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1.  PNPLA6 mutations cause Boucher-Neuhäuser and Gordon Holmes syndromes as part of a broad neurodegenerative spectrum 
Brain  2013;137(1):69-77.
Boucher-Neuhäuser and Gordon Holmes syndromes are clinical syndromes defined by early-onset ataxia and hypogonadism plus chorioretinal dystrophy (Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome) or brisk reflexes (Gordon Holmes syndrome). Here we uncover the genetic basis of these two syndromes, demonstrating that both clinically distinct entities are allelic for recessive mutations in the gene PNPLA6. In five of seven Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome/Gordon Holmes syndrome families, we identified nine rare conserved and damaging mutations by applying whole exome sequencing. Further, by dissecting the complex clinical presentation of Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome and Gordon Holmes syndrome into its neurological system components, we set out to analyse an additional 538 exomes from families with ataxia (with and without hypogonadism), pure and complex hereditary spastic paraplegia, and Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2. We identified four additional PNPLA6 mutations in spastic ataxia and hereditary spastic paraplegia families, revealing that Boucher-Neuhäuser and Gordon Holmes syndromes in fact represent phenotypic clusters on a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases caused by mutations in PNPLA6. Structural analysis indicates that the majority of mutations falls in the C-terminal phospholipid esterase domain and likely inhibits the catalytic activity of PNPLA6, which provides the precursor for biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Our findings show that PNPLA6 influences a manifold of neuronal systems, from the retina to the cerebellum, upper and lower motor neurons and the neuroendocrine system, with damage of this protein causing an extraordinarily broad continuous spectrum of associated neurodegenerative disease.
doi:10.1093/brain/awt326
PMCID: PMC3891450  PMID: 24355708
ataxia; recessive ataxia; hypogonadism; retinal degeneration; spastic ataxia; early onset ataxia; spasticity; genetics; hereditary spastic paraplegia
2.  MTO1-Deficient Mouse Model Mirrors the Human Phenotype Showing Complex I Defect and Cardiomyopathy 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114918.
Recently, mutations in the mitochondrial translation optimization factor 1 gene (MTO1) were identified as causative in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis and respiratory chain defect. Here, we describe an MTO1-deficient mouse model generated by gene trap mutagenesis that mirrors the human phenotype remarkably well. As in patients, the most prominent signs and symptoms were cardiovascular and included bradycardia and cardiomyopathy. In addition, the mutant mice showed a marked worsening of arrhythmias during induction and reversal of anaesthesia. The detailed morphological and biochemical workup of murine hearts indicated that the myocardial damage was due to complex I deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, neurological examination was largely normal in Mto1-deficient mice. A translational consequence of this mouse model may be to caution against anaesthesia-related cardiac arrhythmias which may be fatal in patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114918
PMCID: PMC4266617  PMID: 25506927
3.  Novel (ovario) leukodystrophy related to AARS2 mutations 
Neurology  2014;82(23):2063-2071.
Objectives:
The study was focused on leukoencephalopathies of unknown cause in order to define a novel, homogeneous phenotype suggestive of a common genetic defect, based on clinical and MRI findings, and to identify the causal genetic defect shared by patients with this phenotype.
Methods:
Independent next-generation exome-sequencing studies were performed in 2 unrelated patients with a leukoencephalopathy. MRI findings in these patients were compared with available MRIs in a database of unclassified leukoencephalopathies; 11 patients with similar MRI abnormalities were selected. Clinical and MRI findings were investigated.
Results:
Next-generation sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in AARS2 encoding mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase in both patients. Functional studies in yeast confirmed the pathogenicity of the mutations in one patient. Sanger sequencing revealed AARS2 mutations in 4 of the 11 selected patients. The 6 patients with AARS2 mutations had childhood- to adulthood-onset signs of neurologic deterioration consisting of ataxia, spasticity, and cognitive decline with features of frontal lobe dysfunction. MRIs showed a leukoencephalopathy with striking involvement of left-right connections, descending tracts, and cerebellar atrophy. All female patients had ovarian failure. None of the patients had signs of a cardiomyopathy.
Conclusions:
Mutations in AARS2 have been found in a severe form of infantile cardiomyopathy in 2 families. We present 6 patients with a new phenotype caused by AARS2 mutations, characterized by leukoencephalopathy and, in female patients, ovarian failure, indicating that the phenotypic spectrum associated with AARS2 variants is much wider than previously reported.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000497
PMCID: PMC4118500  PMID: 24808023
4.  Sengers syndrome: six novel AGK mutations in seven new families and review of the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of 29 patients 
Background
Sengers syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by congenital cataract, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy and lactic acidosis. Mutations in the acylglycerol kinase (AGK) gene have been recently described as the cause of Sengers syndrome in nine families.
Methods
We investigated the clinical and molecular features of Sengers syndrome in seven new families; five families with the severe and two with the milder form.
Results
Sequence analysis of AGK revealed compound heterozygous or homozygous predicted loss-of-function mutations in all affected individuals. A total of eight different disease alleles were identified, of which six were novel, homozygous c.523_524delAT (p.Ile175Tyrfs*2), c.424-1G > A (splice site), c.409C > T (p.Arg137*) and c.877 + 3G > T (splice site), and compound heterozygous c.871C > T (p.Gln291*) and c.1035dup (p.Ile346Tyrfs*39). All patients displayed perinatal or early-onset cardiomyopathy and cataract, clinical features pathognomonic for Sengers syndrome. Other common findings included blood lactic acidosis and tachydyspnoea while nystagmus, eosinophilia and cervical meningocele were documented in only either one or two cases. Deficiency of the adenine nucleotide translocator was found in heart and skeletal muscle biopsies from two patients associated with respiratory chain complex I deficiency. In contrast to previous findings, mitochondrial DNA content was normal in both tissues.
