Phenytoin (PHT), valproic acid, and modern antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), eg, remacemide, loreclezole, and safinamide, are only effective within a maximum of 70%–80% of epileptic patients, and in many cases the clinical use of AEDs is restricted by their side effects. Therefore, a continuous need remains to discover innovative chemical entities for the development of active and safer AEDs. Ligands targeting central histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) for epilepsy might be a promising therapeutic approach. To determine the potential of H3Rs ligands as new AEDs, we recently reported that no anticonvulsant effects were observed for the (S)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propanamide (1). In continuation of our research, we asked whether anticonvulsant differences in activities will be observed for its R-enantiomer, namely, (R)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propaneamide (2) and analogs thereof, in maximum electroshock (MES)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and strychnine (STR)-induced convulsion models in rats having PHT and valproic acid (VPA) as reference AEDs. Unlike the S-enantiomer (1), the results show that animals pretreated intraperitoneally (ip) with the R-enantiomer 2 (10 mg/kg) were moderately protected in MES and STR induced models, whereas proconvulsant effect was observed for the same ligand in PTZ-induced convulsion models. However, animals pretreated with intraperitoneal doses of 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg of structurally bulkier (R)-enantiomer (3), in which 3-piperidinopropan-1-ol in ligand 2 was replaced by (4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)phenyl)methanol, and its (S)-enantiomer (4) significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced convulsions or exhibited full protection in MES and PTZ convulsions model, respectively. Interestingly, the protective effects observed for the (R)-enantiomer (3) in MES model were significantly greater than those of the standard H3R inverse agonist/antagonist pitolisant, comparable with those observed for PHT, and reversed when rats were pretreated with the selective H3R agonist R-(α)-methyl-histamine. Comparisons of the observed antagonistic in vitro affinities among the ligands 1–6 revealed profound stereoselectivity at human H3Rs with varying preferences for this receptor subtype. Moreover, the in vivo anticonvulsant effects observed in this study for ligands 1–6 showed stereoselectivity in different convulsion models in male adult rats.
histamine; H3 receptor; isomeric antagonists; anticonvulsant activity; stereoselectivity
Macrozoospermia is a rare condition of male infertility characterized by the presence of close to 100 % large-headed multiflagellar spermatozoa. The homozygous mutation (c.144delC) in aurora kinase C gene (AURKC) has been identified as the most frequent mutation causing macrozoospermia in North African patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of this condition in Tunisia and estimate the frequency of c.144delC mutation among infertile and control populations.
Sequencing c.144delC mutation was carried out in 33 macrozoospermic patients among 6652 infertile men. Minisequencing of exon3 was performed in 250 unrelated control individuals to estimate the frequency of c.144delC heterozygosity.
More than 80 % of macrozoospermic patients were c.144delC homozygous. The prevalence of homozygous c.144delC was 0.4 % among infertile men (27/6652). The frequency of heterozygosity was 0.4 % among controls (1/250). Surprisingly, it is five times less common than established in the general population of North Africa (2 %) or in the Moroccan population (1.7 %).
We show that this mutation is relatively less frequent in the Tunisian population than in other Maghrebian populations. The occurrence of homozygous mutation among infertile men can be attributed to the high rate of consanguinity and its impact on the expression of this autosomal recessive male infertility disorder rather than a high frequency of heterozygous carriers among the general population. This highlights the importance of the molecular analysis of AURKC mutations for infertile men with high percentage of large-headed multiflagellar spermatozoa in order to limit unnecessary in vitro fertilization attempts for them.
Male infertility; Macrozoospermia; AURKC mutations; Tunisia
We describe 2 cases of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) with refractory headache aborted by intravenous magnesium. Case 1 is a 53-year-old woman with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to RCVS presented with refractory headache and persistent vasospasm, despite aggressive treatment with calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and systemic corticosteroids. Subsequently, she experienced dramatic relief of symptoms with intravenous magnesium therapy. She continued oral maintenance therapy and remained symptom free. Case 2 is a 71-year-old female with bilateral temporo-occipital infarcts due to RCVS, presented with refractory headache and persistent vasospasm on transcranial Doppler (TCD), despite aggressive treatment with CCBs. She experienced dramatic relief of symptoms with intravenous magnesium and resolution of vasospasm on TCD. Magnesium may be beneficial for the treatment of refractory headaches in patients with RCVS. Future studies are needed to determine whether it should be considered as a first-line agent.
reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome; headache; transcranial Doppler (TCD); magnesium
Next-generation sequencing; Gene panel; Epilepsy; Coverage analysis
Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Current medulloblastoma protocols stratify patients based on clinical features: patient age, metastatic stage, extent of resection, and histologic variant. Stark prognostic and genetic differences among the four subgroups suggest that subgroup-specific molecular biomarkers could improve patient prognostication.
