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1.  The more we know, the more we have to discover: an exciting future for understanding cilia and ciliopathies 
Cilia  2015;4:5.
The Cilia 2014 conference was organised by four European networks: the Ciliopathy Alliance, the Groupement de Recherche CIL, the Nordic Cilia and Centrosome Network and the EU FP7 programme SYSCILIA. More than 400 delegates from 27 countries gathered at the Institut Pasteur conference centre in Paris, including 30 patients and patient representatives. The meeting offered a unique opportunity for exchange between different scientific and medical communities. Major highlights included new discoveries about the roles of motile and immotile cilia during development and homeostasis, the mechanism of cilium construction, as well as progress in diagnosis and possible treatment of ciliopathies. The contributions to the cilia field of flagellated infectious eukaryotes and of systems biology were also presented.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13630-015-0014-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4378380  PMID: 25974046
Cilia; Flagella; Basal bodies; Centrioles; Ciliopathies; Intraflagellar; Transport; Signalling; Hedgehog; Development
2.  ABCE1 Is a Highly Conserved RNA Silencing Suppressor 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(2):e0116702.
ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1) is a highly conserved protein among eukaryotes and archaea. Recent studies have identified ABCE1 as a ribosome-recycling factor important for translation termination in mammalian cells, yeast and also archaea. Here we report another conserved function of ABCE1. We have previously described AtRLI2, the homolog of ABCE1 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as an endogenous suppressor of RNA silencing. In this study we show that this function is conserved: human ABCE1 is able to suppress RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, in mammalian HEK293 cells and in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found a number of potential ABCE1-interacting proteins that might support its function as an endogenous suppressor of RNA interference. The interactor candidates are associated with epigenetic regulation, transcription, RNA processing and mRNA surveillance. In addition, one of the identified proteins is translin, which together with its binding partner TRAX supports RNA interference.
PMCID: PMC4319951  PMID: 25659154
21.  Single bolus versus split dose gadolinium administration in extra-cellular volume calculation at 3 Tesla 
Diffuse myocardial fibrosis may be quantified with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) by calculating extra-cellular volume (ECV) from native and post-contrast T1 values. Accurate ECV calculation is dependent upon the contrast agent having reached equilibrium within tissue compartments. Previous studies have used infusion or single bolus injections of contrast to calculate ECV. In clinical practice however, split dose contrast injection is commonly used as part of stress/rest perfusion studies. In this study we sought to assess the effects of split dose versus single bolus contrast administration on ECV calculation.
Ten healthy volunteers and five patients ( 4 ischaemic heart disease, 1 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) were studied on a 3.0 Tesla (Philips Achieva TX) MR system and underwent two (patients) or three (volunteers) separate CMR studies over a mean of 12 and 30 days respectively. Volunteers underwent one single bolus contrast study (Gadovist 0.15mmol/kg). In two further studies, contrast was given in two boluses (0.075mmol/kg per bolus) as part of a clinical adenosine stress/rest perfusion protocol, boluses were separated by 12 minutes. Patients underwent one bolus and one stress perfusion study only. T1 maps were acquired pre contrast and 15 minutes following the single bolus or second contrast injection.
ECV agreed between bolus and split dose contrast administration (coefficient of variability 5.04%, bias 0.009, 95% CI −3.754 to 3.772, r2 = 0.973, p = 0.001)). Inter-study agreement with split dose administration was good (coefficient of variability, 5.67%, bias −0.018, 95% CI −4.045 to 4.009, r2 = 0.766, p > 0.001).
ECV quantification using split dose contrast administration is reproducible and agrees well with previously validated methods in healthy volunteers, as well as abnormal and remote myocardium in patients. This suggests that clinical perfusion CMR studies may incorporate assessment of tissue composition by ECV based on T1 mapping.
PMCID: PMC4311469  PMID: 25638228
22.  Iron promotes protein insolubility and aging in C. elegans 
Aging (Albany NY)  2014;6(11):975-988.
Many late-onset proteotoxic diseases are accompanied by a disruption in homeostasis of metals (metallostasis) including iron, copper and zinc. Although aging is the most prominent risk factor for these disorders, the impact of aging on metallostasis and its role in proteotoxic disease remain poorly understood. Moreover, it is not clear whether a loss of metallostasis influences normal aging. We have investigated the role of metallostasis in longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that calcium, copper, iron, and manganese levels increase as a function of age, while potassium and phosphorus levels tend to decrease. Increased dietary iron significantly accelerated the age-related accumulation of insoluble protein, a molecular pathology of aging. Proteomic analysis revealed widespread effects of dietary iron in multiple organelles and tissues. Pharmacological interventions to block accumulation of specific metals attenuated many models of proteotoxicity and extended normal lifespan. Collectively, these results suggest that a loss of metallostasis with aging contributes to age-related protein aggregation.
PMCID: PMC4276790  PMID: 25554795
Aging; C. elegans; iron; lifespan; metal homeostasis; protein aggregation
23.  Susceptibility-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance in comparison to T2 and T2 star imaging for detection of intramyocardial hemorrhage following acute myocardial infarction at 3 Tesla 
Intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH) identified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is an established prognostic marker following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Detection of IMH by T2-weighted or T2 star CMR can be limited by long breath hold times and sensitivity to artefacts, especially at 3T. We compared the image quality and diagnostic ability of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (SW MRI) with T2-weighted and T2 star CMR to detect IMH at 3T.