Conclusion
We compare our findings to those in 21 previously reported AGK mutation-positive Sengers patients, confirming that Sengers syndrome is a clinically recognisable disorder of mitochondrial energy metabolism.
doi:10.1186/s13023-014-0119-3
PMCID: PMC4167147  PMID: 25208612
Sengers syndrome; AGK; Acylglycerol Kinase; Mutation; Genotype-Phenotype Correlation
5.  Rare mutations in SQSTM1 modify susceptibility to frontotemporal lobar degeneration 
van der Zee, Julie | Van Langenhove, Tim | Kovacs, Gabor G. | Dillen, Lubina | Deschamps, William | Engelborghs, Sebastiaan | Matěj, Radoslav | Vandenbulcke, Mathieu | Sieben, Anne | Dermaut, Bart | Smets, Katrien | Van Damme, Philip | Merlin, Céline | Laureys, Annelies | Van Den Broeck, Marleen | Mattheijssens, Maria | Peeters, Karin | Benussi, Luisa | Binetti, Giuliano | Ghidoni, Roberta | Borroni, Barbara | Padovani, Alessandro | Archetti, Silvana | Pastor, Pau | Razquin, Cristina | Ortega-Cubero, Sara | Hernández, Isabel | Boada, Mercè | Ruiz, Agustín | de Mendonça, Alexandre | Miltenberger-Miltényi, Gabriel | do Couto, Frederico Simões | Sorbi, Sandro | Nacmias, Benedetta | Bagnoli, Silvia | Graff, Caroline | Chiang, Huei-Hsin | Thonberg, Håkan | Perneczky, Robert | Diehl-Schmid, Janine | Alexopoulos, Panagiotis | Frisoni, Giovanni B. | Bonvicini, Christian | Synofzik, Matthis | Maetzler, Walter | vom Hagen, Jennifer Müller | Schöls, Ludger | Haack, Tobias B. | Strom, Tim M. | Prokisch, Holger | Dols-Icardo, Oriol | Clarimón, Jordi | Lleó, Alberto | Santana, Isabel | Almeida, Maria Rosário | Santiago, Beatriz | Heneka, Michael T. | Jessen, Frank | Ramirez, Alfredo | Sanchez-Valle, Raquel | Llado, Albert | Gelpi, Ellen | Sarafov, Stayko | Tournev, Ivailo | Jordanova, Albena | Parobkova, Eva | Fabrizi, Gian Maria | Testi, Silvia | Salmon, Eric | Ströbel, Thomas | Santens, Patrick | Robberecht, Wim | De Jonghe, Peter | Martin, Jean-Jacques | Cras, Patrick | Vandenberghe, Rik | De Deyn, Peter Paul | Cruts, Marc | Sleegers, Kristel | Van Broeckhoven, Christine
Acta Neuropathologica  2014;128(3):397-410.
Mutations in the gene coding for Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) have been genetically associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Paget disease of bone. In the present study, we analyzed the SQSTM1 coding sequence for mutations in an extended cohort of 1,808 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), ascertained within the European Early-Onset Dementia consortium. As control dataset, we sequenced 1,625 European control individuals and analyzed whole-exome sequence data of 2,274 German individuals (total n = 3,899). Association of rare SQSTM1 mutations was calculated in a meta-analysis of 4,332 FTLD and 10,240 control alleles. We identified 25 coding variants in FTLD patients of which 10 have not been described. Fifteen mutations were absent in the control individuals (carrier frequency <0.00026) whilst the others were rare in both patients and control individuals. When pooling all variants with a minor allele frequency <0.01, an overall frequency of 3.2 % was calculated in patients. Rare variant association analysis between patients and controls showed no difference over the whole protein, but suggested that rare mutations clustering in the UBA domain of SQSTM1 may influence disease susceptibility by doubling the risk for FTLD (RR = 2.18 [95 % CI 1.24–3.85]; corrected p value = 0.042). Detailed histopathology demonstrated that mutations in SQSTM1 associate with widespread neuronal and glial phospho-TDP-43 pathology. With this study, we provide further evidence for a putative role of rare mutations in SQSTM1 in the genetic etiology of FTLD and showed that, comparable to other FTLD/ALS genes, SQSTM1 mutations are associated with TDP-43 pathology.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00401-014-1298-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00401-014-1298-7
PMCID: PMC4131163  PMID: 24899140
Sequestosome 1; SQSTM1; p62; FTLD; ALS; Rare variants
6.  Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration: a new X-linked dominant disorder with brain iron accumulation 
Brain  2013;136(6):1708-1717.
Neurodegenerative disorders with high iron in the basal ganglia encompass an expanding collection of single gene disorders collectively known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. These disorders can largely be distinguished from one another by their associated clinical and neuroimaging features. The aim of this study was to define the phenotype that is associated with mutations in WDR45, a new causative gene for neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation located on the X chromosome. The study subjects consisted of WDR45 mutation-positive individuals identified after screening a large international cohort of patients with idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Their records were reviewed, including longitudinal clinical, laboratory and imaging data. Twenty-three mutation-positive subjects were identified (20 females). The natural history of their disease was remarkably uniform: global developmental delay in childhood and further regression in early adulthood with progressive dystonia, parkinsonism and dementia. Common early comorbidities included seizures, spasticity and disordered sleep. The symptoms of parkinsonism improved with l-DOPA; however, nearly all patients experienced early motor fluctuations that quickly progressed to disabling dyskinesias, warranting discontinuation of l-DOPA. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed iron in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, with a ‘halo’ of T1 hyperintense signal in the substantia nigra. All patients harboured de novo mutations in WDR45, encoding a beta-propeller protein postulated to play a role in autophagy. Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration, the only X-linked disorder of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, is associated with de novo mutations in WDR45 and is recognizable by a unique combination of clinical, natural history and neuroimaging features.