Patients and Methods
Molecular biomarkers were identified from a discovery set of 673 medulloblastomas from 43 cities around the world. Combined risk stratification models were designed based on clinical and cytogenetic biomarkers identified by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. Identified biomarkers were tested using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a nonoverlapping medulloblastoma tissue microarray (n = 453), with subsequent validation of the risk stratification models.
Subgroup information improves the predictive accuracy of a multivariable survival model compared with clinical biomarkers alone. Most previously published cytogenetic biomarkers are only prognostic within a single medulloblastoma subgroup. Profiling six FISH biomarkers (GLI2, MYC, chromosome 11 [chr11], chr14, 17p, and 17q) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, we can reliably and reproducibly identify very low-risk and very high-risk patients within SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas.
Combining subgroup and cytogenetic biomarkers with established clinical biomarkers substantially improves patient prognostication, even in the context of heterogeneous clinical therapies. The prognostic significance of most molecular biomarkers is restricted to a specific subgroup. We have identified a small panel of cytogenetic biomarkers that reliably identifies very high-risk and very low-risk groups of patients, making it an excellent tool for selecting patients for therapy intensification and therapy de-escalation in future clinical trials.
HNF4A-p.I463Vvariant, reported previously in two distinct families suspected of MODY-1, is assessed in this report to determine whether it is a mutation or a polymorphism (frequency >1%).
200 Tunisian healthy people were screened for the presence of HNF4A-p.I463V variant, using RFLP-PCR technique and sequencing. Then, the frequency of this variant was estimated in the Tunisian population and compared to other populations registered in genetic databases. We also performed in-silico analysis using PolyPhen2 and Mutation T@sting softwares to assess the probable effect of HNF4A-p.I463V variant.
HNF4A-p.I463V had a rare frequency in different populations and was found in 3 control subjects (1.5%) of the studied population. PolyPhen2 predicted that it is a polymorphism, whereas mutation T@sting suggested a probably affected mutant protein.
HNF4A-p.I463V has a relatively high frequency (>1%) in our control cohort. It is also present in different ethnicities and in- silico analysis showed conflicting results. For these reasons, HNF4A-p.I463V should not be considered as a mutation responsible for MODY-1.
MODY; HNF4A-p.I463V; Polymorphism; Mutation; Tunisia; in-silico; Type 2 diabetes; rs147638455
Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome has a wide spectrum of complications such as embryonal tumors, namely adrenocortical tumor. Tumor predisposition is one of the most challenging manifestations of this syndrome. A 45-day old female with a family history of adrenocortical tumor presented with adrenocortical tumor. The case raised suspicion of a hereditary Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome, therefore molecular analysis was undertaken. The results revealed partial KCNQ1OT1 hypomethylation in the infant's blood DNA which was associated with a complete loss of methylation in the infant's adrenocortical tumor tissue. It is unique for familial Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome caused by KCNQ1OT1 partial hypomethylation to manifest solely through adrenocortical tumor. Incomplete penetrance and specific tissue mosaicism could provide explanations to this novel hereditary Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome presentation.
Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome; Adrenocortical tumor; Hereditary; KCNQ1OT1
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder. The causative mutation is an expansion of more than 36 CAG repeats in the first exon of IT15 gene. Many studies have shown that the IT15 interacts with several modifier genes to regulate the age at onset (AO) of HD. Our study aims to investigate the implication of CAG expansion and 9 modifiers in the age at onset variance of 15 HD Tunisian patients and to establish the correlation between these modifiers genes and the AO of this disease. Despite the small number of studied patients, this report consists of the first North African study in Huntington disease patients. Our results approve a specific effect of modifiers genes in each population.
