; though a protective effect of polyunsaturated fat intake was seen for EAC in subjects with a normal BMI.
cohort; dietary fat; esophageal neoplasms; stomach neoplasms; prospective
Ecologic studies have reported that solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is associated with cancer, but little evidence is available from prospective studies. We aimed to assess the association between an objective measure of ambient UVR exposure and risk of total and site-specific cancer in a large, regionally diverse cohort (450,934 white, non-Hispanic subjects (50-71 years old) in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study) after accounting for individual-level confounding risk factors. Estimated erythemal UVR exposure from satellite Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data from NASA was linked to the U.S. Census Bureau 2000 census tract (centroid) of baseline residence for each subject. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for multiple potential confounders to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for quartiles of UVR exposure. Restricted cubic splines examined non-linear relationships. Over 9 years of follow-up, UVR exposure was inversely associated with total cancer risk (N=75,917; highest vs. lowest quartile, HR=0.97 (0.95, 0.99), p-trend<0.001). In site-specific cancer analyses, UVR exposure was associated with increased melanoma risk (highest vs. lowest quartile, HR=1.22 (1.13, 1.32), p-trend<0.001) and decreased risk of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HR=0.82 (0.74, 0.92)) and colon (HR=0.88 (0.82, 0.96)), squamous cell lung (HR=0.86 (0.75, 0.98)), pleural (HR=0.57 (0.38, 0.84)), prostate (HR=0.91 (0.88, 0.95)), kidney (HR=0.83 (0.73, 0.94)), and bladder (HR=0.88 (0.81, 0.96)) cancers (all p-trend<0.05). We also found non-linear associations for some cancer sites, including the thyroid and pancreas. Our results add to mounting evidence for the influential role of UVR exposure on cancer.
Ultraviolet radiation; cancer; vitamin D; prospective
Recently oral bisphosphonate use has increased markedly in the United States and elsewhere. Little is known about cancer risks associated with these drugs. A few studies have observed associations between bisphosphonates and the risk of breast, colorectal and esophageal cancer. However, the risk of all cancer and the risk of other cancers have not been investigated. In this study we examined the risk of all cancer and site specific cancers in individuals taking bisphosphonates. Data were extracted from the UK General Practice Research Database to compare site-specific cancer incidence in a cohort of oral bisphosphonate users and a control cohort. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox regression modelling. The bisphosphonate and control cohort contained 41,826 participants (mean age 70, 81% female). Overall, the bisphosphonate cohort compared with the control cohort had a reduced risk of all cancer after any bisphosphonate usage (HR=0.87, 95% CI 0.82, 0.92). In the bisphosphonate cohort, compared with the control cohort, there was no evidence of a difference in the risk of lung (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.88, 1.20) or prostate cancer (HR=0.86, 95%CI 0.67, 1.09) but breast (HR= 0.71, 95% CI 0.62, 0.81) and colorectal cancer (HR=0.74, 95% CI, 0.60–0.91) were both reduced. Our findings indicate that bisphosphonates do not appear to increase cancer risk. Although reductions in breast and colorectal cancer incidence were observed in bisphosphonate users it is unclear, particularly for breast cancer, to what extent confounding by low bone density may explain the association.
cancer; risk; bisphosphonates; cohort; epidemiology
Epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent associations between vitamin D status and prostate cancer risk, and few studies have evaluated whether the associations vary by disease aggressiveness. We investigated the association between vitamin D status, as determined by serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] level, and risk of prostate cancer in a case–control study nested within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial.
The study included 749 case patients with incident prostate cancer who were diagnosed 1 to 8 years after blood draw and 781 control subjects who were frequency-matched by age at cohort entry, time since initial screening, and calendar year of cohort entry. All study participants were selected from the trial screening arm (which includes annual standardized prostate cancer screening). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by quintile of 25(OH)D. Statistical tests were two-sided.
No statistically significant trend in overall prostate cancer risk was observed with increasing serum season-standardized 25(OH)D level. However, serum 25(OH)D concentrations greater than the lowest quintile (Q1) associated with increased risk of aggressive (Gleason sum ≥7 or clinical stage III or IV) disease (ORs for Q2 vs Q1 = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.81, for Q3 vs Q1 =1.96, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.87, for Q4 vs Q1 = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.09 to 2.38, and for Q5 vs Q1 = 1.37, 95% CI = 0.92 to 2.05; Ptrend = .05). The rates of aggressive prostate cancer for increasing quintiles of serum 25(OH)2D were 406, 479, 780, 633, and 544 per 100,000 person-years. In exploratory analyses, these associations with aggressive disease were consistent across subgroups defined by age, family history of prostate cancer, diabetes, body mass index, vigorous physical activity, calcium intake, study center, season of blood collection, and assay batch.
