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author:("Just, jobelyn")
1.  Early-Onset Atopic Dermatitis in Children: Which Are the Phenotypes at Risk of Asthma? Results from the ORCA Cohort 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0131369.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is known to predate asthma and other atopic disorders described under the term “atopic march”. However, this classic sequence is not always present and only a few studies have addressed children at risk of developing asthma. The objective of this study is to define early-onset AD phenotypes leading to asthma.
We performed a cluster analysis with 9 variables of 214 infants with early-onset AD prospectively enrolled in the ORCA cohort and followed each year on the occurrence of asthma until the age of 6.
We identified 3 clusters - cluster 1 (n = 94) with low to no sensitization to food (27.7%) or aeroallergens (10.6%) and moderate AD severity (SCORAD 25.29 +/- 14.6) called “AD with low sensitization”; - cluster 2 (n = 84) characterized by a higher AD severity (SCORAD 32.66+/-16.6) and frequent sensitization to food (98.9%) or aeroallergens (26.2%), most likely multiple (96.4% for food allergens), called “AD with multiple sensitizations” - cluster 3 (n = 36) with parental history, moderate AD severity (SCORAD 24.46+/-15.7), moderate rate of sensitization to food allergens (38.9%) (exclusively single) with no sensitization to aeroallergens, called “AD with familial history of asthma”. Percentages of children suffering from asthma at the age of 6 were higher in clusters 2 and 3 (36.1% and 33.3% respectively versus 14.9% in cluster 1, p<0.01).
Two phenotypes in infants with early-onset AD convey a higher risk of developing asthma during childhood: multiple sensitization and familial history of asthma.
PMCID: PMC4479437  PMID: 26107938
3.  An EAACI “European Survey on Adverse Systemic Reactions in Allergen Immunotherapy (EASSI)”: the methodology 
At present, there is no European report on clinically relevant systemic reactions due to the regular use of allergen immunotherapy (AIT), administered either subcutaneously or sublingually (SCIT and SLIT, respectively) outside clinical trials. Using an electronic survey and a “harmonised terminology” according to MedDRA, we aimed to prospectively collect systemic adverse reactions due to AIT from real life clinical settings.
Under the framework of the EAACI, a team of European specialists in AIT, pharmacovigilance, epidemiology and drugs regulation set up a web-based prospective pilot survey to be conducted in three European countries (France, Germany and Spain). A designated “national coordinator” was responsible for following ethics requirements relative to each country and to select at least 30 doctors per country.
Patients were recruited the same day they received their first dose of either SCIT or SLIT. Patient inclusion criteria were: adults and children, with IgE mediated pollen, house dust mite, Alternaria, and/or animal dander respiratory allergies who will initiate AIT.
A list of 31 symptoms terms were extracted from the MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) dictionary to harmonize the reporting of all adverse systemic reactions in this survey.
The SurveyMonkey® online instrument was used by participant doctors to submit information directly to a blinded central database.
Three questionnaires were generated: i) the Doctor Questionnaire, ii) the Patient Questionnaire and iii) the Adverse Reaction Questionnaire. A handbook and a mistake report form were given to each doctor.
In this paper, we describe the methodology followed.
PMCID: PMC4113667  PMID: 25075276
Allergen; Adverse systemic reactions; Allergen immunotherapy; Subcutaneous; Sublingual
4.  Determinants of Allergic Rhinitis in Young Children with Asthma 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97236.
In the preschool period, allergic rhinitis (AR) is infrequent and thus under-diagnosed. However, recent works have highlighted the occurrence of AR in toddlers although the causes of AR in this young population remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of AR in young children with asthma.
We carried out a case-control study of 227 children with active asthma and enrolled in the Trousseau Asthma Program. AR and other allergic diseases (asthma, food allergy and eczema) were diagnosed by medical doctors using standardized questionnaires. Parental history of AR and asthma, biological markers of atopy (total IgE, blood eosinophilia, allergic sensitization towards food and aeroallergens) and environmental parameters were also collected.