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a type of high-flow vascular malformations that most commonly occurs in the head and neck. They are present at birth but are usually clinically asymptomatic until later in life. The pathogenesis of AVMs remains unclear and therapeutic approaches to AVMs are unsatisfied. In order to provide a tool for studying the pathogenesis and therapies of this disease, we established and studied a xenograft animal model of human AVMs.
Fresh human AVMs specimens harvested from 4 patients were sectioned (5x5x5 mm) and xenografted subcutaneously in 5 immunologically naïve nude mice (Athymic Nude-Foxn1nu). Each mouse had four pieces specimens in four quadrants along the back. The grafts were observed weekly for volume, color and texture. The grafts were harvested at every 30 days intervals for histologic examination. All grafts (n = 20) were sectioned and stained for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Comparative pathologic evaluation of the grafts and native AVMs were performed by two blinded pathologists. Immunohistochemical examination of human-specific nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and Ki-67 was performed.
Clinical characteristics and pathologic diagnosis of native human derived AVMs were confirmed. 85% (n = 17) of AVM xenografts survived although the sizes decreased after implantation. Histological examination demonstrated numerous small and medium-size vessels and revealed structural characteristics matching the native AVMs tissue.76.5% (n = 13) of the surviving xenografts were positive for Ki-67 and human-specific nuclear antigen suggesting survival of the human derived tissue, 52.9% (n = 9) were positive for VEGFR-2.
This preliminary xenograft animal model suggests that AVMs can survive in the nude mouse. The presence of human-specific nuclear antigen, VEGFR-2, and Ki-67 demonstrates the stability of native tissue qualities within the xenografts.
Arteriovenous malformations; Animal model; Nude mouse; In vivo
Palmoplantar keratodermas (PPKs) are a group of disorders that are diagnostically and therapeutically problematic in dermatogenetics1-3. Punctate PPKs are characterized by circumscribed hyperkeratotic lesions on palms and soles with considerable heterogeneity. In 18 families with autosomal dominant punctate PPK (OMIM #148600), we report heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in AAGAB, encoding alpha- and gamma-adaptin binding protein p34, at a previously linked locus on 15q22. p34, a cytosolic protein with a Rab-like GTPase domain, was shown to bind both clathrin adaptor protein complexes, indicative of a role in membrane traffic. Ultrastucturally, lesional epidermis showed abnormalities in intracellular vesicle biology. Immunohistochemistry showed hyperproliferation within the punctate lesions. Knockdown of p34 in keratinocytes led to increased cell division, which was linked to greatly increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression and tyrosine phosphorylation. We hypothesize that p34 deficiency may impair endocytic recycling of growth factor receptors such as EGFR, leading to increased signaling and proliferation.
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations were recently shown to drive telomerase activity in various cancer types, including medulloblastoma. However, the clinical and biological implications of TERT mutations in medulloblastoma have not been described. Hence, we sought to describe these mutations and their impact in a subgroup-specific manner. We analyzed the TERT promoter by direct sequencing and genotyping in 466 medulloblastomas. The mutational distributions were determined according to subgroup affiliation, demographics, and clinical, prognostic, and molecular features. Integrated genomics approaches were used to identify specific somatic copy number alterations in TERT promoter-mutated and wild-type tumors. Overall, TERT promoter mutations were identified in 21 % of medulloblastomas. Strikingly, the highest frequencies of TERT mutations were observed in SHH (83 %; 55/66) and WNT (31 %; 4/13) medulloblastomas derived from adult patients. Group 3 and Group 4 harbored this alteration in <5 % of cases and showed no association with increased patient age. The prognostic implications of these mutations were highly subgroup-specific. TERT mutations identified a subset with good and poor prognosis in SHH and Group 4 tumors, respectively. Monosomy 6 was mostly restricted to WNT tumors without TERT mutations. Hallmark SHH focal copy number aberrations and chromosome 10q deletion were mutually exclusive with TERT mutations within SHH tumors. TERT promoter mutations are the most common recurrent somatic point mutation in medulloblastoma, and are very highly enriched in adult SHH and WNT tumors. TERT mutations define a subset of SHH medulloblastoma with distinct demographics, cytogenetics, and outcomes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00401-013-1198-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
TERT promoter mutations; SHH pathway; Adult; Medulloblastoma
Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumour, is currently treated with non-specific cytotoxic therapies including surgery, whole brain radiation, and aggressive chemotherapy. As medulloblastoma exhibits marked intertumoural heterogeneity, with at least four distinct molecular variants, prior attempts to identify targets for therapy have been underpowered due to small samples sizes. Here we report somatic copy number aberrations (SCNAs) in 1087 unique medulloblastomas. SCNAs are common in medulloblastoma, and are predominantly subgroup enriched. The most common region of focal copy number gain is a tandem duplication of the Parkinson’s disease gene SNCAIP, which is exquisitely restricted to Group 4α. Recurrent translocations of PVT1, including PVT1-MYC and PVT1-NDRG1 that arise through chromothripsis are restricted to Group 3. Numerous targetable SCNAs, including recurrent events targeting TGFβ signaling in Group 3, and NF-κB signaling in Group 4 suggest future avenues for rational, targeted therapy.
