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1.  Phenotypic Characteristics Including In Vivo Cone Photoreceptor Mosaic in KCNV2-Related “Cone Dystrophy with Supernormal Rod Electroretinogram” 
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science  2013;54(1):10.1167/iovs.12-10971.
Purpose
To report phenotypic characteristics including macular cone photoreceptor morphology in KCNV2-related “cone dystrophy with supernormal rod electroretinogram” (CDSR).
Methods
Seven patients, aged 9 to 18 years at last visit, with characteristic full-field electroretinographic (ERG) features of CDSR were screened for mutations in the KCNV2 gene. All patients underwent detailed ophthalmological evaluation, which included distance and color vision testing, contrast sensitivity measurement, fundus photography, fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF) imaging, and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Follow-up visits were available in six cases. Rod photoreceptor function was assessed using a bright white flash ERG protocol (240 cd·s/m2). Macular cone photoreceptor morphology was assessed from 2° by 2° zonal images obtained using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) in six cases.
Results
Pathogenic mutations in KCNV2 were identified in all seven cases. Best corrected vision was 20/125 or worse in all cases at the latest visit (20/125–20/400). Vision loss was progressive in two cases. Color vision and contrast sensitivity was abnormal in all cases. Retinal exam revealed minimal pigment epithelial changes at the fovea in four cases. A peri- or parafoveal ring of hyperfluorescence was the most common FAF abnormality noted (five cases). The SD-OCT showed outer retinal abnormalities in all cases. The rod photoreceptor maximal response was reduced but rod sensitivity was normal. AOSLO showed markedly reduced cone density in all six patients tested.
Conclusions
Central vision parameters progressively worsen in CDSR. Structural retinal and lipofuscin accumulation abnormalities are commonly present. Macular cone photoreceptor mosaic is markedly disrupted early in the disease.
doi:10.1167/iovs.12-10971
PMCID: PMC3880354  PMID: 23221069 CAMSID: cams3789
2.  Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa Caused by Mutations in the MAK Gene 
In a prior study, a new autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa gene (male germ cell–associated kinase; MAK) was recently identified. In this report, ophthalmoscopic, electrophysiologic, perimetric, and OCT features of 24 individuals with mutations in this gene are described.
Purpose.
To determine the disease expression in autosomal recessive (ar) retinitis pigmentosa (RP) caused by mutations in the MAK (male germ cell-associated kinase) gene.
Methods.
Patients with RP and MAK gene mutations (n = 24; age, 32–77 years at first visit) were studied by ocular examination, perimetry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Results.
All but one MAK patient were homozygous for an identical truncating mutation in exon 9 and had Ashkenazi Jewish heritage. The carrier frequency of this mutation among 1207 unrelated Ashkenazi control subjects was 1 in 55, making it the most common cause of heritable retinal disease in this population and MAK-associated RP the sixth most common Mendelian disease overall in this group. Visual acuities could be normal into the eighth decade of life. Kinetic fields showed early loss in the superior–temporal quadrant. With more advanced disease, superior and midperipheral function was lost, but the nasal field remained. Only a central island was present at late stages. Pigmentary retinopathy was less prominent in the superior nasal quadrant. Rod-mediated vision was abnormal but detectable in the residual field; all patients had rod>cone dysfunction. Photoreceptor layer thickness was normal centrally but decreased with eccentricity. At the stages studied, there was no evidence of photoreceptor ciliary elongation.
Conclusions.
The patterns of disease expression in the MAK form of arRP showed some resemblance to patterns described in autosomal dominant RP, especially the form caused by RP1 mutations. The similarity in phenotypes is of interest, considering that there is experimental evidence of interaction between Mak and RP1 in the photoreceptor cilium.
doi:10.1167/iovs.11-8527
PMCID: PMC3341124  PMID: 22110072
3.  Mutations in a Guanylate Cyclase GCY-35/GCY-36 Modify Bardet-Biedl Syndrome–Associated Phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans 
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(10):e1002335.
