We would like to thank the following experts for their assistance with the peer-review in 2013 for manuscripts submitted to Cilia. We greatly appreciate the voluntary contribution made to the journal by all our reviewers.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a metabolite essential for cell survival and generated de novo from tryptophan or recycled from nicotinamide (NAM) through the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)-dependent salvage pathway. Alternatively, nicotinic acid (NA) is metabolized to NAD through the nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase domain containing 1 (NAPRT1)-dependent salvage pathway. Tumor cells are more reliant on the NAMPT salvage pathway making this enzyme an attractive therapeutic target. Moreover, the therapeutic index of NAMPT inhibitors may be increased by in NAPRT-deficient tumors by NA supplementation as normal tissues may regenerate NAD through NAPRT1. To confirm the latter, we tested novel NAMPT inhibitors, GNE-617 and GNE-618, in cell culture- and patient-derived tumor models. While NA did not protect NAPRT1-deficient tumor cell lines from NAMPT inhibition in vitro, it rescued efficacy of GNE-617 and GNE-618 in cell culture- and patient-derived tumor xenografts in vivo. NA co-treatment increased NAD and NAM levels in NAPRT1-deficient tumors to levels that sustained growth in vivo. Furthermore, NAM co-administration with GNE-617 led to increased tumor NAD levels and rescued in vivo efficacy as well. Importantly, tumor xenografts remained NAPRT1-deficient in the presence of NA, indicating that the NAPRT1-dependent pathway is not reactivated. Protection of NAPRT1-deficient tumors in vivo may be due to increased circulating levels of metabolites generated by mouse liver, in response to NA or through competitive reactivation of NAMPT by NAM. Our results have important implications for the development of NAMPT inhibitors when considering NA co-treatment as a rescue strategy.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a critical metabolite that is required for a range of cellular reactions. A key enzyme in the NAD salvage pathway is nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT), and here, we describe GNE-618, an NAMPT inhibitor that depletes NAD and induces cell death in vitro and in vivo. While cells proficient for nicotinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase (NAPRT1) can be protected from NAMPT inhibition as they convert nicotinic acid (NA) to NAD independent of the salvage pathway, this protection only occurs if NA is added before NAD depletion. We also demonstrate that tumor cells are unable to generate NAD by de novo synthesis as they lack expression of key enzymes in this pathway, thus providing a mechanistic rationale for the reliance of tumor cells on the NAD salvage pathway. Identifying tumors that are sensitive to NAMPT inhibition is one potential way to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of an NAMPT inhibitor, and here, we show that NAMPT, but not NAPRT1, mRNA and protein levels inversely correlate with sensitivity to GNE-618 across a panel of 53 non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines. Finally, we demonstrate that GNE-618 reduced tumor growth in a patient-derived model, which is thought to more closely represent heterogeneous primary patient tumors. Thus, we show that dependence of tumor cells on the NAD salvage pathway renders them sensitive to GNE-618 in vitro and in vivo, and our data support further evaluation of the use of NAMPT mRNA and protein levels as predictors of overall sensitivity.
Plant cell wall polysaccharide composition varies substantially between species, organs and genotypes. Knowledge of the structure and composition of these polysaccharides, accompanied by a suite of well characterised glycosyl hydrolases will be important for the success of lignocellulosic biofuels. Current methods used to characterise enzymatically released plant oligosaccharides are relatively slow.
A method and software was developed allowing the use of a DNA sequencer to profile oligosaccharides derived from plant cell wall polysaccharides (DNA sequencer-Assisted Saccharide analysis in High throughput, DASH). An ABI 3730xl, which can analyse 96 samples simultaneously by capillary electrophoresis, was used to separate fluorophore derivatised reducing mono- and oligo-saccharides from plant cell walls. Using electrophoresis mobility markers, oligosaccharide mobilities were standardised between experiments to enable reproducible oligosaccharide identification. These mobility markers can be flexibly designed to span the mobilities of oligosaccharides under investigation, and they have a fluorescence emission that is distinct from that of the saccharide labelling. Methods for relative and absolute quantitation of oligosaccharides are described. Analysis of a large number of samples is facilitated by the DASHboard software which was developed in parallel. Use of this method was exemplified by comparing xylan structure and content in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants affected in xylan synthesis. The product profiles of specific xylanases were also compared in order to identify enzymes with unusual oligosaccharide products.