The acquisition of secondary chromosomal aberrations in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) karyotype signifies clonal evolution associated with the progression of the disease to its accelerated or blastic phase. Therefore, these aberrations have clinical and biological significance. T(3;12)(q26;p13), which is a recurrent chromosomal aberration observed in myeloid malignancies, is typically associated with dysplasia of megakaryocytes, multilineage involvement, short duration of any blastic phase, and extremely poor prognosis. We have identified a recurrent reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 3 and 12 with different breakpoint at bands 3q21 in the malignant cells from a 28-year-old man. The patient was initially diagnosed as having Ph+ CML in the chronic phase. The t(3;12)(q21;p13) translocation occurred 4 years after the patient was first diagnosed with CML while undergoing tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. We confirmed the t(3;12)(q21;p13) translocation via fluorescence in situ hybridization assay by using whole-chromosome paint probes for chromosomes 3 and 12. Our findings demonstrate that, similar to other recurrent translocations involving 3q26 such as t(3;3) and t(3;21), the t(3;12)(q21;p13) translocation is implicated not only in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia but also in the progression of CML. These findings extend the disease spectrum of this cytogenetic aberration.
Philadelphia chromosome; t(3; 12)(q21; p13); chronic myeloid leukemia; accelerated phase; fluorescence in situ hybridization
To evaluate the frequency of sperm nuclei disomy for chromosomes 8, X, and Y in patients with severe non-obstructive oligozoospermia and to assess possible correlations between sperm nuclei aneuploidy and semen parameters or a particular clinical phenotype.
Materials and methods
The sperm aneuploidy rate for chromosomes X, Y, and 8 were assessed in 16 infertile men with severe non-obstructive oligozoospermia and 7 healthy men with normal semen parameters. The frequency of sperm aneuploidy was compared between several patients groups according to their clinical and biological factors.
The total rate of chromosomally abnormal spermatozoa was significantly higher in patients with severe oligozoospermia compared to control group (P < 0.001). A significant relationship was found between the age of patients, sperm concentration, and morphology and the mean rate of sex chromosomes disomy. In addition to the low sperm count (<5 × 106/ml), an elevated FSH level and an exposed to an elevated temperature are two major predictive factors leading to the production of higher numbers of chromosomally abnormal gametes.
Patients with severe oligozoospermia, who are potential candidates for assisted reproduction technology, presented a high level of sex numerical chromosome abnormalities, and consequently are at high risk of chromosome abnormalities in their offspring.
Aneuploidy; FISH; Predictive factors; Severe oligozoospermia
To analyse the segregation of a Robertsonian translocation t(13;14) in five male carriers, and to verify a possible inter-chromosomal effect (ICE) of the Robertsonian translocation on chromosomes 18, X, and Y.
The spermatozoa of these patients (n = 5) and of 15 donors with normal semen parameters and 46,XY karyotype were analysed using triple colour FISH with locus specific probes for chromosomes 13, 14, and 21 and by triple colour FISH for chromosomes X, Y, and 18.
The frequency of balanced spermatozoa resulting from alternate segregation varied between 62.16% and 81.70% with a mean of 71.5%. The rates of unbalanced spermatozoa resulting from adjacent segregation varied between 13.4% and 25.1% with a mean of 18.26%. Triple colour FISH X-Y-18 showed a significant increase in disomy frequencies of these chromosomes in comparison with controls, indicating an ICE.