Ciliopathies are pleiotropic and genetically heterogeneous disorders caused by defective development and function of the primary cilium. Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) proteins localize to the base of cilia and undergo intraflagellar transport, and the loss of their functions leads to a multisystemic ciliopathy. Here we report the identification of mutations in guanylate cyclases (GCYs) as modifiers of Caenorhabditis elegans bbs endophenotypes. The loss of GCY-35 or GCY-36 results in suppression of the small body size, developmental delay, and exploration defects exhibited by multiple bbs mutants. Moreover, an effector of cGMP signalling, a cGMP-dependent protein kinase, EGL-4, also modifies bbs mutant defects. We propose that a misregulation of cGMP signalling, which underlies developmental and some behavioural defects of C. elegans bbs mutants, may also contribute to some BBS features in other organisms.
Author Summary
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a genetically heterogeneous, multisystemic disorder. Defects to the cilium, an evolutionarily conserved organelle, cause ciliopathies, a growing class of diseases that includes BBS. BBS proteins are involved in the vesicular transport of proteins to the cilium and in the process of intraflagellar transport. Here we show that, in addition to sensory defects, Caenorhabditis elegans bbs mutants exhibit reduced body size and delayed developmental timing. The reduced body size phenotype is not fully recapitulated by IFT mutants, suggesting that BBS proteins may have additional functions beyond bridging IFT motors. We further identified that the loss of function mutations in the soluble guanylate cyclase complex, GCY-35/GCY-36, results in a suppression of these defects. Interestingly, GCY-35/GCY-36 influences the body size through a cGMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 in a group of body cavity neurons. BBS proteins, on the other hand, function through a non-overlapping set of ciliated sensory neurons to influence cGMP signalling in the body cavity neurons. In conclusion, this study reveals a non-cell autonomous role for sensory cilia in regulating cGMP signalling during development. We propose that aberrant cGMP signalling, essential for a number of cellular processes, may also contribute to some ciliopathy features in other systems.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002335
PMCID: PMC3192831  PMID: 22022287
4.  Recurrence risks for Bardet-Biedl syndrome: Implications of locus heterogeneity 
Purpose
Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a pleiotropic multiple anomaly syndrome inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. It is now known that this disorder has locus heterogeneity, with causative mutations identified in as many as 14 genes. The aim of this study was to derive locus-specific recurrence risk estimates for family members of a proband affected with BBS.
Methods
Mutation data from 187 probands affected with BBS were used. The authors counted the relative proportion of families with mutations at each of ten loci and estimated locus-specific carrier rates for mutations using Hardy-Weinberg principles and an aggregate population frequency of 1/100,000 for the phenotype. Locus-specific recurrence risks were calculated for relatives of an affected proband.
Results
Locus-specific carrier frequencies range from 1/250 to 1/2200, and the risks for an offspring of the sibling of an affected individual range from 1/1,500 to 1/13,000. The estimate of this risk derived under a locus homogeneity model is 1/960.
Conclusion
Variation of recurrence risks of this magnitude may have implications for genetic counseling of families with affected individuals, in particular about prenatal testing and other reproductive options. Similar analyses to determine locus-specific carrier frequencies for other phenotypes with significant locus heterogeneity may yield similarly relevant results.
PMCID: PMC3115203  PMID: 20949666
genetic heterogeneity; recurrence risks; carrier frequency; rod-cone dystrophy; obesity
5.  A novel p.Gly603Arg mutation in CACNA1F causes Åland island eye disease and incomplete congenital stationary night blindness phenotypes in a family 
Molecular Vision  2011;17:3262-3270.
Purpose
To report, for the first time, that X-linked incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2A) and Åland island eye disease (AIED) phenotypes coexist in a molecularly confirmed pedigree and to present novel phenotypic characteristics of calcium channel alpha-1F subunit gene (CACNA1F)-related disease.
