The early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) is a widely reported zinc finger protein and a well known transcription factor encoded by the Egr-1 gene, which plays key roles in many aspects of vertebrate embryogenesis and in adult vertebrates. The Egr-1 expression is important in the formation of the gill vascular system in flounders, which develops during the post-hatching phase and is essential for survival during the juvenile period. However, the complete details of Egr-1 expression during embryo development in olive flounder are not available. We assessed the expression patterns of Egr-1 during the early development of olive flounders by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Microscopic observations showed that gill filament formation corresponded with the Egr-1 expression. Thus, we showed that Egr-1 plays a vital role in angiogenesis in the gill filaments during embryogenesis. Further, Egr-1 expression was found to be strong at 5 days after hatching (DAH), in the development of the gill vascular system, and this strong expression level was maintained throughout all the development stages. Our findings have important implications with respect to the biological role of Egr-1 and evolution of the first respiratory blood vessels in the gills of olive flounder. Further studies are required to elucidate the Egr-1-mediated stress response and to decipher the functional role of Egr-1 in developmental stages.
Egr-1 (Early growth response protein 1); Gill vessels system; Embryogenesis; Gene expression; Gill filament; Olive flounder
To successful molecular breeding, identification and functional characterization of breeding related genes and development of molecular breeding techniques using DNA markers are essential. Although the development of a useful marker is difficult in the aspect of time, cost and effort, many markers are being developed to be used in molecular breeding and developed markers have been used in many fields. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers were widely used for genomic research and breeding, but has hardly been validated for screening functional genes in olive flounder. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from expressed sequence tag (EST) database in olive flounder; out of a total 4,327 ESTs, 693 contigs and 514 SNPs were detected in total EST, and these substitutions include 297 transitions and 217 transversions. As a result, 144 SNP markers were developed on the basis of 514 SNP to selection of useful gene region, and then applied to each of eight wild and culture olive flounder (total 16 samples). In our experimental result, only 32 markers had detected polymorphism in sample, also identified 21 transitions and 11 transversions, whereas indel was not detected in polymorphic SNPs. Heterozygosity of wild and cultured olive flounder using the 32 SNP markers is 0.34 and 0.29, respectively. In conclusion, we identified SNP and polymorphism in olive flounder using newly designed marker, it supports that developed markers are suitable for SNP detection and diversity analysis in olive flounder. The outcome of this study can be basic data for researches for immunity gene and characteristic with SNP.
Olive flounder; Paralichthys olivaceus; Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); Expressed sequence tag (EST); Heterozygosity
The immune system in teleost fish is not completely developed during embryonic and larval stages, therefore effective innate mechanisms is very important for survival in such an environment. However, the knowledge of the development of immune system assumed to be restricted. In many species, lysozymes have been considered as important genes of the first line immune defense. The early detection of lysozyme mRNA in previous reports, led to the investigation of its presence in oocytes. As a result, c-type lysozyme mRNA transcripts were detected in unfertilized oocytes indicating maternal transfer. Therefore, we investigated the expression patterns of lysozymes in flounder, including the matured oocyte. In our results, c-type lysozyme mRNA was first detected in unfertilized oocyte stage, observed the significantly decreased until hatching stage, and was significantly increased after hatching stage. On the other hand, g-type lysozyme mRNA transcripts were first detected at late neurula stage, and the mRNA level was significantly increased after 20 dph. It may be suggest that maternally supplied mRNAs are selectively degraded prior to the activation of embryonic transcription. This study will be help in understanding the maturation and onset of humoral immunity during development of olive flounder immune system.
Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus); Lysozyme; Development; Expression; Maternal transfer
Fish larvae are immediately exposed to microbes from hatching to maturation of their lymphoid organs, therefore effective innate mechanisms is very important for survival. However, the knowledge of the development of immune system in fish is limited and in demand now. In vertebrates, recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG-1) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) have been considered as very useful markers of the physiological maturity of the immune system. In this study, the expression of the both genes was assessed throughout the early developmental stages of olive flounder larvae (5-55 dph) and used as markers to follow the development of immune system. RAG-1 and IgM mRNA expression was detectable at 5 dph and remained so until 55 dph. These patterns of expression may suggest that the olive flounder start to develop its function around 5 dph. Tissue distribution was found that both genes mRNAs are only expressed in the immune-related organ such as spleen, kidney and gill. The early detection of IgM mRNA led to the investigation of its presence in oocytes. Both RAG-1 and IgM mRNA transcripts were detected in unfertilized oocytes, suggesting that they are maternally transferred. The biological significance of such a phenomenon remains to be investigated.
Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus); RAG-1; IgM; Development; Expression; Maternal transfer.
Cardiovascular system is the primary organ to develop and reach a functional state, which underscores the essential role of the vasculature in the developing embryo. The vasculature is a highly specialized organ that functions in a number of key physiological works including the carrying of oxygen and nutrients to tissues. It is closely involved in the formation of heart, and hence it is essential for survival during the hatching period. The expression of genes involved during vascular development in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in the days after hatching is not fully understood. Therefore, we examined the expression patterns of genes activated during the development of flounder. Microscopic observations showed that formation of blood vessels is related to the expression of the vimentin gene. Also, the temporal expression patterns of this vimentin-like gene in the developmental stages and in the normal tissues of olive flounder. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression patterns of vimentin in normal tissues of the olive flounder and during the development of the vascular system in newly hatched olive flounders and HIF-1 plays a vital role in the formation of blood vessels during development. Vimentin expression was strong at the beginning of the development of blood vessels, and was present throughout all developmental stages. Our findings have important implications with respect to the roles of vimentin and HIF-1 in the development and evolution of the first blood vessels in olive flounder. Further studies are required to elucidate the vimentin-mediated hypoxic response signal transduction and to decipher the functional role of vimentin in developmental stages.
Vascular development; Intermediate Filament (IF); Vimentin; Olive flounder.
TCR subunits are members of membrane-bound receptors which allow the fast and efficient elimination of the specific fish pathogens have regulated function in adaptive immunity. Sequence structure of TCR subunits have been reported for various teleosts, but the information of each TCR subunit functional characterization through expression analysis in fish was unknown. In this study, we examined the gene expression of TCR subunits in the early developmental stages and observed transcript levels in various tissues from healthy adult olive flounder by RT-PCR. The mRNA expression of alpha subunit was already detected in the previous hatching step. But the transcripts of another TCR subunit were not observed during embryo development and increased after hatching and maintained until metamorphosis at the same level. It was found that all TCR subunits mRNAs are commonly expressed in the immune-related organ such as spleen, kidney and gill, also weak expressed in fin and eye. TCR alpha and beta subunit were expressed in brain, whereas gamma and delta were not expressed same tissue. The sequence alignment analysis shows that there are more than 80% sequence homology between TCR subunits. Because it has a high similarity of amino acid sequence to expect similar in function, but expression analysis show that will have may functional diversity due to different time and place of expression.
Olive flounder; Paralichthys olivaceus; Adaptive immune response; T cell receptor (TCR); Gene expression; Developmental stage; Immune-related organ.
Fish larvae are immediately exposed to microbes from hatching to maturation of their lymphoid organs, therefore effective innate mechanisms is very important for survival in such an environment. The key component of innate immune system, C3 is central protein of all activation pathways of the complement system, leading to inflammatory reactions, such as opsonisation, chemotaxis, and cell lysis of pathogens. Although, innate mechanisms is essential for survival in the early stage of development, little is known about defence mechanisms. In this study, the alignment analysis showed that amino acid sequence of C3 from olive flounder liver EST homologous to other known C3 sequences with 73-99% identity. Also, we examined the tissue distribution of olive flounder C3 and analyzed expression pattern from the fertilized egg until 28 days post hatching. As a result, olive flounder C3 mRNA was expressed only in the liver and the mRNA level more increased as developmental proceed during the early stage. These results may suggest that olive flounder C3 plays an important function in the early immune response of olive flounder larvae.
Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus); Complement; C3; Early developmental stage; Gene expression.
The innate immune system is the only defense weapon that invertebrates have, and it is the fundamental defense mechanism for fish. The innate immune response is important in newly hatched flounders because it is closely involved in the initial feeding phase, which is why it is essential for survival during the juvenile period. The expression analysis of genes involved in the innate immune response in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in the days after hatching is incomplete. Therefore, we have begun to examine the expression patterns of genes specifically induced during the development of the innate immune system in newly hatched flounders. Microscopic observation showed that pronephron formation corresponded with the expression of perforin-encoding gene. These results suggest that perforin plays a vital role in the innate immunity of the kidney during developmental stages. Perforin expression was strong at the start of the development of the innate immune response, and continued throughout all the development stages. Our findings have important implications with respect to perforin’s biological role and the evolution of the first defense mechanisms in olive flounder. Further studies are required to elucidate the perforin-mediated innate immunity response and to decipher the functional role of perforin in developmental stages.
Perforin; Innate immunity; Development; Gene expression; Pronephron; Olive flounder.
Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the commercial important flatfish species in Korea. The ocular signal transduction pathway is important in newly hatched flounders because it is closely involved in the initial feeding phase thus essential for survival during the juvenile period. However, the study of gene expression during ocular development is incomplete in olive flounder. Therefore we examined the expression analysis of specifically induced genes during the development of the visual system in newly hatched flounders. We searched ocular development-involved gene in the database of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from olive flounder eye and this gene similar to arrestin with a partial sequence homology. Microscopic observation of retinal formation corresponded with the time of expression of the arrestin gene in the developmental stage. These results suggest that arrestin plays a vital role in the visual signal transduction pathway of the retina during ocular development. The expression of arrestin was strong in the ocular system during the entirety of the development stages. Our findings regarding arrestin have important implications with respect to its biological role and evolution of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in olive flounder. Further studies are required on the GPCR-mediated signaling pathway and to decipher the functional role of arrestin.
Arrestin; Ocular development; GPCR signaling; Gene expression; Olive flounder.
Cathepsins are members of the multigene family of lysosomal cysteine proteinases and have regulated function in several life processes. The potential role of cathepsin F cysteine gene was expected as protease in the yolk processing mechanism during early developmental stage, but expression analysis was unknown after fertilization. The alignment analysis showed that amino acid sequence of cathepsin F from olive flounder liver expressed sequence tag (EST) homologous to cathepsin F of other known cathepsin F sequences with 87-98% identity. In this study, we examined the gene expression analysis of cathepsin F in various tissues at variety age flounder. Tissue distribution of the cathepsin F mRNA has been shown to be ubiquitous and constitutive pattern regardless of age in each group, although derived from cDNA library using liver sample. The mRNA level of cathepsin F more increased as developmental proceed during embryogenesis and early developmental stage, especially increased in the blastula, hatching stage and 3 days post hatching (dph). As a result, it may suggest that the proteolysis of yolk proteins (YPs) has been implicated as a mechanism for nutrient supply during early larval stages in olive flounder.
Olive flounder; Paralichthys olivaceus; Cysteine proteinase; Cathepsin F; Developmental stage; Gene expression; Yolk protein; Yolk syncytial layer (YSL).
Olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus is one of the most widely cultured fish species in Korea. Although olive flounder receive attention from aquaculture and fisheries and extensive research has been conducted eye morphological change in metamorphosis, but little information was known to molecular mechanism and gene expression of eye development- related genes during the early part of eye formation period. For the reason of eyesight is the most important sense in flounder larvae to search prey, the screening and identification of expressed genes in the eye will provide useful insight into the molecular regulation mechanism of eye development in olive flounder. Through the search of an olive flounder DNA database of expressed sequence tags (EST), we found a partial sequence that was similar to crystallin beta A1 and gamma S. Microscopic observation of retinal formation correspond with the time of expression of the crystallin beta A1 and gamma S gene in the developmental stage, these result suggesting that beta A1 and gamma S play a vital role in the remodeling of the retina during eye development. The expression of crystallin beta A1 and gamma S were obviously strong in eye at all tested developing stage, it is also hypothesized that crystallin acts as a molecular chaperone to prevent protein aggregation during maturation and aging in the eye.
Olive flounder; Crystallin beta A1; Crystallin gamma S; Eye; Retina; Developmental stage; Gene expression
This study was conducted to analyze the difference of body types within and between wild and farmed populations of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using measured records of morphological traits. The results showed that surveyed traits and standard deviation were 1,355±742 g of body weight, 48.01±7.79 cm of total length, and 40.96±6.80 cm of body length. Also body height, body shape index and condition factor were 17.19±3.43 cm, 9.99±0.74 and 11.16±1.54, respectively. As result of least squares mean and standard error for each trait assumed in this study, those of farmed population showed significantly higher than those of wild population in all traits, exclusively in total length and body length (p<0.01). Particularly, the values of the body height and the body weight of the farmed population were higher than those of the wild population in the same total length. And the phenotypic correlation coefficients of the body weight, the total length, the body length and the body height showed strong positive correlation in all populations. These result suggested that morphological differences exist in farmed and wild flounder. Therefore, introduction of wild flounder is essential for the future production to improve the body type of farmed flounder, and parental fish should be chosen by considering selection of commercially important traits in the production process.
Body type; Wild; Farmed; Olive flounder; Morphological traits
It has been demonstrated that inhibitors of advanced glycation end products (AGE), such as aminoguanidine, can suppress peritoneal AGE in rats on peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, it is unknown whether late administration of a putative cross-link breaker, alagebrium, could reverse peritoneal AGE. We therefore compared alagebrium with aminoguanidine in their ability to reverse peritoneal AGE in rats on PD. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: group I dialyzed with 4.25% glucose solution for all exchanges; group II dialyzed with 4.25% glucose solution containing aminoguanidine, and group III dialyzed with 4.25% glucose solution containing alagebrium for last 8 weeks of 12-week dialysis period. Dialysis exchanges were performed 2 times a day for 12 weeks. Immunohistochemistry was performed using a monoclonal anti-AGE antibody. One-hour PET was performed for comparison of transport characteristics. The immunolabelling of AGE in peritoneal membrane was markedly decreased in the alagebrium group. Consistent with this, the alagebrium group exhibited significantly higher D/Do glucose and lower D/P urea, suggesting low peritoneal membrane transport. But there were no significant differences between the control and the aminoguanidine group. These results suggest that the alagebrium may be the optimal therapeutic approach, compared with treatment with inhibitors of AGE formation, in rats on PD.
Advanced Glycation End Products; Aminoguanidine; Alagebrium; Peritoneal Dialysis
Bordetella (B) bronchiseptica is a common veterinary pathogen, but has rarely been implicated in human infections. Most patients with B. bronchiseptica infections are compromised clinically such as in patients with a malignancy, AIDS, malnutrition, or chronic renal failure. We experienced a case of relapsing peritonitis caused by B. bronchiseptica associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A 56-yr-old male, treated with CAPD due to end stage renal disease (ESRD), was admitted with complaints of abdominal pain and a turbid peritoneal dialysate. The culture of peritoneal dialysate identified B. bronchiseptica. The patient was treated with a combination of intraperitoneal antibiotics. There were two further episodes of relapsing peritonitis, although the organism was sensitive to the used antibiotics. Finally, the indwelling CAPD catheter was removed and the patient was started on hemodialysis. This is the first report of a B. bronchiseptica human infection in the Korean literature.