In spite of the high number of normal/balanced frequencies, there remain many unbalanced spermatozoa resulting from adjacent mode of segregation. This raises the question of the unbalanced chromosomal risk for the offspring of 45,XY, t(13;14) males and the importance of the genetic counselling prior to ICSI or IVF treatment for couples where the male is a Robertsonian translocation carrier.
FISH; Meiotic segregation; Robertsonian translocation; Spermatozoa
To investigate the effects of male aging on semen quality, DNA fragmentation and chromosomal abnormalities in the spermatozoa of infertile patients and fertile men.
Semen samples of 140 infertile patients (24–76 years) and 50 men with proven fertility (25–65 years) were analyzed according to WHO guidelines. DNA fragmentation was detected by TUNEL assay, while aneuploidy was assessed by FISH.
In the patient group, semen volume and vitality of spermatozoa decreased significantly with age, while sperm concentration showed a statistically significant increase with age. DNA fragmentation as well as disomy of sex chromosomes and disomy 8 did not show a statistically significant change with age. However, the diploidy rate was significantly increased with patient’s age. In the control group, conventional semen parameters as well as DNA fragmentation and chromosomal abnormalities did not show a statistically significant with age.
Increased age in infertile men is associated with an increase in sperm concentration and diploidy, as well as a decline in semen volume and sperm vitality. However motility, morphology and DNA fragmentation are not affected by male age.
Aneuploidy; DNA fragmentation; Male infertility; Paternal age; Semen parameters
Growing evidence indicates that oxidative stress can be a primary cause of male infertility. Non-enzymatic antioxidants play an important protective role against oxidative damages and lipid peroxidation. Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine glutathione (GSH) concentrations, trace element levels (zinc and selenium) and the lipid peroxidation end product, malondialdehyde (MDA), in the seminal plasma of men with different fertility potentials.
Semen samples from 60 fertile men (normozoospermics) and 190 infertile patients (74 asthenozoospermics, 56 oligozoospermics, and 60 teratozoospermics) were analyzed for physical and biochemical parameters. Zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) levels were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total GSH (GSHt), oxidized GSH (GSSG), reduced GSH (GSHr) and MDA concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically.
Zn and Se concentrations in seminal plasma of normozoospermics were more elevated than the three abnormal groups. Nevertheless, only the Zn showed significant differences. On the other hand, Zn showed positive and significant correlations with sperm motility (P = 0.03, r = 0.29) and count (P < 0.01, r = 0.49); however Se was significantly correlated only with sperm motility (P < 0.01, r = 0.36). GSHt, GSSG and GSHr were significantly higher in normozoospermics than in abnormal groups. We noted a significant association between seminal GSHt and sperm motility (P = 0.03). GSSG was highly correlated to sperm motility (P < 0.001) and negatively associated to abnormal morphology (P < 0.001). GSHr was significantly associated to total sperm motility (P < 0.001) and sperm count (P = 0.01). MDA levels were significantly higher in the three abnormal groups than in normozoospermics. Rates of seminal MDA were negatively associated to sperm motility (P < 0.01; r = -0.24) and sperm concentration (P = 0.003; r = -0.35) Meanwhile, there is a positive correlation between seminal lipid peroxidation and the percentage of abnormal morphology (P = 0.008).
This report revealed that decreased seminal GSH and trace element deficiencies are implicated in low sperm quality and may be an important indirect biomarker of idiopathic male infertility. Our results sustain that the evaluation of seminal antioxidant status in infertile men is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment from early stages.
Antioxidants; Idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia; Male infertility; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species; Spermatozoa; Seminal plasma
To evaluate levels of DNA fragmentation and chromosomal abnormalities in ejaculated sperm of males with isolated teratozoospermia and to determine if specific sperm morphological types occur simultaneously with these nuclear defects.
Sperm obtained from isolated teratozoospermic men (n = 70) and fertile men (n = 30) were analysed using fluorescence in situ hybridization and TUNEL assay.