The findings of this large prospective study do not support the hypothesis that vitamin D is associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer; indeed, higher circulating 25(OH)D concentrations may be associated with increased risk of aggressive disease.
25-hydroxy-vitamin D; prostate cancer
Linzhou, China has one of the highest rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the world. Exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), may play a role in this increased risk. To better understand PAH sources, we measured PAHs in the air and food of 20 non-smokers over multiple days and compared the concentrations to a urinary PAH biomarker, 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG). Sampling occurred over four consecutive days. Kitchen air samples (days 2–3) and duplicate diet samples (days 1–4) were analyzed for 14 or more unique PAHs, including BaP. Daily urine samples (days 1–3) were analyzed for 1-OHPG. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the associations between air or food PAH concentrations and urine 1-OHPG concentrations. The median kitchen air BaP concentration was 10.2 ng/m3 (inter-quartile range (IQR): 5.1–20.2 ng/m3). The median daily food BaP concentration and intake were 0.08 ng/g (IQR=0.04–0.16 ng/g) and 86 ng/day (IQR=41–142 ng/day), respectively. The median 1-OHPG concentration was 3.36 pmol/mL (IQR=2.09–6.98 pmol/mL). In mixed-effects models, 1-OHPG concentration increased with same-day concentration of food BaP (p=0.07). Though PAH concentrations in air were not associated with 1-OHPG concentrations, the high concentrations of PAHs in both air and food suggest that they are both important routes of exposure to PAHs in this population. Further evaluation of the role of PAH exposure from air and food in the elevated rates of esophageal cancer in this region is warranted.
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; cancer; China; dietary exposure; inhalation exposure; biomonitoring; multimedia exposure assessment
Genome-wide association studies have identified susceptibility loci for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We conducted a meta-analysis of all single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed nominally significant P-values in two previously published genome-wide scans that included a total of 2961 ESCC cases and 3400 controls. The meta-analysis revealed five SNPs at 2q33 with P< 5 × 10−8, and the strongest signal was rs13016963, with a combined odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.29 (1.19–1.40) and P= 7.63 × 10−10. An imputation analysis of 4304 SNPs at 2q33 suggested a single association signal, and the strongest imputed SNP associations were similar to those from the genotyped SNPs. We conducted an ancestral recombination graph analysis with 53 SNPs to identify one or more haplotypes that harbor the variants directly responsible for the detected association signal. This showed that the five SNPs exist in a single haplotype along with 45 imputed SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium, and the strongest candidate was rs10201587, one of the genotyped SNPs. Our meta-analysis found genome-wide significant SNPs at 2q33 that map to the CASP8/ALS2CR12/TRAK2 gene region. Variants in CASP8 have been extensively studied across a spectrum of cancers with mixed results. The locus we identified appears to be distinct from the widely studied rs3834129 and rs1045485 SNPs in CASP8. Future studies of esophageal and other cancers should focus on comprehensive sequencing of this 2q33 locus and functional analysis of rs13016963 and rs10201587 and other strongly correlated variants.
Iron can cause oxidative stress and DNA damage, and heme iron can catalyze endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are potent carcinogens. Dietary iron promotes esophageal cancer incidence in animal studies and has been identified as a growth factor for Helicobacter pylori, an established risk factor for stomach cancer.
We conducted a population-based case-control study of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (n=124) and stomach (n=154) and 449 controls in Nebraska. Heme iron and total iron intake were estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire and databases of heme and total iron. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for known risk factors.
Esophageal cancer was positively associated with higher intakes of heme iron (ORQ4 vs. Q1 =3.04, 95% CI 1.20–7.72; p-trend=0.009) and total iron from meat sources (ORQ4 vs. Q1 =2.67, 95% CI 0.99–7.16; p-trend=0.050). Risk of stomach cancer was elevated among those with higher intakes of heme iron (ORQ4vs.Q1=1.99, 95% CI 1.00–3.95, p-trend=0.17) and total iron from meat (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.14–4.46; p-trend=0.11). Iron intake from all dietary sources was not significantly associated with risk of either cancer.
