The posttranslational methylation of N-terminal α-amino groups (α-N-methylation) is a ubiquitous reaction found in all domains of life. Although this modification usually occurs on protein substrates, recent studies have shown that it also takes place on ribosomally synthesized natural products. Here we report an investigation of the bacterial α-N-methyltransferase CypM involved in the biosynthesis of the peptide antibiotic cypemycin. We demonstrate that CypM has low substrate selectivity and methylates a variety of oligopeptides, cyclic peptides such as nisin and haloduracin, and the ε-amino group of lysine. Hence it may have potential for enzyme engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis. Bayesian phylogenetic inference of bacterial α-N-methyltransferases suggests that they have not evolved as a specific group based on the chemical transformations they catalyze, but that they have been acquired from various other methyltransferase classes during evolution.
α-N-methyltransferase; peptide antibiotic; lantibiotic; catalytic promiscuity; evolution
Enhanced activity of the Ser/Thr protein kinase, RSK, is associated with transformation and metastasis, which suggests that RSK is an attractive drug target. The natural product, SL0101 (kaempferol 3-O-(3″,4″-di-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside), has been shown to be a RSK selective inhibitor. However, the Ki for SL0101 is 1 μM with a half-life of less than 30 min in vivo. To identify analogues with improved efficacy we designed a set of analogues based on the crystallographic model of SL0101 in complex with the RSK2 N-terminal kinase domain. We identified an analogue with a 5″-n-propyl group on the rhamnose that has > 40-fold improved affinity for RSK relative to SL0101 in an in vitro kinase assay. This analogue preferentially inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer line, MCF-7, versus the normal untransformed breast line, MCF-10A, which is consistent with results using SL0101. However, the efficacy of the 5″-n-propyl analogue to inhibit MCF-7 proliferation was only two-fold better than for SL0101, which we hypothesize is due to limited membrane permeability. The improved affinity of the 5″-n-propyl analogue for RSK will aid in the design of future compounds for in vivo use.
Kaempferol 3-O-(3″; 4″-di-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnopyranoside); SL0101; RSK; p90 ribosomal S6 kinase; kinase inhibitor
Genetic polymorphisms of pri-miR-34b/c and pre-miR-196a2 have been reported to be associated with the susceptibility to cancers. However, the effect of these polymorphisms and their interactions with hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that these polymorphisms might interact with the HBV mutations and play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis.
Pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 (T>C) and pre-miR-196a2 rs11614913 (T>C) were genotyped in 3,325 subjects including 1,021 HBV-HCC patients using quantitative PCR. HBV mutations were determined by direct sequencing. Contributions of the polymorphisms and their multiplicative interactions with gender or HCC-related HBV mutations to HCC risk were assessed using multivariate regression analyses.
rs4938723 CC genotype was significantly associated with HCC risk compared to HBV natural clearance subjects, adjusted for age and gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16–3.49). rs4938723 variant genotypes in dominant model significantly increased HCC risk in women, compared to female healthy controls (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.20–2.84) or female HCC-free subjects (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.14–2.31). rs4938723 CC genotype and rs11614913 TC genotype were significantly associated with increased frequencies of the HCC-related HBV mutations T1674C/G and G1896A, respectively. rs11614913 was not significantly associated with HCC risk, but its CC genotype significantly enhanced the effect of rs4938723 in women. In multivariate regression analyses, rs4938723 in dominant model increased HCC risk (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.05–2.49), whereas its multiplicative interaction with C1730G, a HBV mutation inversely associated with HCC risk, reduced HCC risk (AOR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15–0.81); rs11614913 strengthened the G1896A effect but attenuated the A3120G/T effect on HCC risk.
rs4938723 might be a genetic risk factor of HCC but its effect on HCC is significantly affected by the HBV mutations. rs11614913 might not be a HCC susceptible factor but it might affect the effects of the HBV mutations or rs4938723 on HCC risk.
