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1.  Casein kinase 1δ functions at the centrosome and Golgi to promote ciliogenesis 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2014;25(10):1629-1640.
CK1δ acts at the centrosome and Golgi to support polarized transport for ciliogenesis. It controls distribution of ciliary effectors Rab11, Rab8, CEP290, PCM1, and IFT20 and also promotes MT nucleation at the Golgi and positioning and integrity of the Golgi. Interaction of CK1δ with AKAP450 mediates Golgi MT nucleation and ciliogenesis.
Inhibition of casein kinase 1 delta (CK1δ) blocks primary ciliogenesis in human telomerase reverse transcriptase immortalized retinal pigmented epithelial and mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells-3. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and retinal cells from Csnk1d (CK1δ)-null mice also exhibit ciliogenesis defects. CK1δ catalytic activity and centrosomal localization signal (CLS) are required to rescue cilia formation in MEFsCsnk1d null. Furthermore, expression of a truncated derivative containing the CLS displaces full-length CK1δ from the centrosome and decreases ciliary length in control MEFs, suggesting that centrosomal CK1δ has a role in ciliogenesis. CK1δ inhibition also alters pericentrosomal or ciliary distribution of several proteins involved in ciliary transport, including Ras-like in rat brain-11A, Ras-like in rat brain-8A, centrosomal protein of 290 kDa, pericentriolar material protein 1, and polycystin-2, as well as the Golgi distribution of its binding partner, A-kinase anchor protein 450 (AKAP450). As reported for AKAP450, CK1δ was required for microtubule nucleation at the Golgi and maintenance of Golgi integrity. Overexpression of an AKAP450 fragment containing the CK1δ-binding site inhibits Golgi-derived microtubule nucleation, Golgi distribution of intraflagellar transport protein 20 homologue, and ciliogenesis. Our results suggest that CK1δ mediates primary ciliogenesis by multiple mechanisms, one involving its centrosomal function and another dependent on its interaction with AKAP450 at the Golgi, where it is important for maintaining Golgi organization and polarized trafficking of multiple factors that mediate ciliary transport.
PMCID: PMC4019494  PMID: 24648492
2.  Disruption of Wnt Planar Cell Polarity Signaling by Aberrant Accumulation of the MetAP-2 Substrate Rab37 
Chemistry & biology  2011;18(10):1300-1311.
Identification of methione aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP-2) as the molecular target of the antiangiogenic compound TNP-470 has sparked interest in N-terminal Met excision’s (NME) role in endothelial cell biology. In this regard, we recently demonstrated that MetAP-2 inhibition suppresses Wnt planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling and that endothelial cells depend on this pathway for normal function. Despite this advance, the substrate(s) whose activity is altered upon MetAP-2 inhibition, resulting in loss of Wnt PCP signaling, is not known. Here, we identify the small G-protein Rab37 as a novel MetAP-2 substrate that accumulates in the presence of TNP-470. A functional role for aberrant Rab37 accumulation in TNP-470’s mode-of-action is demonstrated using a Rab37 point-mutant that is resistant to NME because expression of this mutant phenocopies the effects of MetAP-2 inhibition on Wnt PCP signaling-dependent processes.
PMCID: PMC3205358  PMID: 22035799
4.  Individuals with mutations in XPNPEP3, which encodes a mitochondrial protein, develop a nephronophthisis-like nephropathy  
The autosomal recessive kidney disease nephronophthisis (NPHP) constitutes the most frequent genetic cause of terminal renal failure in the first 3 decades of life. Ten causative genes (NPHP1–NPHP9 and NPHP11), whose products localize to the primary cilia-centrosome complex, support the unifying concept that cystic kidney diseases are “ciliopathies”. Using genome-wide homozygosity mapping, we report here what we believe to be a new locus (NPHP-like 1 [NPHPL1]) for an NPHP-like nephropathy. In 2 families with an NPHP-like phenotype, we detected homozygous frameshift and splice-site mutations, respectively, in the X-prolyl aminopeptidase 3 (XPNPEP3) gene. In contrast to all known NPHP proteins, XPNPEP3 localizes to mitochondria of renal cells. However, in vivo analyses also revealed a likely cilia-related function; suppression of zebrafish xpnpep3 phenocopied the developmental phenotypes of ciliopathy morphants, and this effect was rescued by human XPNPEP3 that was devoid of a mitochondrial localization signal. Consistent with a role for XPNPEP3 in ciliary function, several ciliary cystogenic proteins were found to be XPNPEP3 substrates, for which resistance to N-terminal proline cleavage resulted in attenuated protein function in vivo in zebrafish. Our data highlight an emerging link between mitochondria and ciliary dysfunction, and suggest that further understanding the enzymatic activity and substrates of XPNPEP3 will illuminate novel cystogenic pathways.
PMCID: PMC2827951  PMID: 20179356
5.  Role of the NH2-terminal Membrane Spanning Domain of Multidrug Resistance Protein 1/ABCC1 in Protein Processing and TraffickingD⃞ 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2005;16(5):2483-2492.
Multidrug resistance protein (MRP)1/ABCC1 transports organic anionic conjugates and confers resistance to cytotoxic xenobiotics. In addition to two membrane spanning domains (MSDs) typical of most ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, MRP1 has a third MSD (MSD0) of unknown function. Unlike some topologically similar ABCC proteins, removal of MSD0 has minimal effect on function, nor does it prevent MRP1 from trafficking to basolateral membranes in polarized cells. However, we find that independent of cell type, the truncated protein accumulates in early/recycling endosomes. Using a real-time internalization assay, we demonstrate that MSD0 is important for MRP1 retention in, or recycling to, the plasma membrane. We also show that MSD0 traffics independently to the cell surface and promotes membrane localization of the core-region of MRP1 when the two protein fragments are coexpressed. Finally, we demonstrate that MSD0 becomes essential for trafficking of MRP1 when the COOH-terminal region of the protein is mutated. These studies demonstrate that MSD0 and the COOH-terminal region contain redundant trafficking signals, which only become essential when one or the other region is missing or is mutated. These data explain apparent differences in the trafficking requirement for MSD0 and the COOH-terminal region of MRP1 compared with other ABCC proteins.
PMCID: PMC1087251  PMID: 15772158

Results 1-5 (5)