Our results suggest that high intakes of heme and iron from meat may be important dietary risk factors for esophageal and stomach cancer and may partly explain associations with red meat.
Iron; heme iron; nutrition; esophageal cancer; stomach cancer
Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a mycotoxin that contaminates corn in certain climates, has been demonstrated to cause hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in animal models. Whether a relationship between FB1 and HCC exists in humans is not known. To examine the hypothesis, we conducted case-control studies nested within two large cohorts in China; the Haimen City Cohort and the General Population Study of the Nutritional Intervention Trials cohort in Linxian. In the Haimen City Cohort, nail FB1 levels were determined in 271 HCC cases and 280 controls. In the General Population Nutritional Intervention Trial, nail FB1 levels were determined in 72 HCC cases and 147 controls. In each population, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) from logistic regression models estimated the association between measurable FB1 and HCC, adjusting for hepatitis B virus infection and other factors. A meta-analysis that included both populations was also conducted. The analysis revealed no statistically significant association between FB1 and HCC in either Haimen City (OR=1.10, 95%CI=0.64–1.89) or in Linxian (OR=1.47, 95%CI=0.70–3.07). Similarly, the pooled meta-analysis showed no statistically significant association between FB1 exposure and HCC (OR=1.22, 95%CI=0.79–1.89). These findings, although somewhat preliminary, do not support an associated between FB1 and HCC.
fumonisin; hepatocellular carcinoma; cohort study; China; epidemiology
Background & Aims
Regular use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) has been reported to reduce risks for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA). However, individual studies have been too small to accurately assess the effects of medication type, frequency, or duration of use. We performed a pooled analysis to investigate these associations.
We performed a pooled analysis of 6 population-based studies within the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium to evaluate the association between NSAID use and the risk of EAC and EGJA, using uniform exposure definitions. We collected information from 6 studies (5 case-control and 1 cohort), with a total of 1226 EAC and 1140 EGJA cases, on aspirin and/or NSAID use. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariate adjusted logistic regression models and then pooled using a random effects meta-analysis model.
Compared to non-users, individuals who have used NSAIDs had a statistically significant, reduced risk of EAC (OR=0.68; 95% CI, 0.56–0.82); they also appeared to have a reduced risk of EGJA (OR=0.84; 95% CI, 0.68–1.03). Similar reductions in risk were observed among individuals who took aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs. The highest levels of frequency (≥daily) and duration (≥10 years) of NSAID use were associated with an approximately 40% reduction in risk for EAC: OR=0.56 (95% CI, 0.43–0.73; P-trend, <.001) and OR=0.63 (95% CI, 0.45–0.90; P-trend, 0.04), respectively.
Although reverse causation could, in part, explain the inverse association observed between NSAID use and EAC risk, pooled analysis indicates a role for NSAIDs in prevention of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction.
BEACON; Esophageal Neoplasm; Stomach Cancer; Anti-Inflammatory Agent
Gastric cancer incidence rates are consistently lower in women than men in both high and low‐risk regions worldwide. Sex hormones, such as progesterone and estrogen, may protect women against gastric cancer.
To investigate the association of menstrual and reproductive factors and gastric cancer risk.
These associations were prospectively investigated in 73 442 Shanghai women. After 419 260 person‐years of follow‐up, 154 women were diagnosed with gastric cancer. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, body mass index, education, income, and cigarette use.
No associations were observed between gastric cancer risk and age of menarche, number of children, breast feeding, or oral contraceptive use. In contrast, associations were observed with age of menopause (HR 0.80 per five‐year increase in menopausal age, 95% CI 0.66–0.97), years of fertility (participants with less than 30 years of fertility were at increased risk compared with those with 30–36 years of fertility, HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.25–2.90), years since menopause (HR 1.26 per five years, 95% CI 1.03–1.53), and intrauterine device use (HR for users 1.61, 95% CI 1.08–2.39).
These results support the hypothesis that female hormones play a protective role in gastric cancer risk.
stomach neoplasms; cohort studies; prospective studies; hormones
The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the causation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is unclear. We examined the associations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 28 centrally measured HPV serological markers in serum from six existing case–control studies conducted in regions with differing background risks of esophageal cancer.
We used centralized multiplex serology to test serum samples from 1561 case subjects and 2502 control subjects from six case–control studies for antibodies to the major HPV capsid protein (L1) and/or the early proteins E6 and/or E7 of eight high-risk, two low-risk, and four cutaneous HPV types. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption, and other potential confounders. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using either a linear mixed-effects approach or a joint fixed-effects approach. All statistical tests were two-sided.