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is an infantile-onset form of inherited retinal degeneration characterized by severe vision loss1, 2. Two-thirds of LCA cases are caused by mutations in 17 known disease genes3 (RetNet Retinal Information Network). Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.25G>A, p.Val9Met) in NMNAT1 as likely disease-causing in two siblings of a consanguineous Pakistani kindred affected by LCA. This mutation segregated with disease in their kindred, including in three other children with LCA. NMNAT1 resides in the previously identified LCA9 locus and encodes the nuclear isoform of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase, a rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis4, 5. Functional studies showed the p.Val9Met mutation decreased NMNAT1 enzyme activity. Sequencing NMNAT1 in 284 unrelated LCA families identified 14 rare mutations in 13 additional affected individuals. These results are the first to link an NMNAT isoform to disease and indicate that NMNAT1 mutations cause LCA.
Current methods for studying central nervous system myelination necessitate permissive axonal substrates conducive for myelin wrapping by oligodendrocytes. We have developed a neuron-free culture system in which electron-spun nanofibers of varying sizes substitute for axons as a substrate for oligodendrocyte myelination, thereby allowing manipulation of the biophysical elements of axonal-oligodendroglial interactions. To investigate axonal regulation of myelination, this system effectively uncouples the role of molecular (inductive) cues from that of biophysical properties of the axon. We use this method to uncover the causation and sufficiency of fiber diameter in the initiation of concentric wrapping by rat oligodendrocytes. We also show that oligodendrocyte precursor cells display sensitivity to the biophysical properties of fiber diameter and initiate membrane ensheathment prior to differentiation. The use of nanofiber scaffolds will enable screening for potential therapeutic agents that promote oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination as well as provide valuable insight into the processes involved in remyelination.
fiber diameter; oligodendrocyte; myelination
Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) are a diverse group of neoplasms in the pancreas, and are more increasingly encountered with widespread abdominal screening and improved imaging techniques. The most common types of PCNs are serous cystic neoplasms (SCNs), mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Clinicians frequently feel bewildered in the differential diagnosis and subsequent management among the various types of lesions in the pancreas, which may lead to overtreatment or delayed treatment. The current review provides recent developments in the understanding of the three most common types of PCNs, the latest modalities used in preoperative diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as the most up to date management. Suggestions for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of SCNs, MCNs, and IPMNs are also provided for young surgeons. Better understanding of these neoplasms is essential for clinicians to make accurate diagnosis and to provide the best management for patients.
Pancreatic cystic neoplasms; Serous cystic neoplasms; Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms; Mucinous cystic neoplasms; Diagnosis
Peripheral serotonin is involved in tumorigenesis and induces a pro-proliferative effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells; however, the intracellular mechanisms by which serotonin exerts a mitogenic effect remain unclear. In this research, we examined whether FOXO3a, a transcription factor at the interface of crucial cellular processes, plays a role downstream of serotonin in HCC cells.
The cell viability and expression of FOXO3a was assessed in three HCC cell lines (Huh7, HepG2 and Hep3B) during serum deprivation in the presence or absence of serotonin. Serum free media significantly inhibited HCC proliferation and led to reduced expression and nuclear accumulation of FOXO3a. Knockdown of FOXO3a enhanced the ability of serum deprivation to inhibit HCC cells proliferation. And overexpression of non-phosphorylated FOXO3a in HCC cells reversed serum-deprivation-induced growth inhibition. Serotonin reversed the serum-deprivation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and upregulated FOXO3a in Huh7 cells; however, serotonin had no effect on the proliferation of serum-deprived HepG2 or Hep3B cells. In addition to proliferation, serotonin also induced phosphorylation of AKT and FOXO3a in serum-deprived Huh7 cells but not in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. However, the phosphorylation of FOXO3a induced by serotonin did not export FOXO3a from nucleus to cytoplasm in serum-deprived Huh7 cells. Consequently, we demonstrated that serotonin promoted the proliferation of Huh7 cells by increasing the expression of FOXO3a. We also provide preliminary evidence that different expression levels of the 5-HT2B receptor (5-HT2BR) may contribute to the distinct effects of serotonin in different serum-deprived HCC cells.