Forty one of the children (18.1%) had AR. By univariate logistic regression analysis, AR was mainly associated with peanut sensitization (OR = 6.75; p = 0.002); food allergy (OR = 4.31; p = 0.026); mold exposure (OR = 3.81 p<0.01) and parental history of AR (OR = 1.42; p = 0.046). Due to the strong link between food allergy and peanut sensitization three models of multivariate logistic regression were performed and confirmed that AR is associated with peanut sensitization but also food allergy and mold exposure. A random forest analysis was also performed to explain AR. The results reinforced the logistic analysis that peanut sensitization and mold exposure were the principal determinants of AR.
Conclusions & Clinical Relevance
These results stress the importance of investigating AR in young children with asthma to potentially diagnose a particularly severe allergic asthmatic phenotype. Moreover, these data evoke the hypothesis that peanut could be an aeroallergen.
PMCID: PMC4022721  PMID: 24831804
5.  Air pollution and asthma control in the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma 
The associations between exposure to air pollution and asthma control are not well known. The objective is to assess the association between long term exposure to NO2, O3 and PM10 and asthma control in the EGEA2 study (2003–2007).
Modeled outdoor NO2, O3 and PM10 estimates were linked to each residential address using the 4-km grid air pollutant surface developed by the French Institute of Environment for 2004. Asthma control was assessed in 481 subjects with current asthma using a multidimensional approach following the 2006–2009 GINA guidelines. Multinomial and ordinal logistic regressions were conducted adjusted on sex, age, BMI, education, smoking and use of inhaled corticosteroids. The association between air pollution and the three domains of asthma control (symptoms, exacerbations and lung function) was assessed. Odds Ratios (ORs) are reported per Inter Quartile Range (IQR).
Median concentrations (μg.m−3) were 32(IQR 25–38) for NO2 (n=465), 46(41–52) for O3 and 21(18–21) for PM10 (n=481). In total, 44%, 29% and 27% had controlled, partly-controlled and uncontrolled asthma. The ordinal ORs for O3 and PM10 with asthma control were 1.69(95%CI 1.22–2.34) and 1.35(95%CI 1.13–1.64) respectively. When including both pollutants in the same model, both associations persisted. Associations were not modified by sex, smoking status, use of inhaled corticosteroids, atopy, season of examination or BMI. Both pollutants were associated with each of the three main domains of control.
The results suggest that long-term exposure to PM10 and O3 is associated with uncontrolled asthma in adults, defined by symptoms, exacerbations and lung function. Abstract Word count: 250 Key words: air pollution, asthma, asthma control
PMCID: PMC3943770  PMID: 21690606
Adult; Air Pollutants; adverse effects; analysis; Asthma; epidemiology; etiology; genetics; Case-Control Studies; Cross-Sectional Studies; Environmental Exposure; adverse effects; analysis; Environmental Monitoring; Follow-Up Studies; France; epidemiology; Hospitalization; statistics & numerical data; Humans; Logistic Models; Lung; physiopathology; Nitrous Acid; adverse effects; analysis; Ozone; adverse effects; analysis; Residence Characteristics; Respiratory Tract Diseases; complications; epidemiology; genetics; Seasons; Severity of Illness Index; air pollution; asthma; asthma control
6.  CCDC39 is required for assembly of inner dynein arms and the dynein regulatory complex and for normal ciliary motility in humans and dogs 
Nature genetics  2010;43(1):72-78.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract, reduced fertility in males and situs inversus in about 50% of affected individuals (Kartagener syndrome). It is caused by motility defects in the respiratory cilia that are responsible for airway clearance, the flagella that propel sperm cells and the nodal monocilia that determine left-right asymmetry1. Recessive mutations that cause PCD have been identified in genes encoding components of the outer dynein arms, radial spokes and cytoplasmic pre-assembly factors of axonemal dyneins, but these mutations account for only about 50% of cases of PCD. We exploited the unique properties of dog populations to positionally clone a new PCD gene, CCDC39. We found that loss-of-function mutations in the human ortholog underlie a substantial fraction of PCD cases with axonemal disorganization and abnormal ciliary beating. Functional analyses indicated that CCDC39 localizes to ciliary axonemes and is essential for assembly of inner dynein arms and the dynein regulatory complex.
