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1.  Analysis of Rare Variants in the C3 Gene in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94165.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive retinal disorder affecting over 33 million people worldwide. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for AMD identified common variants at 19 loci accounting for 15–65% of the heritability and it has been hypothesized that the missing heritability may be attributed to rare variants with large effect sizes. Common variants in the complement component 3 (C3) gene have been associated with AMD and recently a rare C3 variant (Lys155Gln) was identified which exerts a large effect on AMD susceptibility independent of the common variants. To explore whether additional rare variants in the C3 gene are associated with AMD, we sequenced all coding exons in 84 unrelated AMD cases. Subsequently, we genotyped all identified variants in 1474 AMD cases and 2258 controls. Additionally, because of the known genetic overlap between AMD and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), we genotyped two recurrent aHUS-associated C3 mutations in the entire cohort. Overall, we identified three rare variants (Lys65Gln (P = 0.04), Arg735Trp (OR = 17.4, 95% CI = 2.2–136; P = 0.0003), and Ser1619Arg (OR = 5.2, 95% CI = 1.0–25; P = 0.05) at the C3 locus that are associated with AMD in our EUGENDA cohort. However, the Arg735Trp and Ser1619Arg variants were not found to be associated with AMD in the Rotterdam Study. The Lys65Gln variant was only identified in patients from Nijmegen, the Netherlands, and thus may represent a region-specific AMD risk variant.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094165
PMCID: PMC3988049  PMID: 24736606
2.  Optimized Metabolomic Approach to Identify Uremic Solutes in Plasma of Stage 3–4 Chronic Kidney Disease Patients 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e71199.
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the progressive accumulation of various potential toxic solutes. Furthermore, uremic plasma is a complex mixture hampering accurate determination of uremic toxin levels and the identification of novel uremic solutes.
Methods
In this study, we applied 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, following three distinct deproteinization strategies, to determine differences in the plasma metabolic status of stage 3–4 CKD patients and healthy controls. Moreover, the human renal proximal tubule cell line (ciPTEC) was used to study the influence of newly indentified uremic solutes on renal phenotype and functionality.
Results
Protein removal via ultrafiltration and acetonitrile precipitation are complementary techniques and both are required to obtain a clear metabolome profile. This new approach, revealed that a total of 14 metabolites were elevated in uremic plasma. In addition to confirming the retention of several previously identified uremic toxins, including p-cresyl sulphate, two novel uremic retentions solutes were detected, namely dimethyl sulphone (DMSO2) and 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA). Our results show that these metabolites accumulate in non-dialysis CKD patients from 9±7 µM (control) to 51±29 µM and from 7 (0–9) µM (control) to 32±15 µM, respectively. Furthermore, exposure of ciPTEC to clinically relevant concentrations of both solutes resulted in an increased protein expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin with more than 10% (p<0.05). Moreover, the loss of epithelial characteristics significantly correlated with a loss of glucuronidation activity (Pearson r = −0.63; p<0.05). In addition, both solutes did not affect cell viability nor mitochondrial activity.
Conclusions
This study demonstrates the importance of sample preparation techniques in the identification of uremic retention solutes using 1H-NMR spectroscopy, and provide insight into the negative impact of DMSO2 and 2-HIBA on ciPTEC, which could aid in understanding the progressive nature of renal disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071199
PMCID: PMC3732267  PMID: 23936492
3.  Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in children: complement mutations and clinical characteristics 
Background
Mutations in complement factor H (CFH), factor I (CFI), factor B (CFB), thrombomodulin (THBD), C3 and membrane cofactor protein (MCP), and autoantibodies against factor H (αFH) with or without a homozygous deletion in CFH-related protein 1 and 3 (∆CFHR1/3) predispose development of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS).
Methods
Different mutations in genes encoding complement proteins in 45 pediatric aHUS patients were retrospectively linked with clinical features, treatment, and outcome.
Results
In 47% of the study participants, potentially pathogenic genetic anomalies were found (5xCFH, 4xMCP, and 4xC3, 3xCFI, 2xCFB, 6xαFH, of which five had ∆CFHR1/3); four patients carried combined genetic defects or a mutation, together with αFH. In the majority (87%), disease onset was preceeded by a triggering event; in 25% of cases diarrhea was the presenting symptom. More than 50% had normal serum C3 levels at presentation. Relapses were seen in half of the patients, and there was renal graft failure in all except one case following transplant.