Bordetella Bronchiseptica; Peritonitis; Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory
Pterional craniotomy (PC) using myocutaneous (MC) flap is a simple and efficient technique; however, due to subsequent inferior displacement (ID) of the temporalis muscle, it can cause postoperative deformities of the muscle such as depression along the inferior margin of the temporal line of the frontal bone (DTL) and muscular protrusion at the inferior portion of the temporal fossa (PITF). Herein, we introduce a simple method for reconstruction of the temporalis muscle using a contourable strut plate (CSP) and evaluate its efficacy.
Materials and Methods
Patients at follow-ups between January 2014 and October 2014 after PCs were enrolled in this study. Their postoperative deformities of the temporalis muscle including ID, DTL, and PITF were evaluated. These PC cases using MC flap were classified according to two groups; one with conventional technique without CSP (MC Only) and another with reconstruction of the temporalis muscle using CSP (MC + CSP). Statistical analyses were performed for comparison between the two groups.
Lower incidences of ID of the muscle (p < 0.001), DTL (p < 0.001), and PITF (p = 0.001) were observed in the MC + CSP than in the MC Only group. The incidence of acceptable outcome was markedly higher in the MC + CSP group (p < 0.001). ID was regarded as a causative factor for DTL and PITF (p < 0.001 in both).
Reconstruction of the temporalis muscle using CSP after MC flap is a simple and efficient technique, which provides an outstanding outcome in terms of anatomical restoration of the temporalis muscle.
Contourable strut plate; Deformities; Myocutaneous flap; Pterional; Temporalis; Temporal line
De novo somatic mutations in focal areas are well documented in diseases such as neoplasia but are rarely reported in malformation of the developing brain. Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is characterized by overgrowth of either one of the two cerebral hemispheres. The molecular etiology of HME remains a mystery. The intractable epilepsy that is associated with HME can be relieved by the surgical treatment hemispherectomy, allowing sampling of diseased tissue. Exome sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis in paired brain-blood samples from individuals with HME (n = 20 cases) identified de novo somatic mutations in 30% of affected individuals in the PIK3CA, AKT3 and MTOR genes. A recurrent PIK3CA c.1633G>A mutation was found in four separate cases. Identified mutations were present in 8–40% of sequenced alleles in various brain regions and were associated with increased neuronal S6 protein phosphorylation in the brains of affected individuals, indicating aberrant activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Thus HME is probably a genetically mosaic disease caused by gain of function in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT3-mTOR signaling.
Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces photoageing by upregulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human skin cells. Dihydroavenanthramide D (DHAvD) is a synthetic analog to naturally occurring avenanthramide, which is the active component in oats. Although anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and antioxidant effects have been reported, the antiphotoageing effects of DHAvD are yet to be understood. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of DHAvD on UVB-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of MMPs, and its molecular mechanism in UVB-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts. Western blot and real-time PCR analyses revealed that DHAvD inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression. It also significantly blocked UVB-induced ROS generation in fibroblasts. Additionally, DHAvD attenuated UVB-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs, activation of NF-κB and AP-1. DHAvD regulates UVB-irradiated MMP expression by inhibiting ROS-mediated MAPK/NF-κB and AP-1 activation. DHAvD may be a useful candidate for preventing UV light-induced skin photoageing.
DHAvD; MAPK; MMP; ROS; UVB
Spontaneous anterior cerebral artery (ACA) dissection, although extremely rare, is often associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It could lead to cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, or, rarely, combination of hemorrhage and ischemia due to hemodynamic changes. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential for determining the appropriate management. However, the optimal treatment for ACA dissection remains controversial. Herein, we report on two rare cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by ACA dissection; a case presenting with simultaneous SAH and infarction without aneurysmal formation and another case presenting with SAH with fusiform aneurysmal formation. A review of the related literature is provided, and optimal treatments for each type of dissection are suggested.