PMCID: PMC3509786  PMID: 21131972
7.  EAACI: A European Declaration on Immunotherapy. Designing the future of allergen specific immunotherapy 
Allergy today is a public health concern of pandemic proportions, affecting more than 150 million people in Europe alone. In view of epidemiological trends, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) predicts that within the next few decades, more than half of the European population may at some point in their lives experience some type of allergy.
Not only do allergic patients suffer from a debilitating disease, with the potential for major impact on their quality of life, career progression, personal development and lifestyle choices, but they also constitute a significant burden on health economics and macroeconomics due to the days of lost productivity and underperformance. Given that allergy triggers, including urbanization, industrialization, pollution and climate change, are not expected to change in the foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies.
Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only currently available medical intervention that has the potential to affect the natural course of the disease. Years of basic science research, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have convincingly shown that allergen specific immunotherapy can achieve substantial results for patients, improving the allergic individuals’ quality of life, reducing the long-term costs and burden of allergies, and changing the course of the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy not only effectively alleviates allergy symptoms, but it has a long-term effect after conclusion of the treatment and can prevent the progression of allergic diseases.
Unfortunately, allergen specific immunotherapy has not yet received adequate attention from European institutions, including research funding bodies, even though this could be a most rewarding field in terms of return on investments, translational value and European integration and, a field in which Europe is recognized as a worldwide leader. Evaluation and surveillance of the full cost of allergic diseases is still lacking and further progress is being stifled by the variety of health systems across Europe. This means that the general population remains unaware of the potential use of allergen specific immunotherapy and its potential benefits.
We call upon Europe’s policy-makers to coordinate actions and improve individual and public health in allergy by:
Promoting awareness of the effectiveness of allergen specific immunotherapy
Updating national healthcare policies to support allergen specific immunotherapy
Prioritising funding for allergen specific immunotherapy research
Monitoring the macroeconomic and health economic parameters of allergy
Reinforcing allergy teaching in medical disciplines and specialties
The effective implementation of the above policies has the potential for a major positive impact on European health and well-being in the next decade.
PMCID: PMC3514324  PMID: 23110958
Allergy; Asthma; Rhinitis; Immunotherapy; Health economics; Quality of life
8.  Formaldehyde Exposure and Lower Respiratory Infections in Infants: Findings from the PARIS Cohort Study 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2011;119(11):1653-1658.
Background: Certain chemical pollutants can exacerbate lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs), a common childhood ailment. Although formaldehyde (FA) is one of the most common air pollutants found in indoor environments, its impact on infant health is uncertain.
Objective: Our aim was to determine the impact of FA exposure on the LRI incidence during the first year of life of infants from the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort.
Methods: FA was measured in a random sample of 196 infants’ dwellings, and exposure to this pollutant was estimated for 2,940 infants using predictive models based on measurements and data about potential determinants of FA levels. Health data were collected from parents by regular self-administered questionnaires. We used multivariate logistic regressions to estimate associations between FA exposure and the occurrence of LRI and wheezy LRI (wLRI), adjusting for potential confounders/risk factors.
Results: During the first year of life, 45.8% of infants had at least one LRI, and LRI occurred simultaneously with wheezing in 48.7% of cases. The FA predictive models correctly classified 70% of dwellings as having high or low exposure, and we estimated that 43.3% of infants were exposed throughout the first year to levels of FA > 19.5 µg/m3. FA exposure was significantly associated with LRI and wLRI before and after adjustment for known LRI risk factors/confounders. For an interquartile increase in FA levels (12.4 μg/m3), we estimated a 32% [95% confidence interval (CI): 11, 55] and 41% (95% CI: 14, 74) increase in the incidence of LRI and wLRI, respectively.
Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that infants exposed to FA at an early age have an increased incidence of LRI.
PMCID: PMC3226490  PMID: 21810553
birth cohort; epidemiology; exposure; formaldehyde; lower respiratory infection; predictive model
9.  Predicting the Long-Term Course of Asthma in Wheezing Infants Is Still a Challenge 
ISRN Allergy  2011;2011:493624.