We found statistically significant associations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and antibodies to E6 for HPV16 (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.09 to 3.29, P = .023) and HPV6 (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.51 to 4.25, P < .001) but not for other tested HPV types. There were no statistically significant associations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and antibodies to E7 for any of the tested HPV types. Simultaneous seropositivity for HPV16 E6 and E7 was rare (four case subjects, two control subjects; OR = 5.57, 95% CI = 0.90 to 34.35; P = .064). We also found statistically significant associations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and capsid antibodies for the high-risk mucosal type HPV33 L1 (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.69; P = .047) and the low-risk mucosal types HPV6 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.42; P = .010) and HPV11 (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.56, P = .0036).
We found limited serological evidence of an association between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and HPV in the populations studied. Although HPV does not appear to be an important risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, we cannot exclude the possibility that certain HPV types may be involved in a small subset of cancers.
Stroke is the leading cause of death in Linxian, China. Although there is evidence of DNA damage in experimental stroke, no data exist on DNA repair and stroke in human populations.
To assess the risk of stroke conferred by polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes, XRCC1, XPD23 and APE/ref‐1 in a cohort of individuals originally assembled as subjects in two cancer prevention trials in Linxian, China.
The subjects for this prospective study were sampled from a cohort of 4005 eligible subjects who were alive and cancer free in 1991 and had blood samples available for DNA extraction. Using real‐time Taqman analyses, all incident cases of stroke (n = 118) that developed from May 1996, and an age‐ and a sex‐stratified random sample (n = 454) drawn from all eligible subjects were genotyped. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs.
No association was observed between polymorphisms in APE/ref‐1 codon 148 and XRCC1*6 codon 194, and stroke. Polymorphisms in XRCC1*10 codon 399 were associated with a significantly reduced risk of stroke (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.96, p = 0.033), whereas XPD23 codon 312 was associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke (RR 2.18, 95% CI 1.14 to 4.17, p = 0.010).
Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may be important in the aetiology of stroke. These data should stimulate research on DNA damage and repair in stroke.
Drinking maté, common in southern South America, may increase the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In 2006, we found high but variable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content in commercial yerba maté samples from eight Brazilian brands. The PAH content of new samples from the same brands, purchased in 2008, and four brands from a single manufacturer processed in different ways, obtained in 2010, were quantified to determine whether PAH concentration was still high, PAH content variation was brand specific, and whether processing method affects PAH content of commercial yerba maté. Concentrations of individual PAHs were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with deuterated PAHs as internal standards. Median total PAH concentration was 1500 ng/g (range: 625 to 3710 ng/g) and 1090 ng/g (621 to 1990 ng/g) in 2008 and 2010 samples, respectively. Comparing 2006 and 2008 samples, some brands had high PAH concentrations in both years, while PAH concentration changed considerably in others. Benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from 11.9 to 99.3 ng/g and 5.11 to 21.0 ng/g in 2008 and 2010 samples, respectively. The 2010 sample processed without touching smoke had the lowest benzo[a]pyrene content. These results support previous findings of very high total and carcinogenic PAH concentrations in yerba maté, perhaps contributing to the high incidence of ESCC in southern South America. The large PAH content variation by brand, batch and processing method suggests it may be possible to reduce the content of carcinogenic PAHs in commercial yerba maté, making it a healthier beverage.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons; Yerba Maté; Carcinogens; Esophageal Cancer; Benzo(α)pyrene; Processing Method; Lifestyle
Oral bisphosphonate use has increased dramatically in the USA. Recent case reports have suggested a link between bisphosphonate use and esophageal cancer, but this is yet to be robustly investigated.
To investigate the association between bisphosphonate use and esophageal cancer.
Design, setting and participants
Data were extracted from the UK General Practice Research to compare the incidence of esophageal and gastric cancer in a cohort of patients treated with oral bisphosphonates between January 1996 and December 2006 to a control cohort not treated with these drugs. Cancers were identified from relevant Read\OXMIS codes in the patient’s clinical files. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for esophageal and gastric cancer risk in bisphosphonate users compared to non bisphosphonate users, with adjustment for potential confounders.
Main outcome measure
The HR for the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in the bisphosphonate users compared to the non bisphosphonate users.