The DASH method and DASHboard software can be used to carry out large-scale analyses of the compositional variation of plant cell walls and biomass, to compare plants with mutations in plant cell wall synthesis pathways, and to characterise novel carbohydrate active enzymes.
DNA-sequencer; Cell wall; Glycosyl hydrolases; Glycosyl transferases
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Activation of a cellular senescence program is a common response to prolonged oncogene activation or tumor suppressor loss, providing a physiological mechanism for tumor suppression in premalignant cells. The link between senescence and tumor suppression supports the hypothesis that a loss-of-function screen measuring bona fide senescence marker activation should identify candidate tumor suppressors. Using a high-content siRNA screening assay for cell morphology and proliferation measures, we identify 12 senescence-regulating kinases and determine their senescence marker signatures, including elevation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, DNA damage and p53 or p16INK4a expression. Consistent with our hypothesis, SNP array CGH data supports loss of gene copy number of five senescence-suppressing genes across multiple tumor samples. One such candidate is the EPHA3 receptor tyrosine kinase, a gene commonly mutated in human cancer. We demonstrate that selected intracellular EPHA3 tumor-associated point mutations decrease receptor expression level and/or receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity. Our study therefore describes a new strategy to mine for novel candidate tumor suppressors and provides compelling evidence that EPHA3 mutations may promote tumorigenesis only when key senescence-inducing pathways have been inactivated.
DDR; EPHA3; RTK; p16INK4a; p53; senescence; tumor suppressor
Activation of Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) following DNA damage mediates cell cycle arrest to prevent cells with damaged DNA from entering mitosis. Here we provide a high-resolution analysis of cells as they undergo S- and G₂-checkpoint bypass in response to Chk1 inhibition with the selective Chk1 inhibitor GNE-783. Within 4–8 h of Chk1 inhibition following gemcitabine induced DNA damage, cells with both sub-4N and 4N DNA content prematurely enter mitosis. Coincident with premature transition into mitosis, levels of DNA damage dramatically increase and chromosomes condense and attempt to align along the metaphase plate. Despite an attempt to congress at the metaphase plate, chromosomes rapidly fragment and lose connection to the spindle microtubules. Gemcitabine mediated DNA damage promotes the formation of Rad51 foci; however, while Chk1 inhibition does not disrupt Rad51 foci that are formed in response to gemcitabine, these foci are lost as cells progress into mitosis. Premature entry into mitosis requires the Aurora, Cdk1/2 and Plk1 kinases and even though caspase-2 and -3 are activated upon mitotic exit, they are not required for cell death. Interestingly, p53, but not p21, deficiency enables checkpoint bypass and chemo-potentiation. Finally, we uncover a differential role for the Wee-1 checkpoint kinase in response to DNA damage, as Wee-1, but not Chk1, plays a more prominent role in the maintenance of S- and G₂-checkpoints in p53 proficient cells.
Chk1; GNE-783; p53; gemcitabine; chemo-potentiation; checkpoint-bypass
Primary cilia have been previously linked to the central regulation of satiety. The tubby mouse is characterized by maturity-onset obesity and blindness. A recent paper demonstrates molecular defects in trafficking of ciliary GPCRs in the central neurons of tubby mice, underscoring the role of ciliary signaling in the pathogenesis of this monogenic obesity syndrome.