Conclusions
Performing adequate DNA analysis is essential for treatment and positive outcome in children with aHUS. The impact of intensive initial therapy and renal replacement therapy, as well as the high risk of recurrence of aHUS in renal transplant, warrants further understanding of the pathogenesis, which will lead to better treatment options.
doi:10.1007/s00467-012-2131-y
PMCID: PMC3382652  PMID: 22410797
Atypical HUS; Complement regulation; Plasma therapy; Dialysis; Transplantation; Clinical outcome
4.  Role of P-Glycoprotein Expression and Function in Cystinotic Renal Proximal Tubular Cells 
Pharmaceutics  2011;3(4):782-792.
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent transporter localized at the apical membrane of the kidney proximal tubules, which plays a role in the efflux of cationic and amphipathic endogenous waste products and xenobiotics, such as drugs, into urine. Studies in mice deficient in P-gp showed generalized proximal tubular dysfunction similar to the phenotype of patients with cystinosis, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the lysosomal cystine transporter cystinosin. Renal disease in cystinosis is characterized by generalized dysfunction of the apical proximal tubular influx transporters (so-called renal Fanconi syndrome) developing during infancy and gradually progressing towards end-stage renal disease before the 10th birthday in the majority of patients that are not treated with the cystine-depleting drug cysteamine. Here, we investigated whether the proximal tubular efflux transporter P-gp is affected in cystinosis and whether this might contribute to the development of renal Fanconi syndrome. We used conditionally immortalized (ci) proximal tubular epithelial cells (ciPTEC) derived from cystinotic patients and healthy volunteers. P-gp-mediated transport was measured by using the P-gp substrate calcein-AM in the presence and absence of the P-gp-inhibitor PSC833. P-gp activity was normal in cystinotic cells as compared to controls. Additionally, the effect of cysteamine on P-gp transport activity and phosphate uptake was determined; demonstrating increased P-gp activity in cystinotic cells, and further decrease of proximal tubular phosphate uptake. This observation is compatible with the persistence of renal Fanconi syndrome in vivo under cysteamine therapy. In summary, P-gp expression and activity are normal in cystinotic ciPTEC, indicating that P-gp dysfunction is not involved in the pathogenesis of cystinosis.
doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics3040782
PMCID: PMC3857058  PMID: 24309308
cystinosis; P-glycoprotein; renal proximal tubular cell; cysteamine
5.  Uremic Toxins Inhibit Transport by Breast Cancer Resistance Protein and Multidrug Resistance Protein 4 at Clinically Relevant Concentrations 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(4):e18438.
During chronic kidney disease (CKD), there is a progressive accumulation of toxic solutes due to inadequate renal clearance. Here, the interaction between uremic toxins and two important efflux pumps, viz. multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) was investigated. Membrane vesicles isolated from MRP4- or BCRP-overexpressing human embryonic kidney cells were used to study the impact of uremic toxins on substrate specific uptake. Furthermore, the concentrations of various uremic toxins were determined in plasma of CKD patients using high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Our results show that hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate and kynurenic acid inhibit MRP4-mediated [3H]-methotrexate ([3H]-MTX) uptake (calculated Ki values: 2.5 mM, 1 mM, 25 µM, respectively) and BCRP-mediated [3H]-estrone sulfate ([3H]-E1S) uptake (Ki values: 4 mM, 500 µM and 50 µM, respectively), whereas indole-3-acetic acid and phenylacetic acid reduce [3H]-MTX uptake by MRP4 only (Ki value: 2 mM and IC50 value: 7 mM, respectively). In contrast, p-cresol, p-toluenesulfonic acid, putrescine, oxalate and quinolinic acid did not alter transport mediated by MRP4 or BCRP. In addition, our results show that hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid, indoxyl sulfate, kynurenic acid and phenylacetic acid accumulate in plasma of end-stage CKD patients with mean concentrations of 160 µM, 4 µM, 129 µM, 1 µM and 18 µM, respectively. Moreover, calculated Ki values are below the maximal plasma concentrations of the tested toxins. In conclusion, this study shows that several uremic toxins inhibit active transport by MRP4 and BCRP at clinically relevant concentrations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018438