There were 41,826 members in each cohort; 81% female, mean (SD) age, 70.0 (11.4) years, excluding patients with under 6 months follow-up. 116 esophageal or gastric cancers (79 esophageal) occurred in the bisphosphonate cohort and 115 (72 esophageal) in the control cohort. Mean follow-up time was 4.5 and 4.4 years in the bisphosphonate and control cohorts, respectively. There was no difference in combined esophageal and gastric cancer risk between the cohorts for any bisphosphonate use; adjusted HR (95% CI), 0.96 (0.74, 1.25) or esophageal risk alone; adjusted HR (95% CI), 1.07 (0.77, 1.49). There was also no difference in esophageal or gastric cancer risk by level of bisphosphonate intake.
This large study does not provide evidence for an increased risk of esophageal (or gastric) cancer in persons using oral bisphosphonates.
Bisphosphonates; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; epidemiology
Oesophageal cancers rank as the eighth most common cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer death, worldwide. Gastric atrophy, as determined by a low serum pepsinogen I/II ratio, may be associated with an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Ghrelin, a hormone which, like pepsinogen, is produced in the fundic glands of the stomach, may be a sensitive and specific marker of gastric atrophy, but its association with OSCC is not known.
To examine the relationship between baseline serum ghrelin concentration and subsequent risk of OSCC, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. 82 cases of OSCC were matched (1:1) by age and date of blood draw to controls from the ATBC study. Serum ghrelin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders.
For those individuals in the lowest quartile of serum ghrelin, compared to those in the highest, the multivariate odds ratio of subsequent OSCC was 6.83 (95% CI: 1.46, 31.84). These associations were dose dependent (P for trend = 0.005 for both), and independent of the effects of low pepsinogen I/II ratio (a marker of gastric fundic atrophy) and Helicobacter pylori infection. The significance of these associations remained even for individuals developing OSCC up to 10 years after baseline ghrelin measurement, though they become attenuated after 10 years.
Lower baseline concentrations of serum ghrelin were associated with an increase in risk of OSCC. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in other populations and to explore the role of ghrelin in the aetiology of OSCC.
ghrelin; oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma; atrophy
To investigate the relation of physical activity to head and neck cancer.
We prospectively examined the association between physical activity and head and neck cancer in 487,732 men and women who, at baseline in 1995–1996, were 50–71 years old and free of cancer and emphysema. Follow-up occurred through December 31, 2003.
During follow-up, 1,249 participants developed head and neck cancer, of which 42.0%, 18.9%, and 32.5% were located in the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx, respectively. In analyses adjusted for age and gender, the relative risks (RR) of head and neck cancer for increasing frequency of physical activity (0, < 1, 1–2, 3–4, and ≥ 5 times per week) were 1.0 (reference), 0.76, 0.66, 0.57, and 0.62 (95%-CI=0.52–0.74), respectively (p for trend<0.001). After multivariate adjustment including smoking, the relation was attenuated and became statistically non-significant (RR comparing extreme physical activity categories=0.89, 95%-CI=0.74–1.06; p for trend=0.272). In analyses of head and neck cancer subtypes, the corresponding RRs for cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx were 0.98 (95%-CI=0.75–1.29), 0.70 (95%-CI=0.45–1.08), and 0.82 (95%-CI=0.59–1.13), respectively.
Our findings suggest that physical activity is unlikely to play an important role in the prevention of head and neck cancer.
Head and neck cancer; oral cavity cancer; pharynx cancer; larynx cancer; physical activity
Incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased rapidly over the past forty years and accumulating evidence suggests that obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), is a major risk factor. However, it remains unclear whether abdominal obesity is associated with esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma.
Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine associations between overall and abdominal obesity with EAC and gastric adenocarcinoma among 218,854 participants in the prospective NIH-AARP cohort.
253 incident EAC, 191 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas, and 125 gastric non-cardia adenocarcinomas accrued to the cohort. Overall obesity (BMI) was positively associated with EAC and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma risk (highest [≥35 kg/m2] versus referent [18.5–<25 kg/m2]; hazard ratio (HR) 95% confidence interval (95% CI); 2.11 (1.09–4.09) and 3.67 (2.00–6.71), respectively). Waist circumference was also positively associated with EAC and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma risk, (highest versus referent; HR (95% CI) 2.01 (1.35–3.00) and 2.22 (1.43–3.47), respectively), whereas waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was positively associated with EAC risk only (highest versus referent; HR (95% CI) 1.81 (1.24–2.64)); persisted in patients with normal BMI (18.5–<25 kg/m2). Mutual adjustment of WHR and BMI attenuated both, but did not eliminate the positive associations for either with risk of EAC. In contrast, the majority of the anthropometric variables were not associated with adenocarcinomas of the gastric non-cardia.