Methods
Two affected subjects (the proband and his maternal grandfather) and an unaffected obligate carrier (the proband’s mother) underwent detailed ophthalmological evaluation, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Goldmann visual field assessment and full-field electroretinogram (ERG) were performed in the two affected subjects, and multichannel flash visual evoked potential was performed on the proband. Scotopic 15 Hz flicker ERG series were performed in both affected subjects to evaluate the function of the slow and fast rod pathways. Haplotype analysis using polymorphic microsatellite markers flanking CACNA1F was performed in all three family members. The proband’s DNA was sequenced for mutations in the coding sequence of CACNA1F and nyctalopin (NYX) genes. Segregation analysis was performed in the family.
Results
Both affected subjects had symptoms of nonprogressive nyctalopia since childhood, while the proband also had photophobia. Both cases had a distance visual acuity of 20/50 or better in each eye, normal contrast sensitivity, and an incomplete type of Schubert-Bornschein ERGs. The proband also had high myopia, a mild red-green color deficit, hypopigmented fundus, and foveal hypoplasia with no evidence of chiasmal misrouting. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography confirmed the presence of foveal hypoplasia in the proband. The clinical phenotype of the proband and his maternal grandfather fit the clinical description of AIED and CSNB2A, respectively. The fundus autofluorescence and the visual fields were normal in both cases; the scotopic 15 Hz flicker ERG demonstrated only fast rod pathway activity in both. Both affected cases shared the same haplotype across CACNA1F. The proband carried a novel hemizygous c.1807G>C mutation (p.G603R) in the CACNA1F gene. The change segregated with the disease phenotypes and was not identified in 360 control chromosomes. No mutations were identified in NYX.
Conclusions
This report of a missense mutation in CACNA1F causing AIED and CSNB2A phenotypes in a family confirms that both diseases are allelic and that other genetic or environmental modifiers influence the expression of CACNA1F. This is the first report to suggest that in CACNA1F-related disease, the rod system activity is predominantly from the fast rod pathways.
PMCID: PMC3244487  PMID: 22194652
7.  High-resolution retinal imaging in young children using a handheld scanner and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography 
PURPOSE
To test the feasibility and applicability of a handheld probe for Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (Fd-OCT ) retinal imaging in infants and children.
METHODS
Thirty children ages 7 months to 9.9 years, with (10 of 30) or without (20 of 30) retinal pathology, were imaged with Fd-OCT. Imaging was performed under sedation in 10 of 30 children ages 7 months to 3.7 years. A high-resolution Fd-OCT system (axial resolution: 4.5 m; acquisition speeds: 1000 A-scans/frame, 9 frames/second), constructed at the UC Davis Medical Center, in conjunction with a handheld scanner, was used for retinal imaging.
RESULTS
Useful images were obtained from all selected patients. Image acquisition was possible in a conscious state in children as young as 3 years of age. All children tolerated the tests well. The most challenging situation for young children was the lack of an internal fixation target and the moving scanning line, which usually distracted them from a steady fixation. Despite these problems, image quality was comparable with scans previously obtained from an adult population.
CONCLUSIONS
The flexible handheld scanner in association with high acquisition speed and high-resolution Fd-OCT allows retinal imaging in infants and children. This technology provides high-resolution documentation of retinal structure in a pediatric population for the first time.