Background. In recurrent wheezing infants, it is important to identify those likely to remain asthmatic in order to propose appropriate long-term management. Objective. To establish predictive factors for persistent asthma at adolescence in a population of recurrent wheezing infants. Methods. Retrospective study of 227 infants. Inclusion criteria were age under 36 months, a history of at least three wheezing episodes assessed via a doctor-led ISAAC questionnaire and a standardized allergy testing programme. At 13 years, active asthma was assessed by questionnaire. Results. Risk factors for asthma persisting into adolescence were allergic sensitization to multiple airborne allergens (OR 4.6, CI-95% (1.9–11.2) P = 0.001), initial atopic dermatitis (OR 3.4, CI-95% (1.9–6.3) P < 0.001), severe recurrent wheezing (OR 2.3, CI-95% (1.3–4.2) P = 0.007), and hypereosinophilia ≥470/mm3 (OR 2.2, CI-95% (1.07–4.7) P = 0.033). Conclusion. While it is still difficult to predict the long-term course of asthma, atopy remains the major risk factor for persistent asthma.
PMCID: PMC3658573  PMID: 23724229
10.  Evidence for linkage of a new region (11p14) to eczema and allergic diseases 
Human Genetics  2007;122(6):605-614.
Asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR) and atopic dermatitis also called eczema are allergic co-morbidites which are likely to depend on pleiotropic genetic effects as well as on specific genetic factors. After a previous genome-wide linkage screen conducted for asthma and AR in a sample of 295 French EGEA families ascertained through asthmatic subjects, the aim here was to search for genetic factors involved in eczema and more particularly those ones shared by the three allergic diseases using the same EGEA data. In this sake, eczema and phenotypes of ‘allergic disease’ accounting for the joint information on the presence/absence of the three diseases were examined by linkage analyses using the Maximum Likelihood Binomial (MLB) method. A fine mapping was carried out in regions detected for potential linkage, followed by association studies using the Family Based Association Test (FBAT). Evidence for linkage to 11p14 region was shown for ‘allergic disease’ and eczema. Linkage was also indicated between eczema and 5q13 and between ‘allergic disease’ and both 5p15 and 17q21 regions. Fine mapping supported the evidence of linkage to 11p14 and FBAT analyses showed association between ‘allergic disease’ and a marker located at the linkage peak on 11p14. Further investigations in this region will allow identifying genetic factor(s) which could have pleiotropic effect in the three allergic diseases.
PMCID: PMC2575854  PMID: 17943316
Adolescent; Adult; Child; Chromosomes; Human; Pair 11; Eczema; genetics; Female; Genetic Markers; Genetic Screening; Humans; Hypersensitivity; genetics; Linkage (Genetics); Lod Score; Male; Nuclear Family; Questionnaires; atopic dermatitis; linkage analysis; genome screen; fine mapping; association study
11.  Management of acute asthma exacerbations by general practitioners: a cross-sectional observational survey 
Background: General practitioners (GPs) have a central place in the management of asthma, particularly in the context of acute exacerbations.
Aim: To evaluate the management of asthma exacerbations by GPs, and to investigate the ability of risk factors for near fatal asthma to predict the severity of asthma attacks in the community.
Design of study: A 1-month multicentre cross-sectional survey.
Setting: One thousand and ninety-four GPs of the French Sentinel Network were contacted; 365 responded.
Methods: Asthma exacerbations were classified according to severity at presentation. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by logistic regression to identify those factors associated with severe exacerbations.
Results: Exacerbations were described in 219 patients with asthma. Over half (54%) of exacerbations were severe. Peak expiratory flow was recorded during the consultation in 55% of patients who were more than 5 years old. ß2 agonists were prescribed to 93% of patients, systemic corticosteroids to 71%, and antibiotics to 64%. Only 42% of patients had a written action plan for self-management of exacerbations. Risk factors for near fatal asthma, identified in 26% of patients, were not significantly associated with severe asthma exacerbations. Short duration of exacerbation before consultation (<3 hours) was associated with an increase in relative risk of severe exacerbation of 3.38, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 1.19 to 9.61, compared with duration of >3 hours.
Conclusion: Risk factors for near fatal asthma identified in previous studies were not predictive of a severe exacerbation in general practice, with the exception of short duration of exacerbation before consultation. This suggests that new methods to predict risk in the outpatient settings should be developed.
PMCID: PMC1324881  PMID: 15469675
Asthma; general practitioners; patient care management; risk factors

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