Overall obesity was associated with a higher risk of EAC and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, whereas abdominal obesity was found to be associated with increased EAC risk; even in people with normal BMI.
adenocarcinoma; epidemiology; esophageal cancer; gastric adenocarcinoma; obesity
To evaluate the association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in esophageal epithelial tissue and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) case status in an ESCC case-control study in a high-risk population in northeastern Iran.
Immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays (TMAs) of non-tumoral esophageal biopsies from ESCC cases and control subjects. Immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies 8E11 and 5D11, raised against benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) diol epoxide (BPDE)-I-modified guanosine and BPDE-I-modified DNA, respectively. Staining intensity was quantified by image analysis, and the average staining in three replicates was calculated.
Rural region in northeastern Iran.
Cases were patients with biopsy-proven ESCC. Controls were GI clinic patients with no endoscopic or biopsy evidence of ESCC.
Main outcome measure
Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between antibody staining intensity and ESCC case status.
Cultured ESCC cells exposed to B[a]P in vitro showed dose-dependent staining with 8E11, but not with 5D11. With 8E11, sufficient epithelial tissue was available in the TMA cores to analyze 91 cases and 103 controls. Compared to the lowest quintile of 8E11 staining in the controls, adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the 2nd to 5th quintiles were 2.42, 5.77, 11.3, and 26.6 (5.21–135), respectively (P for trend < 0.001). With 5D11, 89 cases and 101 controls were analyzed. No association between staining and case status was observed (ORs (95% CIs) for the 2nd to 5th quintiles were 1.26, 0.88, 1.06, and 1.63 (0.63–4.21), P for trend = 0.40).
Dramatically higher levels of 8E11 staining were observed in non-tumoral esophageal epithelium from ESCC patients than from control subjects. This finding strengthens the evidence for a causal role for PAHs in esophageal carcinogenesis in northeastern Iran.
esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; immunohistochemistry; tissue microarray
Esophageal cancer has a strikingly uneven geographical distribution, resulting in focal endemic areas in several countries. One such endemic area is in western Kenya. We conducted a retrospective review of all pathology-confirmed malignancies diagnosed at Tenwek Hospital, Bomet District, between January 1999 and September 2007. Tumor site, histology, sex, age, ethnicity, and location of residence were recorded. Cases were analyzed within and outside a traditional catchment area defined as ≤ 50 km from the hospital. Since 1999, the five most common cancer sites were esophagus, stomach, prostate, colorectum, and cervix. Esophageal cancer accounted for 914 (34.6%) of the 2643 newly diagnosed cancers, and showed increasing trends within and outside the catchment area. Fifty-eight (6.3%) patients were ≤ 30 years old and 9 (1%) were ≤ 20 years old; the youngest patient was 14 at diagnosis. Young cases (≤30) were more common among patients of Kalenjin ethnicity (9.2%) than among other ethnicities (1.7%) (odds ratio (95%CI) 5.7 (2.1–15.1)). This area of western Kenya is a high-risk region for esophageal cancer, and appears unique in its large proportion of young patients. Our findings support the need for further study of both environmental and genetic risk factors for esophageal cancer in this area.
Esophageal cancer; Kenya; age of onset; ethnicity
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, but the association between coffee consumption and the risk of death remains unclear.
We examined the association of coffee drinking with subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 229,119 men and 173,141 women in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study who were 50 to 71 years of age at baseline. Participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke were excluded. Coffee consumption was assessed once at baseline.
During 5,148,760 person-years of follow-up between 1995 and 2008, a total of 33,731 men and 18,784 women died. In age-adjusted models, the risk of death was increased among coffee drinkers. However, coffee drinkers were also more likely to smoke, and, after adjustment for tobacco-smoking status and other potential confounders, there was a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for death among men who drank coffee as compared with those who did not were as follows: 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.04) for drinking less than 1 cup per day, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99) for 1 cup, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for 2 or 3 cups, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.93) for 4 or 5 cups, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) for 6 or more cups of coffee per day (P<0.001 for trend); the respective hazard ratios among women were 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.07), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.01), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.90), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.93) (P<0.001 for trend). Inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections, but not for deaths due to cancer. Results were similar in subgroups, including persons who had never smoked and persons who reported very good to excellent health at baseline.