doi:10.1093/brain/awt095
PMCID: PMC3673459  PMID: 23687123
iron; NBIA; autophagy; basal ganglia; Rett syndrome
7.  Blood cis-eQTL Analysis Fails to Identify Novel Association Signals among Sub-Threshold Candidates from Genome-Wide Association Studies in Restless Legs Syndrome 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e98092.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurologic disorder characterized by nightly dysesthesias affecting the legs primarily during periods of rest and relieved by movement. RLS is a complex genetic disease and susceptibility factors in six genomic regions have been identified by means of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). For some complex genetic traits, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) are enriched among trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). With the aim of identifying new genetic susceptibility factors for RLS, we assessed the 332 best-associated SNPs from the genome-wide phase of the to date largest RLS GWAS for cis-eQTL effects in peripheral blood from individuals of European descent. In 740 individuals belonging to the KORA general population cohort, 52 cis-eQTLs with pnominal<10−3 were identified, while in 976 individuals belonging to the SHIP-TREND general population study 53 cis-eQTLs with pnominal<10−3 were present. 23 of these cis-eQTLs overlapped between the two cohorts. Subsequently, the twelve of the 23 cis-eQTL SNPs, which were not located at an already published RLS-associated locus, were tested for association in 2449 RLS cases and 1462 controls. The top SNP, located in the DET1 gene, was nominally significant (p<0.05) but did not withstand correction for multiple testing (p = 0.42). Although a similar approach has been used successfully with regard to other complex diseases, we were unable to identify new genetic susceptibility factor for RLS by adding this novel level of functional assessment to RLS GWAS data.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098092
PMCID: PMC4038519  PMID: 24875634
8.  Single-Cell Expression Profiling of Dopaminergic Neurons Combined with Association Analysis Identifies Pyridoxal Kinase as Parkinson’s Disease Gene 
Annals of neurology  2009;66(6):792-798.
Objective
The etiology of Parkinson disease (PD) is complex and multifactorial, with hereditary and environmental factors contributing. Monogenic forms have provided molecular clues to disease mechanisms but genetic modifiers of idiopathic PD are still to be determined.
Methods
We carried out whole-genome expression profiling of isolated human substantia nigra (SN) neurons from patients with PD vs. controls followed by association analysis of tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in differentially regulated genes. Association was investigated in a German PD sample and confirmed in Italian and British cohorts.
Results
We identified four differentially expressed genes located in PD candidate pathways, ie, MTND2 (mitochondrial, p = 7.14 × 10−7), PDXK (vitamin B6/dopamine metabolism, p = 3.27 × 10−6), SRGAP3 (axon guidance, p = 5.65 × 10−6), and TRAPPC4 (vesicle transport, p = 5.81 × 10−6). We identified a DNA variant (rs2010795) in PDXK associated with an increased risk of PD in the German cohort (p = 0.00032). This association was confirmed in the British (p = 0.028) and Italian (p = 0.0025) cohorts individually and reached a combined value of p = 1.2 × 10−7 (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18–1.44).
Interpretation
We provide an example of how microgenomic genome-wide expression studies in combination with association analysis can aid to identify genetic modifiers in neurodegenerative disorders. The detection of a genetic variant in PDXK, together with evidence accumulating from clinical studies, emphasize the impact of vitamin B6 status and metabolism on disease risk and therapy in PD.
doi:10.1002/ana.21780
PMCID: PMC4034432  PMID: 20035503
9.  Systematic identification of trans-eQTLs as putative drivers of known disease associations 
Nature genetics  2013;45(10):1238-1243.
Identifying the downstream effects of disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is challenging: the causal gene is often unknown or it is unclear how the SNP affects the causal gene, making it difficult to design experiments that reveal functional consequences. To help overcome this problem, we performed the largest expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) meta-analysis so far reported in non-transformed peripheral blood samples of 5,311 individuals, with replication in 2,775 individuals. We identified and replicated trans-eQTLs for 233 SNPs (reflecting 103 independent loci) that were previously associated with complex traits at genome-wide significance. Although we did not study specific patient cohorts, we identified trait-associated SNPs that affect multiple trans-genes that are known to be markedly altered in patients: for example, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) SNP rs49170141 altered C1QB and five type 1 interferon response genes, both hallmarks of SLE2-4. Subsequent ChIP-seq data analysis on these trans-genes implicated transcription factor IKZF1 as the causal gene at this locus, with DeepSAGE RNA-sequencing revealing that rs4917014 strongly alters 3’ UTR levels of IKZF1. Variants associated with cholesterol metabolism and type 1 diabetes showed similar phenomena, indicating that large-scale eQTL mapping provides insight into the downstream effects of many trait-associated variants.
doi:10.1038/ng.2756
PMCID: PMC3991562  PMID: 24013639
10.  Common and Novel TMEM70 Mutations in a Cohort of Italian Patients with Mitochondrial Encephalocardiomyopathy 
JIMD Reports  2014;15:71-78.
ATP synthase or complex V (cV) of the oxidative phosphorylation system is responsible for the production of ATP, dissipating the electrochemical gradient generated by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In addition to maternally transmitted cV dysfunction caused by mutations in mtDNA genes (MT-ATP6 or MT-ATP8), encoding cV subunits, recessive mutations in the nuclear TMEM70 are the most frequent cause of ATP synthase deficiency.
We report on a cohort of ten Italian patients presenting with neonatal lactic acidosis, respiratory distress, hypotonia, cardiomyopathy and psychomotor delay and harbouring mutations in TMEM70, including the common splice mutation and four novel variants. TMEM70 protein was virtually absent in all tested TMEM70 patients’ specimens.