Please see related Research article by Li et al., http://www.ciliajournal.com/content/1/1/21
The tubby mouse shows a tripartite syndrome characterized by maturity-onset obesity, blindness and deafness. The causative gene Tub is the founding member of a family of related proteins present throughout the animal and plant kingdoms, each characterized by a signature carboxy-terminal tubby domain. This domain consists of a β barrel enclosing a central α helix and binds selectively to specific membrane phosphoinositides. The vertebrate family of tubby-like proteins (TULPs) includes the founding member TUB and the related TULPs, TULP1 to TULP4. Tulp1 is expressed in the retina and mutations in TULP1 cause retinitis pigmentosa in humans; Tulp3 is expressed ubiquitously in the mouse embryo and is important in sonic hedgehog (Shh)-mediated dorso-ventral patterning of the spinal cord. The amino terminus of these proteins is diverse and directs distinct functions. In the best-characterized example, the TULP3 amino terminus binds to the IFT-A complex, a complex important in intraflagellar transport in the primary cilia, through a short conserved domain. Thus, the tubby family proteins seem to serve as bipartite bridges through their phosphoinositide-binding tubby and unique amino-terminal functional domains, coordinating multiple signaling pathways, including ciliary G-protein-coupled receptor trafficking and Shh signaling. Molecular studies on this functionally diverse protein family are beginning to provide us with remarkable insights into the tubby-mouse syndrome and other related diseases.
Nephronophthisis (NPHP), Joubert (JBTS) and Meckel-Gruber (MKS) syndromes are autosomal-recessive ciliopathies presenting with cystic kidneys, retinal degeneration, and cerebellar/neural tube malformation. Whether defects in kidney, retinal, or neural disease primarily involve ciliary, Hedgehog, or cell polarity pathways remains unclear. Using high-confidence proteomics, we identified 850 interactors copurifying with nine NPHP/JBTS/MKS proteins, and discovered three connected modules: “NPHP1-4-8” functioning at the apical surface; “NPHP5-6” at centrosomes; and “MKS” linked to Hedgehog signaling. Assays for ciliogenesis and epithelial morphogenesis in 3D renal cultures link renal cystic disease to apical organization defects, whereas ciliary and Hedgehog pathway defects lead to retinal or neural deficits. Using 38 interactors as candidates, linkage and sequencing analysis of 250 patients identified ATXN10 and TCTN2 as new NPHP-JBTS genes and our Tctn2 mouse knockout shows neural tube and Hedgehog signaling defects. Our study further illustrates the power of linking proteomic networks and human genetics to uncover critical disease pathways.
The mechanisms that control E2F-1 activity are complex. We previously showed that Chk1 and Chk2 are required for E2F1 stabilization and p73 target gene induction following DNA damage. To gain further insight into the processes regulating E2F1 protein stability, we focused our investigation on the mechanisms responsible for regulating E2F1 turnover. Here we show that E2F1 is a substrate of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), a ubiquitin ligase that plays an important role in cell cycle progression. Ectopic expression of the APC/C activators Cdh1 and Cdc20 reduced the levels of co-expressed E2F-1 protein. Co-expression of DP1 with E2F1 blocked APC/C-induced E2F1 degradation, suggesting that the E2F1/DP1 heterodimer is protected from APC/C regulation. Following Cdc20 knockdown, E2F1 levels increased and remained stable in extracts over a time course, indicating that APC/CCdc20 is a primary regulator of E2F1 stability in vivo. Moreover, cell synchronization experiments showed that siRNA directed against Cdc20 induced an accumulation of E2F1 protein in prometaphase cells. These data suggest that APC/CCdc20 specifically targets E2F1 for degradation in early mitosis and reveal a novel mechanism for limiting free E2F1 levels in cells, failure of which may compromise cell survival and/or homeostasis.
cell cycle; ubiquitination; E2F1; APC/C; Cdc20; Cdh1
Oncogenic mutations in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway are prevalent in human tumors, making this pathway a target of drug development efforts. Recently, ATP-competitive Raf inhibitors were shown to cause MAPK pathway activation via Raf kinase priming in wild-type BRaf cells and tumors, highlighting the need for a thorough understanding of signaling in the context of small molecule kinase inhibitors. Here, we present critical improvements in cell-line engineering and image analysis coupled with automated image acquisition that allow for the simultaneous identification of cellular localization of multiple MAPK pathway components (KRas, CRaf, Mek1 and Erk2). We use these assays in a systematic study of the effect of small molecule inhibitors across the MAPK cascade either as single agents or in combination. Both Raf inhibitor priming as well as the release from negative feedback induced by Mek and Erk inhibitors cause translocation of CRaf to the plasma membrane via mechanisms that are additive in pathway activation. Analysis of Erk activation and sub-cellular localization upon inhibitor treatments reveals differential inhibition and activation with the Raf inhibitors AZD628 and GDC0879 respectively. Since both single agent and combination studies of Raf and Mek inhibitors are currently in the clinic, our assays provide valuable insight into their effects on MAPK signaling in live cells.