This study demonstrates that FOXO3a functions as a growth factor in serum-deprived HCC cells and serotonin promotes the proliferation of serum-deprived HCC cells via upregulation of FOXO3a, in the presence of sufficient levels of the serotonin receptor 5-HT2BR. Drugs targeting the serotonin-5-HT2BR-FOXO3a pathway may provide a novel target for anticancer therapy.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Serotonin; FOXO3a; 5-HT2B receptor; Cell proliferation
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a complicated and multi-factorial disease. To study the metabolic profiles and pathways activated in osteoporosis, Eight rats were oophorectomized (OVX group) to represent postmenopausal osteoporosis and the other eight rats were sham operated (Sham group) to be the control. The biochemical changes were assessed with metabolomics using a gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Metabolomic profile using serial blood samples obtained prior to and at different time intervals after OVX were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The conventional indicators (bone mineral density, serum Bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx) of osteoporosis in rats were also determined simultaneously. In OVX group, the metabolomics method could describe the endogenous changes of the disease more sensitively and systematically than the conventional criteria during the progression of osteoporosis. Significant metabolomic difference was also observed between the OVX and Sham groups. The metabolomic analyses of rat plasma showed that levels of arachidonic acid, octadecadienoic acid, branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine), homocysteine, hydroxyproline and ketone bodies (3-Hydroxybutyric Acid) significantly elevated, while levels of docosahexaenoic acid, dodecanoic acid and lysine significantly decreased in OVX group compared with those in the homeochronous Sham group. Considering such metabolites are closely related to the pathology of the postmenopausal osteoporosis, the results suggest that potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis or the pathogenesis of osteoporosis might be identified via metabolomic study.
FK506 is a potent immunosuppressant that has a wide range of clinical applications. Its 23-member macrocyclic scaffold, mainly with a polyketide origin, features two methoxy groups at C-13 and C-15 and one allyl side chain at C-21, due to the region-specific incorporation of two unusual extender units derived from methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and allylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA), respectively. Whether their intracellular formations can be a bottleneck for FK506 production remains elusive. In this study, we report the improvement of FK506 yield in the producing strain Streptomyces tsukubaensis by the duplication of two sets of pathway-specific genes individually encoding the biosyntheses of these two extender units, thereby providing a promising approach to generate high-FK506-producing strains via genetic manipulation. Taking advantage of the fact that S. tsukubaensis is amenable to two actinophage (ΦC31 and VWB) integrase-mediated recombination systems, we genetically enhanced the biosyntheses of methoxymalonyl-ACP and allylmalonyl-CoA, as indicated by transcriptional analysis. Together with the optimization of glucose supplementation, the maximal FK506 titer eventually increased by approximately 150% in comparison with that of the original strain. The strategy of engineering the biosynthesis of unusual extender units described here may be applicable to improving the production of other polyketide or nonribosomal peptide natural products that contain pathway-specific building blocks.
Herniated discs and degenerative disc disease are major health problems worldwide. However, their pathogenesis remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms of these ailments and to identify underlying therapeutic targets.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Using the GSE23130 microarray datasets downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, differentially co-expressed genes and links were identified using the differentially co-expressed gene and link method with a false discovery rate <0.25 as a significant threshold. Subsequently, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the differential co-expression of these genes were investigated using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis. In addition, the transcriptional regulatory relationship was also investigated.
Through the analysis of the gene expression profiles of different specimens from patients with these diseases, 539 differentially co-expressed genes were identified for these ailments. The ten most significant signaling pathways involving the differentially co-expressed genes were identified by enrichment analysis. Among these pathways, apoptosis and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction pathways have been reported to be related to these diseases. A total of 62 pairs of regulatory relationships between transcription factors and their target genes were identified as critical for the pathogenesis of these diseases.
The results of our study will help to identify the mechanisms responsible for herniated discs and degenerative disc disease and provides a theoretical basis for further therapeutic study.
Herniated Discs; Degenerative Disc Disease; Transcription Factor; Target Genes; Pathway
βKlotho is a regulator in multiple metabolic processes, while its role in cancer remains unclear. We found the expression of βKlotho was down-regulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues compared with that in paired adjacent non-tumourous liver tissues. Hepatoma cells also showed decreased expression of βKlotho compared with normal hepatocyte cells. Reintroduction of βKlotho into hepatoma cells inhibited their proliferation. The anti-proliferative effect of βKlotho might be linked with G1 to S phase arrest, which was mediated by Akt/GSK-3β/cyclin D1 signaling, since forced expression βKlotho reduced the phosphorylation level of Akt and GSK-3β and induced down-regulation of cyclin D1. Furthermore, βKlotho overexpression could inhibit tumorgenesis, while constitutively activated Akt could override the suppressive effects of βKlotho in vivo. These data suggest βKlotho suppresses tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an important pathogen in swine and is responsible for substantial economic losses. Previous studies suggest that the PEDV E protein plays an important role in the viral assembly process. However, the subcellular localization and other functions of PEDV E protein still require more research.