The exact function of TMEM70 is not known, but it is considered to impact on cV assembly since TMEM70 mutations have been associated with isolated cV activity reduction. We detected a clear cV biochemical defect in TMEM70 patients’ fibroblasts, whereas the assay was not reliable in frozen muscle. Nevertheless, the evaluation of the amount of holocomplexes in patients with TMEM70 mutations showed a nearly absent cV in muscles and a strong decrease of cV with accumulation of sub-assembly species in fibroblasts. In our cohort we found not only cV deficiencies but also impairment of other OXPHOS complexes. By ultrastructural analysis of muscle tissue from one patient with isolated cV deficiency, we found a severely impaired mitochondrial morphology with loss of the cristae. These findings indicate that cV impairment could indirectly alter other respiratory chain complex activities by disrupting the mitochondrial cristae structure.
doi:10.1007/8904_2014_300
PMCID: PMC4270871  PMID: 24740313
11.  Mapping the Genetic Architecture of Gene Regulation in Whole Blood 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e93844.
Background
We aimed to assess whether whole blood expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with effects in cis and trans are robust and can be used to identify regulatory pathways affecting disease susceptibility.
Materials and Methods
We performed whole-genome eQTL analyses in 890 participants of the KORA F4 study and in two independent replication samples (SHIP-TREND, N = 976 and EGCUT, N = 842) using linear regression models and Bonferroni correction.
Results
In the KORA F4 study, 4,116 cis-eQTLs (defined as SNP-probe pairs where the SNP is located within a 500 kb window around the transcription unit) and 94 trans-eQTLs reached genome-wide significance and overall 91% (92% of cis-, 84% of trans-eQTLs) were confirmed in at least one of the two replication studies. Different study designs including distinct laboratory reagents (PAXgene™ vs. Tempus™ tubes) did not affect reproducibility (separate overall replication overlap: 78% and 82%). Immune response pathways were enriched in cis- and trans-eQTLs and significant cis-eQTLs were partly coexistent in other tissues (cross-tissue similarity 40–70%). Furthermore, four chromosomal regions displayed simultaneous impact on multiple gene expression levels in trans, and 746 eQTL-SNPs have been previously reported to have clinical relevance. We demonstrated cross-associations between eQTL-SNPs, gene expression levels in trans, and clinical phenotypes as well as a link between eQTLs and human metabolic traits via modification of gene regulation in cis.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that whole blood is a robust tissue for eQTL analysis and may be used both for biomarker studies and to enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying gene-disease associations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093844
PMCID: PMC3989189  PMID: 24740359
12.  Dilution of candidates: the case of iron-related genes in restless legs syndrome 
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common multifactorial disease. Some genetic risk factors have been identified. RLS susceptibility also has been related to iron. We therefore asked whether known iron-related genes are candidates for association with RLS and, vice versa, whether known RLS-associated loci influence iron parameters in serum. RLS/control samples (n=954/1814 in the discovery step, 735/736 in replication 1, and 736/735 in replication 2) were tested for association with SNPs located within 4 Mb intervals surrounding each gene from a list of 111 iron-related genes using a discovery threshold of P=5 × 10−4. Two population cohorts (KORA F3 and F4 with together n=3447) were tested for association of six known RLS loci with iron, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin-saturation, and soluble transferrin receptor. Results were negative. None of the candidate SNPs at the iron-related gene loci was confirmed significantly. An intronic SNP, rs2576036, of KATNAL2 at 18q21.1 was significant in the first (P=0.00085) but not in the second replication step (joint nominal P-value=0.044). Especially, rs1800652 (C282Y) in the HFE gene did not associate with RLS. Moreover, SNPs at the known RLS loci did not significantly affect serum iron parameters in the KORA cohorts. In conclusion, the correlation between RLS and iron parameters in serum may be weaker than assumed. Moreover, in a general power analysis, we show that genetic effects are diluted if they are transmitted via an intermediate trait to an end-phenotype. Sample size formulas are provided for small effect sizes.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.193
PMCID: PMC3598324  PMID: 22929029
restless legs syndrome; iron parameters; MEIS1 haplotype; power calculation; linear regression; logistic regression
13.  Identification of Novel Genetic Loci Associated with Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies and Clinical Thyroid Disease 
Medici, Marco | Porcu, Eleonora | Pistis, Giorgio | Teumer, Alexander | Brown, Suzanne J. | Jensen, Richard A. | Rawal, Rajesh | Roef, Greet L. | Plantinga, Theo S. | Vermeulen, Sita H. | Lahti, Jari | Simmonds, Matthew J. | Husemoen, Lise Lotte N. | Freathy, Rachel M. | Shields, Beverley M. | Pietzner, Diana | Nagy, Rebecca | Broer, Linda | Chaker, Layal | Korevaar, Tim I. M. | Plia, Maria Grazia | Sala, Cinzia | Völker, Uwe | Richards, J. Brent | Sweep, Fred C. | Gieger, Christian | Corre, Tanguy | Kajantie, Eero | Thuesen, Betina | Taes, Youri E. | Visser, W. Edward | Hattersley, Andrew T. | Kratzsch, Jürgen | Hamilton, Alexander | Li, Wei | Homuth, Georg | Lobina, Monia | Mariotti, Stefano | Soranzo, Nicole | Cocca, Massimiliano | Nauck, Matthias | Spielhagen, Christin | Ross, Alec | Arnold, Alice | van de Bunt, Martijn | Liyanarachchi, Sandya | Heier, Margit | Grabe, Hans Jörgen | Masciullo, Corrado | Galesloot, Tessel E. | Lim, Ee M. | Reischl, Eva | Leedman, Peter J. | Lai, Sandra | Delitala, Alessandro | Bremner, Alexandra P. | Philips, David I. W. | Beilby, John P. | Mulas, Antonella | Vocale, Matteo | Abecasis, Goncalo | Forsen, Tom | James, Alan | Widen, Elisabeth | Hui, Jennie | Prokisch, Holger | Rietzschel, Ernst E. | Palotie, Aarno | Feddema, Peter | Fletcher, Stephen J. | Schramm, Katharina | Rotter, Jerome I. | Kluttig, Alexander | Radke, Dörte | Traglia, Michela | Surdulescu, Gabriela L. | He, Huiling | Franklyn, Jayne A. | Tiller, Daniel | Vaidya, Bijay | de Meyer, Tim | Jørgensen, Torben | Eriksson, Johan G. | O'Leary, Peter C. | Wichmann, Eric | Hermus, Ad R. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Ittermann, Till | Hofman, Albert | Bosi, Emanuele | Schlessinger, David | Wallaschofski, Henri | Pirastu, Nicola | Aulchenko, Yurii S. | de la Chapelle, Albert | Netea-Maier, Romana T. | Gough, Stephen C. L. | Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette | Frayling, Timothy M. | Kaufman, Jean-Marc | Linneberg, Allan | Räikkönen, Katri | Smit, Johannes W. A. | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Uitterlinden, André G. | Walsh, John P. | Meisinger, Christa | den Heijer, Martin | Visser, Theo J. | Spector, Timothy D. | Wilson, Scott G. | Völzke, Henry | Cappola, Anne | Toniolo, Daniela | Sanna, Serena | Naitza, Silvia | Peeters, Robin P.