We report that San, an acetyltransferase required for sister chromatid cohesion, also acetylates β-tubulin at lysine 252. The acetylation happens only on free tubulin heterodimers, and it delays the incorporation of modified tubulins into microtubules in vivo.
Dynamic instability is a critical property of microtubules (MTs). By regulating the rate of tubulin polymerization and depolymerization, cells organize the MT cytoskeleton to accommodate their specific functions. Among many processes, posttranslational modifications of tubulin are implicated in regulating MT functions. Here we report a novel tubulin acetylation catalyzed by acetyltransferase San at lysine 252 (K252) of β-tubulin. This acetylation, which is also detected in vivo, is added to soluble tubulin heterodimers but not tubulins in MTs. The acetylation-mimicking K252A/Q mutants were incorporated into the MT cytoskeleton in HeLa cells without causing any obvious MT defect. However, after cold-induced catastrophe, MT regrowth is accelerated in San-siRNA cells while the incorporation of acetylation-mimicking mutant tubulins is severely impeded. K252 of β-tubulin localizes at the interface of α-/β-tubulins and interacts with the phosphate group of the α-tubulin-bound GTP. We propose that the acetylation slows down tubulin incorporation into MTs by neutralizing the positive charge on K252 and allowing tubulin heterodimers to adopt a conformation that disfavors tubulin incorporation.
Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC) are recessive disorders featuring dysplasia or degeneration preferentially in kidney, retina, and cerebellum. Here we combine homozygosity mapping with candidate gene analysis by performing “ciliopathy candidate exome capture” followed by massively-parallel sequencing. We detect 12 different truncating mutations of SDCCAG8 in 10 NPHP-RC families. We demonstrate that SDCCAG8 is localized at both centrioles and directly interacts with NPHP-RC-associated OFD1. Depletion of sdccag8 causes kidney cysts and a body axis defect in zebrafish and induces cell polarity defects in 3D renal cell cultures. This work identifies SDCCAG8 loss of function as a novel cause of a retinal-renal ciliopathy and validates exome capture analysis for broadly heterogeneous single-gene disorders.
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is phosphorylated in a cell cycle dependent manner. We discovered that a specific form of PPP2 is necessary for APC/C dephosphorylation in mitosis and that this dephosphorylation event regulates the association of the APC/C with mitotic spindle poles.
In early mitosis, the END (Emi1/NuMA/Dynein-dynactin) network anchors the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) to the mitotic spindle and poles. Spindle anchoring restricts APC/C activity, thereby limiting the destruction of spindle-associated cyclin B and ensuring maintenance of spindle integrity. Emi1 binds directly to hypophosphorylated APC/C, linking the APC/C to the spindle via NuMA. However, whether the phosphorylation state of the APC/C is important for its association with the spindle and what kinases and phosphatases are necessary for regulating this event remain unknown. Here, we describe the regulation of APC/C-mitotic spindle pole association by phosphorylation. We find that only hypophosphorylated APC/C associates with microtubule asters, suggesting that phosphatases are important. Indeed, a specific form of PPP2 (CA/R1A/R2B) binds APC/C, and PPP2 activity is necessary for Cdc27 dephosphorylation. Screening by RNA interference, we find that inactivation of CA, R1A, or R2B leads to delocalization of APC/C from spindle poles, early mitotic spindle defects, a failure to congress chromosomes, and decreased levels of cyclin B on the spindle. Consistently, inhibition of cyclin B/Cdk1 activity increased APC/C binding to microtubules. Thus, cyclin B/Cdk1 and PPP2 regulate the dynamic association of APC/C with spindle poles in early mitosis, a step necessary for proper spindle formation.