The subcellular localization and function of PEDV E protein were investigated by examining its effects on cell growth, cell cycle progression, interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression and cell survival.
The results show that plenty of PEDV E protein is localized in the ER, with small quantities localized in the nucleus. The PEDV E protein has no effect on the intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) growth, cell cycle and cyclin A expression. The cells expressing PEDV E protein express higher levels of IL-8 than control cells. Further studies show that PEDV E protein induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated NF-κB which is responsible for the up-regulation of IL-8 and Bcl-2 expression.
This study shows that the PEDV E protein is localized in the ER and the nucleus and it can cause ER stress. The PEDV E protein had no effect on the IEC growth and cell cycle. In addition, the PEDV E protein is able to up-regulate IL-8 and Bcl-2 expression.
PEDV; E protein; ER stress; IL-8; NF-Κb; Bcl-2
catabolism; enzyme catalysis; lyases; phosphonates; S-adenosylmethionine enzymes
Activation of Kupffer cell (KC) is acknowledged as a key event in the initiation and perpetuation of bile duct warm ischemia/reperfusion injury. The inhibitory effect of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) on KC activation shows potential as a protective intervention in liver injury, but there is less research with regard to bile duct injury.
Sixty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats (200–250 g) were randomly divided into three experimental groups: a sham group (n = 15), a control group (n = 25), and a GdCl3 group (n = 25). Specimen was collected at 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after operation. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TBIL) of serum were measured. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Capase-3 activity and soluble Fas (sFas) were detected. The pathologic changes of bile duct were observed. Immunochemistry for bile duct Fas was performed. Apoptosis of bile duct cells was evaluated by the terminal UDP nick end labeling assay.
GdCl3 significantly decreased the levels of ALT, ALP and TBIL at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, and increased serum sFas at 2, 6 and 12 h (P<0.05). TNF-α was lower in the GdCl3 group than in the control group at 2, 6, 12 and 24 h (P<0.05). Preadministration of GdCl3 significantly reduced the Caspase-3 activity and bile duct cell apoptosis at 2, 6, 12 and 24 h. After operation for 2, 6 and 12 h, the expression of Fas protein was lower in the GdCl3 group than in the control group (P<0.05).
GdCl3 plays an important role in suppressing bile duct cell apoptosis, including decreasing ALT, ALP, TBIL and TNF-α; suppressing Fas-FasL-Caspase signal transduction during transplantation.
New specimens of the kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu were collected in China. We investigated the systematics of the dinoflagellate and the origin of its endosymbiont based on light morphology and phylogenetic analyses using multiple DNA sequences. Cells were dorsoventrally flattened with a sharply acute hypocone and a hemispherical epicone. The confusion between G. eucyaneum and G. acidotum Nygaard still needs to be resolved. We found that the hypocone was conspicuously larger than the epicone in most G. eucyaneum cells, which differed from G. acidotum, but there were a few cells whose hypocone and epicone were of nearly the same size. In addition, there was only one site difference in the partial nuclear LSU rDNA sequences of a sample from Japan given the name G. acidotum and G. eucyaneum in the present study, which suggest that G. eucyaneum may be a synonym of G. acidotum. Spectroscopic analyses and phylogenetic analyses based on nucleomorph SSU rDNA sequences and chloroplast 23 s rDNA sequences suggested that the endosymbiont of G. eucyaneum was derived from Chroomonas (Cryptophyta), and that it was most closely related to C. coerulea Skuja. Moreover, the newly reported kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates G. myriopyrenoides and G. eucyaneum in our study were very similar, and the taxonomy of kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates was discussed.