PMCID: PMC3070735  PMID: 21483698
6.  Transferrin mutations at the glycosylation site complicate diagnosis of congenital disorders of glycosylation type I 
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) form a group of metabolic disorders caused by deficient glycosylation of proteins and/or lipids. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum transferrin is the most common screening method to detect abnormalities of protein N-glycosylation. On the basis of the IEF profile, patients can be grouped into CDG type I or CDG type II. Several protein variants of transferrin are known that result in a shift in isoelectric point (pI). In some cases, these protein variants co-migrate with transferrin glycoforms, which complicates interpretation. In two patients with abnormal serum transferrin IEF profiles, neuraminidase digestion and subsequent IEF showed profiles suggestive of the diagnosis of CDG type I. Mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides of immunopurified transferrin, however, revealed a novel mutation at the N-glycan attachment site. In case 1, a peptide with mutation p.Asn630Thr in the 2nd glycosylation site was identified, resulting in an additional band at disialotransferrin position on IEF. After neuraminidase digestion, a single band was found at the asialotransferrin position, indistinguishable from CDG type I patients. In case 2, a peptide with mutation p.Asn432His was found. These results show the use of mass spectrometry of transferrin peptides in the diagnostic track of CDG type I.
doi:10.1007/s10545-011-9311-y
PMCID: PMC3137782  PMID: 21431619
7.  Cystinosis: practical tools for diagnosis and treatment 
Cystinosis is the major cause of inherited Fanconi syndrome, and should be suspected in young children with failure to thrive and signs of renal proximal tubular damage. The diagnosis can be missed in infants, because not all signs of renal Fanconi syndrome are present during the first months of life. In older patients cystinosis can mimic idiopathic nephrotic syndrome due to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Measuring elevated white blood cell cystine content is the corner stone for the diagnosis. The diagnosis is confirmed by molecular analysis of the cystinosin gene. Corneal cystine crystals are invariably present in all patients with cystinosis after the age of 1 year. Treatment with the cystine depleting drug cysteamine should be initiated as soon as possible and continued lifelong to prolong renal function survival and protect extra-renal organs. This educational feature provides practical tools for the diagnosis and treatment of cystinosis.
doi:10.1007/s00467-010-1627-6
PMCID: PMC3016220  PMID: 20734088
Cystinosis; Cystinosin; Renal Fanconi syndrome; Proximal tubule; Cysteamine
9.  Individuals with mutations in XPNPEP3, which encodes a mitochondrial protein, develop a nephronophthisis-like nephropathy  
The autosomal recessive kidney disease nephronophthisis (NPHP) constitutes the most frequent genetic cause of terminal renal failure in the first 3 decades of life. Ten causative genes (NPHP1–NPHP9 and NPHP11), whose products localize to the primary cilia-centrosome complex, support the unifying concept that cystic kidney diseases are “ciliopathies”. Using genome-wide homozygosity mapping, we report here what we believe to be a new locus (NPHP-like 1 [NPHPL1]) for an NPHP-like nephropathy. In 2 families with an NPHP-like phenotype, we detected homozygous frameshift and splice-site mutations, respectively, in the X-prolyl aminopeptidase 3 (XPNPEP3) gene. In contrast to all known NPHP proteins, XPNPEP3 localizes to mitochondria of renal cells. However, in vivo analyses also revealed a likely cilia-related function; suppression of zebrafish xpnpep3 phenocopied the developmental phenotypes of ciliopathy morphants, and this effect was rescued by human XPNPEP3 that was devoid of a mitochondrial localization signal. Consistent with a role for XPNPEP3 in ciliary function, several ciliary cystogenic proteins were found to be XPNPEP3 substrates, for which resistance to N-terminal proline cleavage resulted in attenuated protein function in vivo in zebrafish. Our data highlight an emerging link between mitochondria and ciliary dysfunction, and suggest that further understanding the enzymatic activity and substrates of XPNPEP3 will illuminate novel cystogenic pathways.
doi:10.1172/JCI40076
PMCID: PMC2827951  PMID: 20179356
10.  Novel conditionally immortalized human proximal tubule cell line expressing functional influx and efflux transporters 
Cell and Tissue Research  2009;339(2):449-457.