Teratozoospermic men, compared to fertile men, showed significantly higher rates of sex chromosomes disomy, and diploidy. Significant correlations were found between amorphous head, microcephalic head, short tail, and sex chromosomes disomy. Level of sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly higher in teratozoospermic men than in controls and positively correlated to the incidence of macrocephalic heads, amorphous heads, and short flagella.
Patients with isolated teratozoospermia have increased levels of DNA fragmentation and chromosomal aneuploidy. Some specific morphological abnormalities were shown to be predictive of chromosomal abnormalities and DNA alteration.
Aneuploidy; DNA fragmentation; Infertility; Teratozoospermia
Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome.
Oxidative damage; Antioxidant enzymes; Semen quality; Male infertility; Sperm abnormalities; lipid per-oxidation.
The objective of the present study is to assess viability tests and to evaluate follicle ovarian tissue quality after freezing-thawing procedures.
Ewe's ovaries were harvested at the slaughterhouse, after dissection each ovarian specimen was divided into two groups: fresh tissue (control group) and frozen tissue.
In the first part of the study, the follicles viability was assessed by trypan blue staining, calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 staining (LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity kit, Molecular Probes) and morphology in the two groups. In the second part of the study the quality of the whole ovarian tissue was evaluated by the quantification of the release of lactate dehydrogenase measurement (Cytotoxicity Detection kit ROCHE), DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) in primordial and primary follicles (ApopDETEK Kit system Enzo) and morphology in the two groups. 100 Follicles (primordial and primary) were counted on both fresh and frozen hemiovary to assess this various tests.
Ovarian follicle viability assessment was similar using trypan blue or calcein/ethidium staining. Follicles showed a decreased viability after freezing-thawing.
After cryopreservation, a significant correlation between the percentage of normal follicles and viability rate was found using trypan blue (r = 0.82, p < 0.05) or calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 staining (r = 0.76, p < 0.05). Increased cytotoxicity showed by enhancement of LDH release was found after cryopreservation (21.60 +/- 1.1% vs 52.2 +/- 7.7%). A significant negative correlation between the percentage of morphologically normal follicles and cytotoxicity was observed. No significant difference in DNA fragmentation rate between frozen and control groups was found (26 ± 8.2% vs 38 ± 4.5%).
We suggest the use of trypan blue staining for the histological assessment of viability, the use of LDH assay for the cytotoxicity assessement and finally the use of DNA fragmentation assessment to valid different freezing-thawing protocols.
Joubert syndrome (JBTS), related disorders (JSRD) and Meckel syndrome (MKS) are ciliopathies. We now report that MKS2 and JBTS2 loci are allelic and due to mutations in TMEM216, encoding an uncharacterized tetraspan transmembrane protein. JBTS2 patients displayed frequent nephronophthisis and polydactytly, and two cases conformed to the Oro-Facio-Digital type VI phenotype, whereas skeletal dysplasia was common in MKS fetuses. A single p.R73L mutation was identified in all patients of Ashkenazi Jewish descent (n=10). TMEM216 localized to the base of primary cilia, and loss of TMEM216 in patient fibroblasts or following siRNA knockdown caused defective ciliogenesis and centrosomal docking, with concomitant hyperactivation of RhoA and Dishevelled. TMEM216 complexed with Meckelin, encoded by a gene also mutated in JSRD and MKS. Abrogation of tmem216 expression in zebrafish led to gastrulation defects that overlap with other ciliary morphants. The data implicate a new family of proteins in the ciliopathies, and further support allelism between ciliopathy disorders.
In Tunisia, the ATRA era began in 1998 with the use, consecutively, of two regimens combining ATRA and an anthracycline with cytarabine (APL93), and without cytarabine (LPA99). From 2004, 51 patients with confirmed APL either by t(15;17) or PML/RARA were treated according to the PETHEMA LPA 99 trial. Forty three patients achieved CR (86%). The remaining seven patients had early death (one died before treatment onset): four caused by differentiation syndrome (DS) and three died from central nervous system hemorrhage. Multivariate analysis revealed that female gender (P=0.045), baseline WBC> 10 G/L (P=0.041) and serum creatinine > 1.4mg/dl (P=0.021) were predictive of mortality during induction. DS was observed in 16 patients (32%) after a median onset time of 15 days from treatment onset (range, 2–29). Body mass index ≥ 30 (P=0.01) remained independent predictor of DS. Occurrence of hypertensive peaks significantly predicted occurrence of DS (P=0.011) and was significantly associated with high BMI (p=0.003). With a median follow-up of 50 months, 5 year cumulative incidence of relapse, event free and overall survival were 4.7%, 74% and 78%, respectively.