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(2):e1004123.
Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are common, affecting 2-5% of the general population. Individuals with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis), as well as autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease). As the possible causative genes of TPOAbs and AITD remain largely unknown, we performed GWAS meta-analyses in 18,297 individuals for TPOAb-positivity (1769 TPOAb-positives and 16,528 TPOAb-negatives) and in 12,353 individuals for TPOAb serum levels, with replication in 8,990 individuals. Significant associations (P<5×10−8) were detected at TPO-rs11675434, ATXN2-rs653178, and BACH2-rs10944479 for TPOAb-positivity, and at TPO-rs11675434, MAGI3-rs1230666, and KALRN-rs2010099 for TPOAb levels. Individual and combined effects (genetic risk scores) of these variants on (subclinical) hypo- and hyperthyroidism, goiter and thyroid cancer were studied. Individuals with a high genetic risk score had, besides an increased risk of TPOAb-positivity (OR: 2.18, 95% CI 1.68–2.81, P = 8.1×10−8), a higher risk of increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (OR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.26–1.82, P = 2.9×10−6), as well as a decreased risk of goiter (OR: 0.77, 95% CI 0.66–0.89, P = 6.5×10−4). The MAGI3 and BACH2 variants were associated with an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, which was replicated in an independent cohort of patients with Graves' disease (OR: 1.37, 95% CI 1.22–1.54, P = 1.2×10−7 and OR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.12–1.39, P = 6.2×10−5). The MAGI3 variant was also associated with an increased risk of hypothyroidism (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.18–2.10, P = 1.9×10−3). This first GWAS meta-analysis for TPOAbs identified five newly associated loci, three of which were also associated with clinical thyroid disease. With these markers we identified a large subgroup in the general population with a substantially increased risk of TPOAbs. The results provide insight into why individuals with thyroid autoimmunity do or do not eventually develop thyroid disease, and these markers may therefore predict which TPOAb-positives are particularly at risk of developing clinical thyroid dysfunction.
Author Summary
Individuals with thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), which are common in the general population and associated with increased cardiovascular, metabolic and psychiatric morbidity and mortality. As the causative genes of TPOAbs and AITD remain largely unknown, we performed a genome-wide scan for TPOAbs in 18,297 individuals, with replication in 8,990 individuals. Significant associations were detected with variants at TPO, ATXN2, BACH2, MAGI3, and KALRN. Individuals carrying multiple risk variants also had a higher risk of increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (including subclinical and overt hypothyroidism), and a decreased risk of goiter. The MAGI3 and BACH2 variants were associated with an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, and the MAGI3 variant was also associated with an increased risk of hypothyroidism. This first genome-wide scan for TPOAbs identified five newly associated loci, three of which were also associated with clinical thyroid disease. With these markers we identified a large subgroup in the general population with a substantially increased risk of TPOAbs. These results provide insight into why individuals with thyroid autoimmunity do or do not eventually develop thyroid disease, and these markers may therefore predict which individuals are particularly at risk of developing clinical thyroid dysfunction.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004123
PMCID: PMC3937134  PMID: 24586183
14.  Impairment of Drosophila Orthologs of the Human Orphan Protein C19orf12 Induces Bang Sensitivity and Neurodegeneration 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89439.
Mutations in the orphan gene C19orf12 were identified as a genetic cause in a subgroup of patients with NBIA, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deposits of iron in the basal ganglia. C19orf12 was shown to be localized in mitochondria, however, nothing is known about its activity and no functional link exists to the clinical phenotype of the patients. This situation led us to investigate the effects of C19orf12 down-regulation in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Two genes are present in D. melanogaster, which are orthologs of C19orf12, CG3740 and CG11671. Here we provide evidence that transgenic flies with impaired C19orf12 homologs reflect the neurodegenerative phenotype and represent a valid tool to further analyze the pathomechanism in C19orf12-associated NBIA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089439
PMCID: PMC3931782  PMID: 24586779
15.  Impact of common regulatory single-nucleotide variants on gene expression profiles in whole blood 
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have uncovered susceptibility loci for a large number of complex traits. Functional interpretation of candidate genes identified by GWAS and confident assignment of the causal variant still remains a major challenge. Expression quantitative trait (eQTL) mapping has facilitated identification of risk loci for quantitative traits and might allow prioritization of GWAS candidate genes. One major challenge of eQTL studies is the need for larger sample numbers and replication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the robustness and reproducibility of whole-blood eQTLs in humans and test their value in the identification of putative functional variants involved in the etiology of complex traits. In the current study, we performed comphrehensive eQTL mapping from whole blood. The discovery sample included 322 Caucasians from a general population sample (KORA F3). We identified 363 cis and 8 trans eQTLs after stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Of these, 98.6% and 50% of cis and trans eQTLs, respectively, could be replicated in two independent populations (KORA F4 (n=740) and SHIP-TREND (n=653)). Furthermore, we identified evidence of regulatory variation for SNPs previously reported to be associated with disease loci (n=59) or quantitative trait loci (n=20), indicating a possible functional mechanism for these eSNPs. Our data demonstrate that eQTLs in whole blood are highly robust and reproducible across studies and highlight the relevance of whole-blood eQTL mapping in prioritization of GWAS candidate genes in humans.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.106
PMCID: PMC3522194  PMID: 22692066
gene expression; eQTL; GWAS; whole blood
16.  High density genotyping study identifies four new susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis 
Nature genetics  2013;45(7):808-812.