To examine associations in a preterm population between rs9883204 in ADCY5 and rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 with birth weight. Both markers were associated with birth weight in a term population in a recent genome-wide association (GWA) study by Freathy et al.
A meta-analysis of mother and infant samples was performed for associations of rs900400 and rs9883204 with birth weight in 393 families from the U.S., 265 families from Argentina and 735 mother-infant pairs from Denmark. Z scores adjusted for infant sex and gestational age were generated for each population separately and regressed on allele counts. Association evidence was combined across sites by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis.
Each additional C allele of rs900400 (LEKR1/CCNL1) in infants was marginally associated with a 0.069 standard deviation (SD) lower birth weight (95% CI = −0.159 – 0.022, P = 0.068). This result was slightly more pronounced after adjusting for smoking (P = 0.036). There were no significant associations identified with rs9883204 or in maternal samples.
These results indicate the potential importance of this marker on birth weight irrespective of gestational age.
Genetic; association; single nucleotide polymorphism
Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in children. Despite advances in the treatment of childhood cancer, outcomes for children with advanced-stage neuroblastoma remain poor. Here we reported that 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y cells. 2-ME treatment also resulted in the generation of ROS and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y, indicating that 2-ME-induced apoptosis is mediated by ROS. This is supported by the results that have shown that co-treatment with antioxidants, VC, L-GSH and MitoQ10, decreased 2-ME-induced generation of ROS and the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreased 2-ME-induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and the up-regulation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and prevented 2-ME-induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in 2-ME-induced apoptotic death of human neuroblastoma cells.
2-Methoxyestradiol; Neuroblastoma; Reactive oxygen species; Apoptosis
To examine the content of phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain (P-MLC20) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) in the common bile duct of pediatric patients with pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) accompanied by bile duct dilatation (BDD), and investigate their potential role in PBM accompanied by BDD.
Twenty-one specimens of the common bile duct from pediatric patients with PBM accompanied by BDD were collected. P-MLC20 was examined with immunohistochemistry. The expression of P-MLC20 and MLCK was also examined with Western blot. Twenty-one specimens of the common bile duct from pediatric patients without PBM and BDD were used as controls.
The mean optical density (MOD), mean labeling intensity (MLI) and minimum qualifying scores (MQS) of P-MLC20 were 115.6856 ± 58.1634, 21.7125 % ± 9.6555 and 21.3531 ± 6.5255, respectively. In the control group, MOD, MLI and MQS were 96.5581 ± 9.7859, 11.1813 % ± 3.6208 and 10.7819 ± 3.5323, respectively. There was no significant difference in MOD between the two groups (P > 0.05), whereas there was a significant difference in MLI and MQS between the two groups (P < 0.05). The expression of P-MLC20 and MLCK, as determined with Western blot, was also significantly higher in the PBM group than in the control group (P < 0.05).
P-MLC20 is associated with increased contractile force of the smooth muscle of the common bile duct in pediatric patients with PBM accompanied by BDD. The enhanced expression of P-MLC20 in the common bile duct probably contributes to increased bile duct pressure in PBM via the MLCK pathway.
Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM); Common bile duct; Smooth muscle; Phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain (P-MLC20); Myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK)
Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule (SMJN) refers to a metastatic tumor of the umbilicus. It is a rare entity which arises from a malignancy in the intra-abdominal cavity. We herein describe a patient who presented with SMJN as his first sign of pancreatic cancer. It is an even more unusual case of SMJN. We therefore, suggest that pancreatic cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis when an umbilical mass is found. With the progress made in surgical procedures and other modalities, an early diagnosis will dramatically improve the prognosis of the patients.
Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule; Pancreatic cancer; Umbilical metastasis; Diagnosis; Management
Background and methods
It has been reported that C/T dimorphism at position 1418 of the thrombomodulin gene causes a cytosine (C) transition to thymidine (T), resulting in an alanine (A) to valine (V) substitution at amino acid position 455 (TM455). TM455 had been found not only in African American and American whites, but also in whites in The Netherlands and Sweden. Among these populations, the C/C genotype is predominant, although the distribution of this dimorphism is different. Thrombomodulin is an important anticoagulant protein that is downregulated in endothelial cells overlying atherosclerotic plaques and is also an anti-inflammatory molecule. TM455 is located in the last epidermal growth factor-like repeat of thrombomodulin, which is functionally important for protein C activation and thrombin binding. The distribution of thrombomodulin polymorphism and association between TM455, inflammatory cytokines, and carotid atherosclerosis in the Chinese Han population is unclear.