Anterior cerebral artery; Dissection; Infarction; Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Cryptotanshinone (CT), a major tanshinone of medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, demonstrated strong antibacterial activity against clinic isolated methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and VRSA) in this experiment. The CT was determined against clinic isolated MRSA 1–16 with MIC and MBC values ranging from 4 to 32 and 8 to 128 μg/mL; for MSSA 1-2 from 16 to 32 μg/mL and 64 to 128 μg/mL; for VRSA 1-2 from 2 to 4 μg/mL and 4 to 16 μg/mL, respectively. The range of MIC50 and MIC90 of CT was 0.5–8 μg/mL and 4–64 μg/mL, respectively. The combination effects of CT with antibiotics were synergistic (FIC index <0.5) against most of tested clinic isolated MRSA, MSSA, and VRSA except additive, MRSA 4 and 16 in oxacillin, MRSA 6, 12, and 15 in ampicillin, and MRSA 6, 11, and 15 in vancomycin (FIC index < 0.75–1.0). Furthermore, a time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated after 2–6 h of treatment with the 1/2 MIC of CT, regardless of whether it was administered alone or with ampicillin, oxacillin, or vancomycin. The results suggest that CT could be employed as a natural antibacterial agent against multidrug-resistant pathogens infection.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis is an unpredictable and severe adverse drug reaction. In toxic epidermal necrolysis, epidermal damage appears to result from keratinocyte apoptosis. This condition is triggered by many factors, principally drugs such as antiepileptic medications, antibiotics (particularly sulfonamide), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol, and nevirapine. Lamotrigine has been reported potentially cause serious cutaneous reactions, and concomitant use of valproic acid with lamotrigine significantly increases this risk. We describe a case of an 11-year-old girl with tic and major depressive disorders who developed toxic epidermal necrolysis after treatment with lamotrigine, and who was diagnosed both clinically and pathologically. Children are more susceptible to lamotrigine-induced rash than adults, and risk of serious rash can be lessened by strict adherence to dosing guidelines. Unfortunately, in our case, the patient was administered a higher dose than the required regimen. Therefore, clinicians should strictly adhere to the dose regimen when using lamotrigine, especially in children.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis; Adverse drug reaction; Lamotrigine; Antiepileptic drug
This study aimed to assess the characteristics of thyroid nodules among infants diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism.
A retrospective study of 660 infants (374 males, 286 females) diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism was carried out at the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic in Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Korea, between May 2003 and February 2013. The average age at diagnosis was 1.16±1.68 months.
Of the 28 patients (4.2%) with thyroid nodules, 17 (2.6%) had cystic thyroid nodules and 11 (1.6%) had solid thyroid nodules. There were no significant differences in gender or age between congenital hypothyroidism patients who hadthyroid nodules and those who did not. All nodules were asymptomatic. The average age at diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism with nodules was 1.42±1.39 months. All detected nodules measured less than 1 cm in diameter. Twenty-two of the 28 infants (78.6%) had only one nodule, while multiple nodules were found in 6 infants (21.4%). Of the 28 infants diagnosed with nodules, 16 underwent thyroid ultrasonography during follow-up and 8 of them (50%) showed no signs of nodules at thyroid ultrasonography.
The prevalence of thyroid nodules in infants with congenital hypothyroidism was 4.2%. Most thyroid nodules were small in size and benign, disappearing during follow-up observation. We therefore conclude that thyroid nodules in infants with congenital hypothyroidism can simply be observed and do not require direct treatment.
Thyroid nodule; Congenital hypothyroidism; Ultrasonography; Infant
Detection of somatic variation using sequence from disease-control matched data sets is a critical first step. In many cases including cancer, however, it is hard to isolate pure disease tissue, and the impurity hinders accurate mutation analysis by disrupting overall allele frequencies. Here, we propose a new method, Virmid, that explicitly determines the level of impurity in the sample, and uses it for improved detection of somatic variation. Extensive tests on simulated and real sequencing data from breast cancer and hemimegalencephaly demonstrate the power of our model. A software implementation of our method is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/virmid/.