The Meckel syndrome (MKS) is a lethal fetal disorder characterized by diffuse renal cystic dysplasia, polydactyly, a brain malformation that is usually occipital encephalocele and/or vermian agenesis, with intrahepatic biliary duct proliferation. Joubert syndrome (JBS) is a viable neurological disorder with a characteristic “molar tooth sign” (MTS) on axial images reflecting cerebellar vermian hypoplasia/dysplasia. Both conditions are classified as ciliopathies with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Allelism of MS and JBS has been reported for TMEM67/MKS3, CEP290/MKS4, and RPGRIP1L/MKS5. Recently, one homozygous splice mutation with a founder effect was reported in the CC2D2A gene in Finnish fetuses with MKS, defining the 6th locus for MKS. Shortly thereafter, CC2D2A mutations were reported in JBS also. The analysis of the CC2D2A gene in our series of MKS fetuses, identified 14 novel truncating mutations in 11 cases. These results confirm the involvement of CC2D2A in MKS and reveal a major contribution of CC2D2A to the disease. We also identified three missense CC2D2A mutations in two JBS cases. Therefore and in accordance with the data reported regarding RPGRIP1L, our results indicate phenotype-genotype correlations, as missense and presumably hypomorphic mutations lead to JBS while all null alleles lead to MKS.
Meckel-Gruber syndrome; MKS; Joubert syndrome; JBS; CC2D2A; ciliopathy
In this study, Forty-one out of fifty-seven Tunisian children with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), and without cytogenetically detectable recurrent abnormalities at the time of the diagnosis, were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the t(12;21). This translocation leads ETV6-RUNX1 (previously TEL-AML1) fusion gene. 16 patients (28%) had ETV6-RUNX1 rearrangement. In addition to this rearrangement, two cases showed a loss of the normal ETV6 allele, and three others showed an extra signal of the RUNX1 gene.
Seven patients without ETV6-RUNX1 rearrangement showed extra signals of the RUNX1 gene. One out of the 7 patients was also associated with a t(3;12) identified by FISH. This is the first Tunisian study in which we report the incidence of t(12;21) among childhood B-lineage ALL and in which we have found multiple copies of RUNX1.
Finally, our findings confirm that additional or secondary genetic changes are commonly encountered in pediatric B-lineage ALL with ETV6-RUNX1 gene fusion which is envisaged to play a pivotal role in disease progression.
There are no reliable markers able to identify patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) likely to metastasize to the brain. We investigated associations between immunohistochemical markers and development of brain metastases in patients with NSCLC.
We performed a hospital-based, case-control study of patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC between 1989 and 2003 that developed brain metastases who had available pathology material from both primary NSCLC and brain metastases. The control patients had NSCLC and no evidence of brain metastases. We examined NSCLC for expression of Ki-67, caspase-3, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, E-cadherin and EGFR in 54 surgical pathology specimens using immunohistochemistry and evaluated associations with development of brain metastases.
Brain metastases developed after a median time of 12.5 months (range 1.7-89.4 months) from the diagnosis of NSCLC. A significantly increased risk of developing brain metastases was associated with patients who had high Ki-67 (adjusted odds ratio 12.2, 95% CI, 2.4 to 70.4, P<0.001), low caspase-3 (adjusted odds ratio 43.0, 95% CI, 5.3 to >100, P<0.001), high VEGF-C (adjusted odds ratio 14.6, 95% CI, 2.0 to >100, P<0.001), and low E-cadherin (adjusted odds ratio 3.6, 95% CI, 0.9 to 16.4, P=0.05), in the primary NSCLC. No significant risk was observed with VEGF-A and EGFR. A high Ki-67 was also associated with a shorter overall survival (P=0.04).
Patients with NSCLC and high Ki-67, low caspase-3, high VEGF-C, and low E-cadherin in their tumors may benefit from close surveillance since they may have an increased risk of developing brain metastases.