Atopic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease with a strong heritable component. Pathogenetic models consider keratinocyte differentiation defects and immune alterations as scaffolds1, and recent data indicate a role for autoreactivity in at least a subgroup of patients2. With filaggrin (FLG) a major locus causing a skin barrier deficiency was identified3. To better define risk variants and identify additional susceptibility loci, we densely genotyped 2,425 German cases and 5,449 controls using the Immunochip array, followed by replication in 7,196 cases and 15,480 controls from Germany, Ireland, Japan and China. We identified 4 new susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis and replicated previous associations. This brings the number of atopic dermatitis risk loci reported in individuals of European ancestry to 11. We estimate that these susceptibility loci together account for 14.4% of the heritability for atopic dermatitis.
doi:10.1038/ng.2642
PMCID: PMC3797441  PMID: 23727859
17.  ADCK4 mutations promote steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome through CoQ10 biosynthesis disruption  
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2013;123(12):5179-5189.
Identification of single-gene causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) has furthered the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. Here, using a combination of homozygosity mapping and whole human exome resequencing, we identified mutations in the aarF domain containing kinase 4 (ADCK4) gene in 15 individuals with SRNS from 8 unrelated families. ADCK4 was highly similar to ADCK3, which has been shown to participate in coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) biosynthesis. Mutations in ADCK4 resulted in reduced CoQ10 levels and reduced mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity in cells isolated from individuals with SRNS and transformed lymphoblasts. Knockdown of adck4 in zebrafish and Drosophila recapitulated nephrotic syndrome-associated phenotypes. Furthermore, ADCK4 was expressed in glomerular podocytes and partially localized to podocyte mitochondria and foot processes in rat kidneys and cultured human podocytes. In human podocytes, ADCK4 interacted with members of the CoQ10 biosynthesis pathway, including COQ6, which has been linked with SRNS and COQ7. Knockdown of ADCK4 in podocytes resulted in decreased migration, which was reversed by CoQ10 addition. Interestingly, a patient with SRNS with a homozygous ADCK4 frameshift mutation had partial remission following CoQ10 treatment. These data indicate that individuals with SRNS with mutations in ADCK4 or other genes that participate in CoQ10 biosynthesis may be treatable with CoQ10.
doi:10.1172/JCI69000
PMCID: PMC3859425  PMID: 24270420
18.  Correction: Alterations of Red Cell Membrane Properties in Neuroacanthocytosis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):10.1371/annotation/9cae31b8-e1d9-4ba8-93e6-1f7276591746.
doi:10.1371/annotation/9cae31b8-e1d9-4ba8-93e6-1f7276591746
PMCID: PMC3821787
19.  Alterations of Red Cell Membrane Properties in Nneuroacanthocytosis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76715.
Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) refers to a group of heterogenous, rare genetic disorders, namely chorea acanthocytosis (ChAc), McLeod syndrome (MLS), Huntington’s disease-like 2 (HDL2) and pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), that mainly affect the basal ganglia and are associated with similar neurological symptoms. PKAN is also assigned to a group of rare neurodegenerative diseases, known as NBIA (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation), associated with iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and progressive movement disorder. Acanthocytosis, the occurrence of misshaped erythrocytes with thorny protrusions, is frequently observed in ChAc and MLS patients but less prevalent in PKAN (about 10%) and HDL2 patients. The pathological factors that lead to the formation of the acanthocytic red blood cell shape are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether NA/NBIA acanthocytes differ in their functionality from normal erythrocytes. Several flow-cytometry-based assays were applied to test the physiological responses of the plasma membrane, namely drug-induced endocytosis, phosphatidylserine exposure and calcium uptake upon treatment with lysophosphatidic acid. ChAc red cell samples clearly showed a reduced response in drug-induced endovesiculation, lysophosphatidic acid-induced phosphatidylserine exposure, and calcium uptake. Impaired responses were also observed in acanthocyte-positive NBIA (PKAN) red cells but not in patient cells without shape abnormalities. These data suggest an “acanthocytic state” of the red cell where alterations in functional and interdependent membrane properties arise together with an acanthocytic cell shape. Further elucidation of the aberrant molecular mechanisms that cause this acanthocytic state may possibly help to evaluate the pathological pathways leading to neurodegeneration.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076715
PMCID: PMC3789665  PMID: 24098554
20.  Loss-of-function mutations in MGME1 impair mtDNA replication and cause multi-systemic mitochondrial disease 
Nature genetics  2013;45(2):214-219.