Forty-nine patients (42 males; mean age 58 years, range 35–76) underwent 3T cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) 2 days following re-perfused AMI. T2-weighted, T2 star and SW MRI images were obtained. Signal and contrast measurements were compared between the three methods and diagnostic accuracy of SW MRI was assessed against T2w images by 2 independent, blinded observers. Image quality was rated on a 4-point scale from 1 (unusable) to 4 (excellent).
Of 49 patients, IMH was detected in 20 (41%) by SW MRI, 21 (43%) by T2-weighted and 17 (34%) by T2 star imaging (p = ns). Compared to T2-weighted imaging, SW MRI had sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 86%. SW MRI had similar inter-observer reliability to T2-weighted imaging (κ = 0.90 and κ = 0.88 respectively); both had higher reliability than T2 star (κ = 0.53). Breath hold times were shorter for SW MRI (4 seconds vs. 16 seconds) with improved image quality rating (3.8 ± 0.4, 3.3 ± 1.0, 2.8 ± 1.1 respectively; p < 0.01).
SW MRI is an accurate and reproducible way to detect IMH at 3T. The technique offers considerably shorter breath hold times than T2-weighted and T2 star imaging, and higher image quality scores.
PMCID: PMC4210544  PMID: 25356834
Hemorrhage; Magnetic resonance imaging; Cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Myocardial infarction; Susceptibility
24.  The microvascular effects of insulin resistance and diabetes on cardiac structure, function, and perfusion: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study 
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure. To better understand the mechanism by which this occurs, we investigated cardiac structure, function, and perfusion in patients with and without diabetes.
Methods and results
Sixty-five patients with no stenosis >30% on invasive coronary angiography were categorized into diabetes (19) and non-diabetes (46) which was further categorized into prediabetes (30) and controls (16) according to the American Diabetes Association guidelines. Each patient underwent comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment. Left-ventricular (LV) mass, relative wall mass (RWM), Lagrangian circumferential strain, LV torsion, and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) were calculated. LV mass was higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (112.8 ± 39.7 vs. 91.5 ± 21.3 g, P = 0.01) and in diabetics than prediabetics (112.8 ± 39.7 vs. 90.3 ± 18.7 g, P = 0.02). LV torsion angle was higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (9.65 ± 1.90 vs. 8.59 ± 1.91°, P = 0.047), and MPR was lower in diabetics than non-diabetics (2.10 ± 0.76 vs. 2.84 ± 1.25 mL/g/min, P = 0.01). There was significant correlation between MPR and early diastolic strain rate (r = −0.310, P = 0.01) and LV torsion (r = −0.306, P = 0.01). In multivariable linear regression analysis, non-diabetics waist–hip ratio, but not body mass index, had a significant association with RWM (Beta = 0.34, P = 0.02).
Patients with diabetes have increased LV mass, LV torsion, and decreased MPR. There is a significant association between decreased MPR and increased LV torsion suggesting a possible mechanistic link between microvascular disease and cardiac dysfunction in diabetes.
PMCID: PMC4240406  PMID: 25117473
Diabetes; Prediabetes; Cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Tagging; Strain; Myocardial perfusion reserve
25.  Functional characterization of thioredoxin 3 (TRX-3), a Caenorhabditis elegans intestine-specific thioredoxin 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine  2014;68(100):205-219.
Thioredoxins are a class of evolutionarily conserved proteins that have been demonstrated to play a key role in many cellular processes involving redox reactions. We report here the genetic and biochemical characterization of Caenorhabditis elegans TRX-3, the first metazoan thioredoxin with an intestine-specific expression pattern. By using green fluorescent protein reporters we have found that TRX-3 is expressed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of intestinal cells, with a prominent localization at the apical membrane. Although intestinal function, reproductive capacity, longevity, and resistance of trx-3 loss-of-function mutants to many stresses are indistinguishable from those of wild-type animals, we have observed a slight reduction in size and a minor reduction in the defecation cycle timing of trx-3 mutants. Interestingly, trx-3 is induced upon infection by Photorhabdus luminescens and Candida albicans, and TRX-3 overexpression provides a modest protection against these pathogens. Together, our data indicate that TRX-3 function in the intestine is dispensable for C. elegans development but may be important to fight specific bacterial and fungal infections.
•trx-3 encodes a novel member of the thioredoxin family in Caenorhabditis elegans.•TRX-3 is the first metazoan thioredoxin specifically expressed in intestinal cells.•TRX-3 is not required for intestine development or intestinal function.•Specific bacterial and fungal infections robustly induce trx-3 expression and TRX-3 overexpression moderately protects against infection.
PMCID: PMC4018987  PMID: 24316195
Caenorhabditis elegans; Thioredoxin; Intestine; Stress; Pathogen infection; Photorhabdus luminescens; Candida albicans

Results 1-25 (49)