Reabsorption of filtered solutes from the glomerular filtrate and excretion of waste products and xenobiotics are the main functions of the renal proximal tubular (PT) epithelium. A human PT cell line expressing a range of functional transporters would help to augment current knowledge in renal physiology and pharmacology. We have established and characterized a conditionally immortalized PT epithelial cell line (ciPTEC) obtained by transfecting and subcloning cells exfoliated in the urine of a healthy volunteer. The PT origin of this line has been confirmed morphologically and by the expression of aminopeptidase N, zona occludens 1, aquaporin 1, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and multidrug resistance protein 4 together with alkaline phosphatase activity. ciPTEC assembles in a tight monolayer with limited diffusion of inulin-fluorescein-isothiocyanate. Concentration and time-dependent reabsorption of albumin via endocytosis has been demonstrated, together with sodium-dependent phosphate uptake. The expression and activity of apical efflux transporter p-glycoprotein and of baso-lateral influx transporter organic cation transporter 2 have been shown in ciPTEC. This established human ciPTEC expressing multiple endogenous organic ion transporters mimicking renal reabsorption and excretion represents a powerful tool for future in vitro transport studies in pharmacology and physiology.
doi:10.1007/s00441-009-0882-y
PMCID: PMC2817082  PMID: 19902259
Proximal tubule cell; Albumin endocytosis; Phosphate transport; Organic cation transport; P-glycoprotein; Human
11.  Impaired basolateral sorting of pro-EGF causes isolated recessive renal hypomagnesemia 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2007;117(8):2260-2267.
Primary hypomagnesemia constitutes a rare heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by renal or intestinal magnesium (Mg2+) wasting resulting in generally shared symptoms of Mg2+ depletion, such as tetany and generalized convulsions, and often including associated disturbances in calcium excretion. However, most of the genes involved in the physiology of Mg2+ handling are unknown. Through the discovery of a mutation in the EGF gene in isolated autosomal recessive renal hypomagnesemia, we have, for what we believe is the first time, identified a magnesiotropic hormone crucial for total body Mg2+ balance. The mutation leads to impaired basolateral sorting of pro-EGF. As a consequence, the renal EGFR is inadequately stimulated, resulting in insufficient activation of the epithelial Mg2+ channel TRPM6 (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 6) and thereby Mg2+ loss. Furthermore, we show that colorectal cancer patients treated with cetuximab, an antagonist of the EGFR, develop hypomagnesemia, emphasizing the significance of EGF in maintaining Mg2+ balance.
doi:10.1172/JCI31680
PMCID: PMC1934557  PMID: 17671655
12.  Interactions of Shiga-like toxin with human peripheral blood monocytes 
The cytotoxic effect of Shiga-like toxin (Stx; produced by certain Escherichia coli strains) plays a central role in typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). It damages the renal endothelium by inhibiting the cellular protein synthesis. Also, the monocyte has a specific receptor for Stx but is not sensitive for the cytotoxic effect. In this work, monocytes were studied as a potential transporter for Stx to the renal endothelium. Coincubation of isolated human monocytes loaded with Stx and target cells (vero cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells) were performed. Transfer was determined by measuring the protein synthesis of target cells and by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the effect of a temperature shift on loaded monocytes was investigated. Stx-loaded monocytes reduced the protein synthesis of target cells. After adding an antibody against Stx, incomplete recovery occurred. Also, adding only the supernatant of coincubation was followed by protein synthesis inhibition. Stx detached from its receptor on the monocyte after a change in temperature, and no release was detected without this temperature shift. Although the monocyte plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HUS, it has no role in the transfer of Stx.
doi:10.1007/s00467-007-0512-4
PMCID: PMC1915616  PMID: 17574480
Monocyte; Hemolytic uremic syndrome; Shiga-like toxin; Acute renal failure; HUVEC; vero cells

Results 1-12 (12)