The autosomal recessive kidney disease nephronophthisis (NPHP) constitutes the most frequent genetic cause of terminal renal failure in the first 3 decades of life. Ten causative genes (NPHP1–NPHP9 and NPHP11), whose products localize to the primary cilia-centrosome complex, support the unifying concept that cystic kidney diseases are “ciliopathies”. Using genome-wide homozygosity mapping, we report here what we believe to be a new locus (NPHP-like 1 [NPHPL1]) for an NPHP-like nephropathy. In 2 families with an NPHP-like phenotype, we detected homozygous frameshift and splice-site mutations, respectively, in the X-prolyl aminopeptidase 3 (XPNPEP3) gene. In contrast to all known NPHP proteins, XPNPEP3 localizes to mitochondria of renal cells. However, in vivo analyses also revealed a likely cilia-related function; suppression of zebrafish xpnpep3 phenocopied the developmental phenotypes of ciliopathy morphants, and this effect was rescued by human XPNPEP3 that was devoid of a mitochondrial localization signal. Consistent with a role for XPNPEP3 in ciliary function, several ciliary cystogenic proteins were found to be XPNPEP3 substrates, for which resistance to N-terminal proline cleavage resulted in attenuated protein function in vivo in zebrafish. Our data highlight an emerging link between mitochondria and ciliary dysfunction, and suggest that further understanding the enzymatic activity and substrates of XPNPEP3 will illuminate novel cystogenic pathways.
In vitro, the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC) E3 ligase functions with E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes of the E2–C and Ubc4/5 families to ubiquitinate substrates. However, only the use of the E2–C family, notably UbcH10, is genetically well validated. Here, we biochemically demonstrate preferential use of UbcH10 by the APC, specified by the E2 core domain. Importantly, an additional E2–E3 interaction mediated by the N-terminal extension of UbcH10 regulates APC activity. Mutating the highly conserved N-terminus increases substrate ubiquitination, the number of substrate lysines targeted, allows ubiquitination of APC substrates lacking their destruction-boxes, increases resistance to the APC inhibitors Emi1 and BubR1 in vitro, and bypasses the spindle checkpoint in vivo. Fusion of the UbcH10 N-terminus to UbcH5 restricts ubiquitination activity, but does not direct specific interactions with the APC. Thus, UbcH10 combines a specific E2–E3 interface and regulation via its N-terminal extension to limit APC activity for substrate selection and checkpoint control.
Mitosis; Emi1; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases; UbcH10; Anaphase Promoting Complex; Spindle Assembly Checkpoint
Vertebrate oocytes are arrested in metaphase II of meiosis prior to fertilization by cytostatic factor (CSF). CSF enforces a cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the anaphase promoting complex (APC), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets Cyclin B for degradation. Although Cyclin B synthesis is ongoing during CSF arrest, constant Cyclin B levels are maintained. To achieve this, oocytes allow continuous slow Cyclin B degradation, without eliminating the bulk of Cyclin B, which would induce release from CSF arrest. However, the mechanism that controls this continuous degradation is not understood.
We report here the molecular details of a negative feedback loop wherein Cyclin B promotes its own destruction through Cdc2/Cyclin B-mediated phosphorylation and inhibition of the APC inhibitor, Emi2. Emi2 bound to the core APC and this binding was disrupted by Cdc2/Cyclin B, without affecting Emi2 protein stability. Cdc2 mediated phosphorylation of Emi2 was antagonized by PP2A, which could bind to Emi2 and promote Emi2-APC interactions.
Constant Cyclin B levels are maintained during a CSF arrest through the regulation of Emi2 activity. A balance between Cdc2 and PP2A controls Emi2 phosphorylation, which in turn controls the ability of Emi2 to bind to and inhibit the APC. This balance allows proper maintenance of Cyclin B levels and Cdc2 kinase activity during CSF arrest.