This thrombomodulin dimorphism was analyzed by allele-specific amplification in 144 patients with carotid atherosclerosis and in 384 healthy controls. TM455 was found in the Chinese Han population, but the genotype frequency and distribution of each genotype in this population differed substantially from that in other ethnic subgroups. The C/T and T/T genotypes were predominant in the Chinese Han population, and the frequency of the T allele in this population (63.8%) was much higher than that in whites in The Netherlands (18%), Sweden (26.1%), and the US (18.4%), and in blacks in the US (7.6%). The frequencies of these single nucleotide polymorphisms complied well with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in healthy individuals. The C allele was significantly more common among patients with carotid atherosclerosis than in controls (P < 0.05). The frequency of the C allele was 45.5% in patients and 36.2% in controls. The thrombomodulin Ala455 genotypes C/C and C/T were significantly more common than the T/T genotype in patients with carotid atherosclerosis in the Chinese Han population. In addition, higher baseline levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (55.45 ± 11.58 pg/mL versus 52.70 ± 10.74 pg/mL; P < 0.05), interleukin-6 (31.53 ± 10.51 pg/mL versus 27.73 ± 8.37 pg/mL; P < 0.01), and C-reactive protein (6.65 ± 2.01 mg/L versus 4.06 ± 1.03 mg/L; P < 0.01) were observed in patients with carotid atherosclerosis than in controls. Interestingly, compared with baseline inflammatory cytokine levels in those with the Val/Val genotype, higher baseline tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein levels were observed for the Ala/Ala genotype in both patients with carotid atherosclerosis and healthy controls.
Our results support a significant association between thrombomodulin Ala455Val dimorphism, inflammatory cytokines, and carotid atherosclerosis in the Chinese Han population.
thrombomodulin; carotid atherosclerosis; dimorphism; inflammatory cytokines; association study
Tween 80 (polysorbate 80) has been used as a reducing agent and protecting agent to prepare stable water-soluble silver nanoparticles on a large scale through a one-pot process, which is simple and environmentally friendly. Silver ions can accelerate the oxidation of Tween 80 and then get reduced in the reaction process. The well-ordered arrays such as ribbon-like silver nanostructures could be obtained by adjusting the reaction conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that ribbon-like silver nanostructures (approximately 50 nm in length and approximately 2 μm in width) are composed of a large number of silver nanocrystals with a size range of 2 to 3 nm. In addition, negative absorbance around 320 nm in the UV-visible spectra of silver nanoparticles has been observed, probably owing to the instability of nanosized silver colloids.
Silver; Nanoparticles; Tween 80; Discrete dipole approximation (DDA)
The article describes characterization of the cilia protein Ttc26. The data show that Ttc26 is localized in the transition zone of primary cilia and photoreceptor cells. Knockdown of Ttc26 produced defective cilia in murine inner medullary collecting duct 3 cells and ciliogenesis defects in retinal photoreceptor and motile cilia in the pronephros in zebrafish.
In our effort to understand genetic disorders of the photoreceptor cells of the retina, we have focused on intraflagellar transport in photoreceptor sensory cilia. From previous mouse proteomic data we identified a cilia protein Ttc26, orthologue of dyf-13 in Caenorhabditis elegans, as a target. We localized Ttc26 to the transition zone of photoreceptor and to the transition zone of cilia in cultured murine inner medullary collecting duct 3 (mIMCD3) renal cells. Knockdown of Ttc26 in mIMCD3 cells produced shortened and defective primary cilia, as revealed by immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. To study Ttc26 function in sensory cilia in vivo, we utilized a zebrafish vertebrate model system. Morpholino knockdown of ttc26 in zebrafish embryos caused ciliary defects in the pronephric kidney at 27 h postfertilization and distension/dilation of pronephros at 5 d postfertilization (dpf). In the eyes, the outer segments of photoreceptor cells appeared shortened or absent, whereas cellular lamination appeared normal in retinas at 5 dpf. This suggests that loss of ttc26 function prevents normal ciliogenesis and differentiation in the photoreceptor cells, and that ttc26 is required for normal development and differentiation in retina and pronephros. Our studies support the importance of Ttc26 function in ciliogenesis and suggest that screening for TTC26 mutations in human ciliopathies is justified.