Neighboring genes are often coordinately expressed within cis-regulatory modules, but evidence that nonparalogous genes share functions in mammals is lacking. Here, we report that mutation of either TMEM138 or TMEM216 causes a phenotypically indistinguishable human ciliopathy, Joubert syndrome. Despite a lack of sequence homology, the genes are aligned in a head-to-tail configuration and joined by chromosomal rearrangement at the amphibian-to-reptile evolutionary transition. Expression of the two genes is mediated by a conserved regulatory element in the noncoding intergenic region. Coordinated expression is important for their interdependent cellular role in vesicular transport to primary cilia. Hence, during vertebrate evolution of genes involved in ciliogenesis, nonparalogous genes were arranged to a functional gene cluster with shared regulatory elements.
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS and acts on both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). The mGluRs are widely distributed in the CNS and modulate a variety of neuronal processes including neurotransmitter release and ion channel function. In hippocampus and cortex, mGluR5 is highly expressed and plays an important role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. CaM binding dynamically regulates mGluR5 surface expression; however, the mechanisms linking CaM to mGluR5 trafficking are not clear. Recent studies showed that CaM binding to mGluR7 regulates its trafficking in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by disrupting the binding of PICK1. The E3 ligase seven in absentia homolog (Siah)-1A binds to mGluR5 and competes with CaM binding making it an intriguing molecule to regulate phosphorylation-dependent trafficking of mGluR5. In the present study, we find that CaM competes with Siah-1A for mGluR5 binding in a phosphorylation-dependent manner in rat hippocampal neurons. Specifically, phosphorylation of mGluR5 S901 favors Siah-1A binding by displacing CaM. We identified critical residues regulating Siah-1A binding to mGluR5 and showed that binding is essential for the Siah-1A effects on mGluR5 trafficking. Siah-1A binding decreases mGluR5 surface expression and increases endosomal trafficking and lysosomal degradation of mGluR5. Thus CaM-regulated Siah-1A binding to mGluR5 dynamically regulates mGluR5 trafficking. These findings support a conserved role for CaM in regulating mGluR trafficking by PKC-dependent regulation of receptor binding proteins.
Keyhole craniotomy is a modification of pterional craniotomy that allows for use of a minimally invasive approach toward cerebral aneurysms. Currently, mini-pterional (MPKC) and supraorbital keyhole craniotomies (SOKC) are commonly used. In this study, we measured and compared the geometric configurations of surgical exposure provided by MPKC and SOKC.
Nine patients underwent MPKC and four underwent SOKC. Their postoperative contrast-enhanced brain computed tomographic scans were evaluated. The transverse and longitudinal diameters and areas of exposure were measured. The locations of the anterior communicating artery, bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery (MCAB), and the internal carotid artery (ICA) terminal were identified, and the working angles and depths for these targets were measured.
No significant differences in the transverse diameters of exposure were observed between MPKC and SOKC. However, the longitudinal diameters and the areas were significantly larger, by 1.5 times in MPKC. MPKC provided larger operable working angles for the targets. The angles by MPKC, particularly for the MCAB, reached up to 1.9-fold of those by SOKC. Greater working depths were required in order to reach the targets by SOKC, and the differences were the greatest in the MCAB by 1.6-fold.
MPKC provides larger exposure than SOKC with a similar length of skin incision. MPKC allows for use of a direct transsylvian approach, and exposes the target in a wide working angle within a short distance. Despite some limitations in exposure, SOKC is suitable for a direct subfrontal approach, and provides a more anteromedial and basal view. MCAB and posteriorly directing ICA terminal aneurysms can be good candidates for MPKC.
Cerebral aneurysm; Craniotomy; Minimally invasive; Mini-pterional; Supraorbital; Surgical exposure