The transition of oocytes from meiosis I (MI) to meiosis II (MII) requires partial cyclin B degradation to allow MI exit without S phase entry. Rapid reaccumulation of cyclin B allows direct progression into MII, producing a cytostatic factor (CSF)-arrested egg. It has been reported that dampened translation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) inhibitor Emi2 at MI allows partial APC activation and MI exit. We have detected active Emi2 translation at MI and show that Emi2 levels in MI are mainly controlled by regulated degradation. Emi2 degradation in MI depends not on Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), but on Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation of multiple sites within Emi2. As in MII, this phosphorylation is antagonized by Mos-mediated recruitment of PP2A to Emi2. Higher Cdc2 kinase activity in MI than MII allows sufficient Emi2 phosphorylation to destabilize Emi2 in MI. At MI anaphase, APC-mediated degradation of cyclin B decreases Cdc2 activity, enabling Cdc2-mediated Emi2 phosphorylation to be successfully antagonized by Mos-mediated PP2A recruitment. These data suggest a model of APC autoinhibition mediated by stabilization of Emi2; Emi2 proteins accumulate at MI exit and inhibit APC activity sufficiently to prevent complete degradation of cyclin B, allowing MI exit while preventing interphase before MII entry.
Expression of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) inhibitor Emi1 is required for the accumulation of APC/C substrates crucial for DNA synthesis and mitotic entry. We show that in vivo Emi1 expression correlates with the proliferative status of the cellular compartment and that cells lacking Emi1 undergo cellular senescence. Emi1 depletion leads to strong decreases in E2F target mRNA and APC/C substrate protein abundances. However, cyclin E mRNA and cyclin E protein levels and associated kinase activities are increased. Cells lacking Emi1 undergo DNA damage, likely explained by replication stress upon deregulated cyclin E- and A-associated kinase activities. Inhibition of ATM kinase prevents induction of senescence, implying that senescence is a consequence of DNA damage. Surprisingly, no senescence or no extensive amount of senescence is evident upon depletion of the Emi1-stabilizing factor Evi5 or Pin1, respectively. Our data suggest that maintenance of a protein stabilization/mRNA expression positive-feedback circuit fueled by Emi1 is required for accurate cell cycle progression, maintenance of DNA integrity, and prevention of cellular senescence.
Overexpression of cyclin E, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 2, has been linked to human cancer. In cell culture models, the forced expression of cyclin E leads to aneuploidy and polyploidy, which is consistent with a direct role of cyclin E overexpression in tumorigenesis. In this study, we show that the overexpression of cyclin E has a direct effect on progression through the latter stages of mitotic prometaphase before the complete alignment of chromosomes at the metaphase plate. In some cases, such cells fail to divide chromosomes, resulting in polyploidy. In others, cells proceed to anaphase without the complete alignment of chromosomes. These phenotypes can be explained by an ability of overexpressed cyclin E to inhibit residual anaphase-promoting complex (APCCdh1) activity that persists as cells progress up to and through the early stages of mitosis, resulting in the abnormal accumulation of APCCdh1 substrates as cells enter mitosis. We further show that the accumulation of securin and cyclin B1 can account for the cyclin E–mediated mitotic phenotype.
Mammalian oocytes are arrested in prophase of the first meiotic division. Progression into the first meiotic division is driven by an increase in the activity of maturation-promoting factor (MPF). In mouse oocytes, we find that early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1), an inhibitor of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) that is responsible for cyclin B destruction and inactivation of MPF, is present at prophase I and undergoes Skp1–Cul1–F-box/βTrCP-mediated destruction immediately after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Exogenous Emi1 or the inhibition of Emi1 destruction in prophase-arrested oocytes leads to a stabilization of cyclin B1–GFP that is sufficient to trigger GVBD. In contrast, the depletion of Emi1 using morpholino oligonucleotides increases cyclin B1–GFP destruction, resulting in an attenuation of MPF activation and a delay of entry into the first meiotic division. Finally, we show that Emi1-dependent effects on meiosis I require the presence of Cdh1. These observations reveal a novel mechanism for the control of entry into the first meiotic division: an Emi1-dependent inhibition of APCCdh1.