The ability of lymphocytes and macrophage-derived cytokines and chemokines to modulate the activation of stromal cells during immune responses is well-documented, but few studies have investigated whether liver myofibroblasts shape the phenotype and function of monocytes in liver disease. In the present study, Kupffer cells were demonstrated to be activated in the inflamed livers of patients with cirrhosis and be in close contact with liver myofibroblasts. The Kupffer cells from cirrhotic livers expressed significantly elevated levels of PD-L1 (also termed B7-H1), TLR4, CD80, CD32 and CD64 relative to those from normal livers. Consistent with this finding, the expression of these surface molecules was significantly upregulated in monocytes following exposure to liver myofibroblasts originating from inflamed livers. Accordingly, the liver myofibroblast-exposed monocytes exhibited a significant increase in dextran endocytosis. These data reveal that bidirectional interactions between liver myofibroblasts and Kupffer cells may function as an ‘amplification loop’ to enhance inflammation further in the liver. Liver myofibroblasts are central in the pathogenesis of liver diseases and should be considered as targets for the rational design of effective immune-based anti-inflammation therapies. Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that skin fibroblasts were as effective as liver myofibroblasts at inducing monocyte activation, suggesting that fibroblasts, which are numerous in the body, may represent an underrated cell population that is actively involved in immunomodulatory functions.
Kupffer cell; monocyte activation; liver cirrhosis; liver myofibroblasts; liver immunology
Identifying effective small molecules that specifically target the p53 pathway in cancer has been an exciting, though challenging, approach for the development of anti-cancer therapy. We recently identified Inauhzin (INZ) as a novel p53 activator, selectively and efficiently suppressing tumor growth without displaying genotoxicity and with little toxicity to normal cells. In order to reveal the structural features essential for anti-cancer activity of this small molecule, we have synthesized a panel of INZ analogs and evaluated their ability to induce cellular p53 and to inhibit cell growth in cell-based assays. This study as described here leads to the discovery of INZ analog 37 that displays much better potency than INZ in both of p53 activation and cell growth inhibition in several human cancer cell lines including H460 and HCT116+/+ cells. This INZ analog exhibited much less effect on p53-null H1299 cells and HCT116−/− cells, and importantly no toxicity on normal human p53-containing WI-38 cells. Hence, our results not only unveil key chemical features for INZ activity, but also identify the newly synthesized INZ analog 37 as a better small molecule for further development of anti-cancer therapy.
Non-enzymatic glycation increases hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and reduces oxygen delivery to tissues by altering the structure and function of hemoglobin.
We investigated whether an elevated blood concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) could induce falsely high pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO2) in type 2 diabetic patients during mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy.
Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) were determined with simultaneous monitoring of SpO2 in 261 type 2 diabetic patients during ventilation or oxygen inhalation.
Blood concentration of HbA1c was >7% in 114 patients and ≤ 7% in 147 patients. Both SaO2 (96.2 ± 2.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 95.7-96.7% vs. 95.1 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.7-95.6%) and SpO2 (98.0 ± 2.6%, 95% CI 97.6-98.5% vs. 95.3 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.9-95.8%) were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c >7% than in those with HbA1c ≤ 7% (Data are mean ± SD, all p < 0.01), but PO2 did not significantly differ between the two groups. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a significant bias between SpO2 and SaO2 (1.83 ±0.55%, 95% CI 1.73% -1.94%) and limits of agreement (0.76% and 2.92%) in patients with HbA1c >7%. The differences between SpO2 and SaO2 correlated closely with blood HbA1c levels (Pearson’s r = 0.307, p < 0.01).
Elevated blood HbA1c levels lead to an overestimation of SaO2 by SpO2, suggesting that arterial blood gas analysis may be needed for type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control during the treatment of hypoxemia.
Glycohemoglobin A1c; Diabetes mellitus; Arterial blood gas analysis; Pulse oxygen saturation