Known disease mechanisms in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance disorders alter either the mitochondrial replication machinery (POLG1, POLG22 and C10orf23) or the biosynthesis pathways of deoxyribonucleoside 5′-triphosphates for mtDNA synthesis4–11. However, in many of these disorders, the underlying genetic defect has not yet been discovered. Here, we identified homozygous nonsense and missense mutations in the orphan gene C20orf72 in three families with a mitochondrial syndrome characterized by external ophthalmoplegia, emaciation, and respiratory failure. Muscle biopsies showed mtDNA depletion and multiple mtDNA deletions. C20orf72, hereafter MGME1 (mitochondrial genome maintenance exonuclease 1), encodes a mitochondrial RecB-type exonuclease belonging to the PD-(D/E)XK nuclease superfamily. We demonstrate that MGME1 cleaves single-stranded DNA and processes DNA flap substrates. Upon chemically induced mtDNA depletion, patient fibroblasts fail to repopulate. They also accumulate intermediates of stalled replication and show increased levels of 7S DNA, as do MGME1-depleted cells. Hence, we show that MGME1-mediated mtDNA processing is essential for mitochondrial genome maintenance.
doi:10.1038/ng.2501
PMCID: PMC3678843  PMID: 23313956
21.  Analyzing Illumina Gene Expression Microarray Data from Different Tissues: Methodological Aspects of Data Analysis in the MetaXpress Consortium 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e50938.
Microarray profiling of gene expression is widely applied in molecular biology and functional genomics. Experimental and technical variations make meta-analysis of different studies challenging. In a total of 3358 samples, all from German population-based cohorts, we investigated the effect of data preprocessing and the variability due to sample processing in whole blood cell and blood monocyte gene expression data, measured on the Illumina HumanHT-12 v3 BeadChip array.
Gene expression signal intensities were similar after applying the log2 or the variance-stabilizing transformation. In all cohorts, the first principal component (PC) explained more than 95% of the total variation. Technical factors substantially influenced signal intensity values, especially the Illumina chip assignment (33–48% of the variance), the RNA amplification batch (12–24%), the RNA isolation batch (16%), and the sample storage time, in particular the time between blood donation and RNA isolation for the whole blood cell samples (2–3%), and the time between RNA isolation and amplification for the monocyte samples (2%). White blood cell composition parameters were the strongest biological factors influencing the expression signal intensities in the whole blood cell samples (3%), followed by sex (1–2%) in both sample types. Known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were located in 38% of the analyzed probe sequences and 4% of them included common SNPs (minor allele frequency >5%). Out of the tested SNPs, 1.4% significantly modified the probe-specific expression signals (Bonferroni corrected p-value<0.05), but in almost half of these events the signal intensities were even increased despite the occurrence of the mismatch. Thus, the vast majority of SNPs within probes had no significant effect on hybridization efficiency.
In summary, adjustment for a few selected technical factors greatly improved reliability of gene expression analyses. Such adjustments are particularly required for meta-analyses.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050938
PMCID: PMC3517598  PMID: 23236413
22.  Novel biomarkers for pre-diabetes identified by metabolomics 
A targeted metabolomics approach was used to identify candidate biomarkers of pre-diabetes. The relevance of the identified metabolites is further corroborated with a protein-metabolite interaction network and gene expression data.
Three metabolites (glycine, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (18:2) and acetylcarnitine C2) were found with significantly altered levels in pre-diabetic individuals compared with normal controls.Lower levels of glycine and LPC (18:2) were found to predict risks for pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D).Seven T2D-related genes (PPARG, TCF7L2, HNF1A, GCK, IGF1, IRS1 and IDE) are functionally associated with the three identified metabolites.The unique combination of methodologies, including prospective population-based and nested case–control, as well as cross-sectional studies, was essential for the identification of the reported biomarkers.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be prevented in pre-diabetic individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Here, we have used a metabolomics approach to identify candidate biomarkers of pre-diabetes. We quantified 140 metabolites for 4297 fasting serum samples in the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) cohort. Our study revealed significant metabolic variation in pre-diabetic individuals that are distinct from known diabetes risk indicators, such as glycosylated hemoglobin levels, fasting glucose and insulin. We identified three metabolites (glycine, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (18:2) and acetylcarnitine) that had significantly altered levels in IGT individuals as compared to those with normal glucose tolerance, with P-values ranging from 2.4 × 10−4 to 2.1 × 10−13. Lower levels of glycine and LPC were found to be predictors not only for IGT but also for T2D, and were independently confirmed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort. Using metabolite–protein network analysis, we identified seven T2D-related genes that are associated with these three IGT-specific metabolites by multiple interactions with four enzymes. The expression levels of these enzymes correlate with changes in the metabolite concentrations linked to diabetes. Our results may help developing novel strategies to prevent T2D.
doi:10.1038/msb.2012.43
PMCID: PMC3472689  PMID: 23010998
early diagnostic biomarkers; IGT; metabolomics; prediction; T2D
23.  Extensive Natural Variation for Cellular Hydrogen Peroxide Release Is Genetically Controlled 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e43566.