In this large prospective study, coffee consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Whether this was a causal or associational finding cannot be determined from our data. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics.)
Cigarette smoking is associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and alcohol consumption with ESCC. However, no analyses have examined how delivery rate modifies the strength of odds ratio (OR) trends with total exposure, i.e., the impact on the OR for a fixed total exposure of high exposure rate for short duration compared with low exposure rate for long duration.
The authors pooled data from 12 case-control studies from the Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON), including 1,242 (EAC), 1,263 (EGJA) and 954 (ESCC) cases and 7,053 controls, modeled joint ORs for cumulative exposure and exposure rate for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, and evaluated effect modification by sex, body mass index (BMI), age and self-reported acid reflux.
For smoking, all sites exhibited inverse delivery rate effects, whereby ORs with pack-years increased, but trends weakened with increasing cigarettes/day. None of the examined factors modified associations, except for ESCC where younger ages at diagnosis enhanced smoking effects (P<0.01). For EAC and EGJA, ORs with drink-years exhibited inverse associations in <5 drinks/day consumers and no association in heavier consumers. For ESCC, ORs with drink-years increased, with trends strengthening with greater drinks/day. There was no significant effect modification, except for EAC and EGJA where acid reflux mitigated the inverse associations (P=0.02). For ESCC, younger ages at diagnosis enhanced drinking-related ORs (P<0.01).
Patterns of ORs by pack-years and drink-years, delivery rate effects and effect modifiers revealed common as well as distinct etiologic elements for these diseases.
alcohol drinking; risk model; smoking
Iodine concentrates in gastric tissue and may act as an antioxidant for the stomach. We previously showed that self-reported goiter was associated with significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) and non-significantly increased risks of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a prospective case-cohort study in a high-risk population in China. Negatively correlated with iodine levels, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is a more sensitive biomarker of iodine deficiency than goiter. This study aimed to determine whether baseline serum Tg was also associated with development of GNCA, GCA, and ESCC in the same cohort, the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial. Sera from approximately 200 subjects of each case type and 400 non-cases were tested for serum Tg concentration using appropriate assays. Tg was modeled as sex- and assay-specific quartiles in Cox regression models adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol, Helicobacter pylori status, pepsinogens I/II ratio, family history, and commune of residence. In the final combined analysis, participants in the highest quartile of serum Tg, compared to those in the lowest quartile, had adjusted Hazard Ratios of 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.50–1.52), 1.14 (0.63–2.05), and 0.78 (0.47–1.31) for GNCA, GCA, and ESCC, respectively. Using serum Tg, a sensitive biomarker of iodine deficiency, we found no association between serum Tg concentrations and risk of these upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers in the study population. Our results do not support the hypothesis that iodine deficiency, as assessed by serum Tg, is associated with an increased risk of UGI cancers.
iodine deficiency; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; thyroglobulin; China
The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary fat and meat intakes are associated with reflux esophagitis (RE), Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). In this all-Ireland case-control study, dietary intake data was collected using a food frequency questionnaire in 219 RE patients, 220 BE patients, 224 EAC patients, and 256 frequency-matched controls between 2002 and 2005. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between dietary variables and disease risk using quartiles of intake, to attain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), while adjusting for potential confounders. Patients in the highest quartile of total fat intake had a higher risk of RE (OR=3.54; 95%CI=1.32–9.46) and EAC (OR=5.44; 95%CI=2.08–14.27). A higher risk of RE and EAC was also reported for patients in the highest quartile of saturated fat intake (OR=2.79; 95%CI=1.11–7.04; OR=2.41; 95%CI=1.14–5.08, respectively) and monounsaturated fat intake (OR=2.63; 95%CI=1.01–6.86; OR=5.35; 95%CI=2.14–13.34, respectively). Patients in the highest quartile of fresh red meat intake had a higher risk of EAC (OR=3.15; 95%CI=1.38–7.20). Patients in the highest category of processed meat intake had a higher risk of RE (OR=4.67; 95%CI=1.71–12.74). No consistent associations were seen for BE with either fat or meat intakes. Further studies, investigating the association between dietary fat and food sources of fat are needed to confirm these results.
adenocarcinoma; Barrett’s esophagus; dietary fat; epidemiology; meat