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1.  Exhaled Breath Analysis Using Electronic Nose in Cystic Fibrosis and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Infections 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e115584.
The current diagnostic work-up and monitoring of pulmonary infections may be perceived as invasive, is time consuming and expensive. In this explorative study, we investigated whether or not a non-invasive exhaled breath analysis using an electronic nose would discriminate between cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) with or without various well characterized chronic pulmonary infections. We recruited 64 patients with CF and 21 with PCD based on known chronic infection status. 21 healthy volunteers served as controls. An electronic nose was employed to analyze exhaled breath samples. Principal component reduction and discriminant analysis were used to construct internally cross-validated receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Breath profiles of CF and PCD patients differed significantly from healthy controls p = 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively. Profiles of CF patients having a chronic P. aeruginosa infection differed significantly from to non-chronically infected CF patients p = 0.044. We confirmed the previously established discriminative power of exhaled breath analysis in separation between healthy subjects and patients with CF or PCD. Furthermore, this method significantly discriminates CF patients suffering from a chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA) infection from CF patients without a chronic pulmonary infection. Further studies are needed for verification and to investigate the role of electronic nose technology in the very early diagnostic workup of pulmonary infections before the establishment of a chronic infection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115584
PMCID: PMC4277311  PMID: 25542036
2.  The Single-Breath Diffusing Capacity of CO and NO in Healthy Children of European Descent 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e113177.
Rationale
The diffusing capacity (DL) of the lung can be divided into two components: the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane (Dm) and the pulmonary capillary volume (Vc). DL is traditionally measured using a single-breath method, involving inhalation of carbon monoxide, and a breath hold of 8–10 seconds (DL,CO). This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO), involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio in a single respiratory maneuver. The clinical utility of Dm, Vc, and DL,NO/DL,CO in the pediatric age range is currently unknown but also restricted by lack of reference values.
Objectives
The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO with a 5 second breath hold, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children.
Methods
DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5–17 years using a Jaeger Masterscreen PFT. The data were analyzed using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) statistical method.
Measurements and Main Results
A total of 326 children were eligible for diffusing capacity measurements, resulting in 312 measurements of DL,CO,NO and 297 of DL,CO, respectively. Reference equations were established for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO and DL,CO, including the calculated values: Vc, Dm, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio.
Conclusion
These reference values are based on the largest sample of children to date and may provide a basis for future studies of their clinical utility in differentiating between alterations in the pulmonary circulation and changes in the alveolar membrane in pediatric patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113177
PMCID: PMC4267784  PMID: 25514246
3.  CCDC39 is required for assembly of inner dynein arms and the dynein regulatory complex and for normal ciliary motility in humans and dogs 
Nature genetics  2010;43(1):72-78.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract, reduced fertility in males and situs inversus in about 50% of affected individuals (Kartagener syndrome). It is caused by motility defects in the respiratory cilia that are responsible for airway clearance, the flagella that propel sperm cells and the nodal monocilia that determine left-right asymmetry1. Recessive mutations that cause PCD have been identified in genes encoding components of the outer dynein arms, radial spokes and cytoplasmic pre-assembly factors of axonemal dyneins, but these mutations account for only about 50% of cases of PCD. We exploited the unique properties of dog populations to positionally clone a new PCD gene, CCDC39. We found that loss-of-function mutations in the human ortholog underlie a substantial fraction of PCD cases with axonemal disorganization and abnormal ciliary beating. Functional analyses indicated that CCDC39 localizes to ciliary axonemes and is essential for assembly of inner dynein arms and the dynein regulatory complex.
doi:10.1038/ng.726
PMCID: PMC3509786  PMID: 21131972
4.  The coiled-coil domain containing protein CCDC40 is essential for motile cilia function and left-right axis formation 
Nature genetics  2010;43(1):79-84.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the respiratory tract associated with abnormal function of motile cilia. Approximately half of PCD patients also have alterations in the left-right organization of internal organ positioning including situs inversus and situs ambiguous (Kartagener’s Syndrome, KS). Here we identify an uncharacterized coiled-coil domain containing protein (CCDC40) essential for correct left-right patterning in mouse, zebrafish and humans. Ccdc40 is expressed in tissues that contain motile cilia and mutation of Ccdc40 results in cilia with reduced ranges of motility. Importantly, we demonstrate that CCDC40 deficiency causes a novel PCD variant characterized by misplacement of central pair microtubules and defective axonemal assembly of inner dynein arms (IDAs) and dynein regulator complexes (DRCs). CCDC40 localizes to motile cilia and the apical cytoplasm and is responsible for axonemal recruitment of CCDC39, which is also mutated in a similar PCD variant.
doi:10.1038/ng.727
PMCID: PMC3132183  PMID: 21131974

Results 1-4 (4)