Natural variation in DNA sequence contributes to individual differences in quantitative traits. While multiple studies have shown genetic control over gene expression variation, few additional cellular traits have been investigated. Here, we investigated the natural variation of NADPH oxidase-dependent hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 release), which is the joint effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, superoxide metabolism and degradation, and is related to a number of human disorders. We assessed the normal variation of H2O2 release in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) in a family-based 3-generation cohort (CEPH-HapMap), and in 3 population-based cohorts (KORA, GenCord, HapMap). Substantial individual variation was observed, 45% of which were associated with heritability in the CEPH-HapMap cohort. We identified 2 genome-wide significant loci of Hsa12 and Hsa15 in genome-wide linkage analysis. Next, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the combined KORA-GenCord cohorts (n = 279) using enhanced marker resolution by imputation (>1.4 million SNPs). We found 5 significant associations (p<5.00×10−8) and 54 suggestive associations (p<1.00×10−5), one of which confirmed the linked region on Hsa15. To replicate our findings, we performed GWAS using 58 HapMap individuals and ∼2.1 million SNPs. We identified 40 genome-wide significant and 302 suggestive SNPs, and confirmed genome signals on Hsa1, Hsa12, and Hsa15. Genetic loci within 900 kb from the known candidate gene p67phox on Hsa1 were identified in GWAS in both cohorts. We did not find replication of SNPs across all cohorts, but replication within the same genomic region. Finally, a highly significant decrease in H2O2 release was observed in Down Syndrome (DS) individuals (p<2.88×10−12). Taken together, our results show strong evidence of genetic control of H2O2 in LCL of healthy and DS cohorts and suggest that cellular phenotypes, which themselves are also complex, may be used as proxies for dissection of complex disorders.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043566
PMCID: PMC3430705  PMID: 22952707
24.  Impaired riboflavin transport due to missense mutations in SLC52A2 causes Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome 
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVLS [MIM 211530]) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by infancy onset sensorineural deafness and ponto-bulbar palsy. Mutations in SLC52A3 (formerly C20orf54), coding for riboflavin transporter 2 (hRFT2), have been identified as the molecular genetic correlate in several individuals with BVVLS. Exome sequencing of just one single case revealed that compound heterozygosity for two pathogenic mutations in the SLC52A2 gene coding for riboflavin transporter 3 (hRFT3), another member of the riboflavin transporter family, is also associated with BVVLS. Overexpression studies confirmed that the gene products of both mutant alleles have reduced riboflavin transport activities. While mutations in SLC52A3 cause decreased plasma riboflavin levels, concordant with a role of SLC52A3 in riboflavin uptake from food, the SLC52A2-mutant individual had normal plasma riboflavin concentrations, a finding in line with a postulated function of SLC52A2 in riboflavin uptake from blood into target cells. Our results contribute to the understanding of human riboflavin metabolism and underscore its role in the pathogenesis of BVVLS, thereby providing a rational basis for a high-dose riboflavin treatment.
doi:10.1007/s10545-012-9513-y
PMCID: PMC3470687  PMID: 22864630
25.  META-ANALYSIS OF GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDIES IDENTIFIES THREE NEW RISK LOCI FOR ATOPIC DERMATITIS 
Paternoster, Lavinia | Standl, Marie | Chen, Chih-Mei | Ramasamy, Adaikalavan | Bønnelykke, Klaus | Duijts, Liesbeth | Ferreira, Manuel A | Alves, Alexessander Couto | Thyssen, Jacob P | Albrecht, Eva | Baurecht, Hansjörg | Feenstra, Bjarke | Sleiman, Patrick MA | Hysi, Pirro | Warrington, Nicole M | Curjuric, Ivan | Myhre, Ronny | Curtin, John A | Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M | Kerkhof, Marjan | Sääf, Annika | Franke, Andre | Ellinghaus, David | Fölster-Holst, Regina | Dermitzakis, Emmanouil | Montgomery, Stephen B | Prokisch, Holger | Heim, Katharina | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Pouta, Anneli | Pekkanen, Juha | Blakemore, Alexandra IF | Buxton, Jessica L | Kaakinen, Marika | Duffy, David L | Madden, Pamela A | Heath, Andrew C | Montgomery, Grant W | Thompson, Philip J | Matheson, Melanie C | Le Souëf, Peter | Pourcain, Beate St | Smith, George Davey | Henderson, John | Kemp, John P | Timpson, Nicholas J | Deloukas, Panos | Ring, Susan M | Wichmann, H-Erich | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Novak, Natalija | Klopp, Norman | Rodríguez, Elke | McArdle, Wendy | Linneberg, Allan | Menné, Torkil | Nohr, Ellen A | Hofman, Albert | Uitterlinden, André G | van Duijn, Cornélia M | Rivadeneira, Fernando | de Jongste, Johan C | van der Valk, Ralf JP | Wjst, Matthias | Jogi, Rain | Geller, Frank | Boyd, Heather A | Murray, Jeffrey C | Kim, Cecilia | Mentch, Frank | March, Michael | Mangino, Massimo | Spector, Tim D | Bataille, Veronique | Pennell, Craig E | Holt, Patrick G | Sly, Peter | Tiesler, Carla MT | Thiering, Elisabeth | Illig, Thomas | Imboden, Medea | Nystad, Wenche | Simpson, Angela | Hottenga, Jouke-Jan | Postma, Dirkje | Koppelman, Gerard H | Smit, Henriette A | Söderhäll, Cilla | Chawes, Bo | Kreiner-Møller, Eskil | Bisgaard, Hans | Melén, Erik | Boomsma, Dorret I | Custovic, Adnan | Jacobsson, Bo | Probst-Hensch, Nicole M | Palmer, Lyle J | Glass, Daniel | Hakonarson, Hakon | Melbye, Mads | Jarvis, Deborah L | Jaddoe, Vincent WV | Gieger, Christian | Strachan, David P | Martin, Nicholas G | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Heinrich, Joachim | Evans, David M | Weidinger, Stephan
Nature genetics  2011;44(2):187-192.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin disease with high heritability. Apart from filaggrin (FLG), the genes influencing AD are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 5,606 cases and 20,565 controls from 16 population-based cohorts and followed up the ten most strongly associated novel markers in a further 5,419 cases and 19,833 controls from 14 studies. Three SNPs met genome-wide significance in the discovery and replication cohorts combined: rs479844 upstream of OVOL1 (OR=0.88, p=1.1×10−13) and rs2164983 near ACTL9 (OR=1.16, p=7.1×10−9), genes which have been implicated in epidermal proliferation and differentiation, as well as rs2897442 in KIF3A within the cytokine cluster on 5q31.1 (OR=1.11, p=3.8×10−8). We also replicated the FLG locus and two recently identified association signals at 11q13.5 (rs7927894, p=0.008) and 20q13.3 (rs6010620, p=0.002). Our results underline the importance of both epidermal barrier function and immune dysregulation in AD pathogenesis.
doi:10.1038/ng.1017
PMCID: PMC3272375  PMID: 22197932

Results 1-25 (46)