doi:10.1016/j.jaapos.2008.09.001
PMCID: PMC2730587  PMID: 19121595
8.  Detailed analysis of retinal function and morphology in a patient with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB) 
The objective of the paper is to study the retinal microstructure and function in a patient with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB). Retinal function and morphology assessment in a patient diagnosed with a biallelic mutation in the BEST1 gene (heterozygote mutations: Leu88del17 and A195V) included: full-field electroretinogram (ffERG) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), electro-oculogram (EOG) testing, and imaging with a high-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (Fd-OCT) system (UC Davis Medical Center; axial resolution: 4.5 μm, acquisition speed: 9 frames/s, 1,000 A-scans/frame) combined with a flexible scanning head (Bioptigen Inc.). The 11-year old asymptomatic boy showed a well-demarcated retinopathy with deposits. Functional assessment revealed normal visual acuity, reduced central mfERG responses, delayed rod and rod-cone b-wave ffERG responses, and reduced light rise in the EOG. Fd-OCT demonstrated RPE deposits, photoreceptor detachment, elongated and thickened photoreceptor outer segments, but preserved inner retinal layers. In conclusion, ARB associated retinal dystrophy shows functional and morphological changes that overlap with classic Best disease. For the first time, high-resolution imaging provided in vivo evidence of RPE and photoreceptor involvement in ARB.
doi:10.1007/s10633-008-9154-5
PMCID: PMC2715889  PMID: 18985398
Autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy; ARB; Fourier-domain OCT; Multifocal ERG; Electro-oculogram
9.  Retinal morphology in patients with BBS1 and BBS10 related Bardet–Biedl Syndrome evaluated by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography 
Vision research  2007;48(3):392-399.
Retinal dystrophy in Bardet–Biedl Syndrome (BBS) is caused by defective genes that are expressed within ciliated cells such as photoreceptors. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the retinal structure and lamination of two groups of patients, carrying mutations in BBS1 or BBS10. Eight patients with BBS (ages 11.9–28.5 years) and mutations in BBS1 (4/8) or BBS10 (4/8) were tested. A high-resolution hand-held probe Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system (Fd-OCT) was used for retinal image acquisition. Macular scans were evaluated with respect to structure, retinal layering and photoreceptor integrity. Micro-structural in-vivo analysis showed abnormalities within retinal layers but preserved retinal lamination. Photoreceptor integrity was disrupted in all patients. Macular scans from patients with BBS10 mutations most often showed ‘deposits’ adjacent and anterior to Bruch's membrane. Age, genotype and presence of macular changes did not correlate with the structural changes observed. Retinal dystrophy in BBS is reflected by major changes in the outer retinal layers. This is the first report of in-vivo micro-structural analysis of retinal layers in patients with BBS. Mutations in different BBS genes seem to be associated with similar micro-structural changes in retinal layers.
doi:10.1016/j.visres.2007.08.024
PMCID: PMC2584151  PMID: 17980398
Bardet–Biedl Syndrome; BBS1; BBS10; Fourier-domain OCT; Retinal lamination
10.  Retinal Morphological Changes of Patients With X-linked Retinoschisis Evaluated by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography 
Archives of ophthalmology  2008;126(6):807-811.
Objective
To investigate the retinal microstructure and lamination of patients affected with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) using high-resolution imaging modalities.
Methods
Patients diagnosed as having XLRS underwent assessment. Visual function testing included visual acuity, color vision, and full-field electroretinography. We used a high-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system (4.5-μm axial resolution; 9 frames/s; 1000 A-scans per frame) combined with a handheld scanner. Macular image evaluation included schisis localization and retinal layer integrity.
Results
Six patients with XLRS and identified mutations in the XLRS1 gene underwent testing. Visual acuity ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution). Results of FD-OCT revealed foveal schisis extending from the outer to the inner plexiform layer in 4 of 6 patients. Bullous foveal schisis was associated with younger age. All patients showed extrafoveal schisis within the outer and inner nuclear and ganglion cell layer, alone or in combination. Photoreceptor outer and inner segment layers were disrupted and irregular in all patients.
Conclusions
Retinal dystrophy in XLRS is reflected by morphological changes within the inner and outer retinal layers. Disturbed foveal photoreceptor integrity was identified in all patients. Retinal layer abnormalities correlated with age but did not appear to correlate with visual acuity or genotypic variation.
doi:10.1001/archopht.126.6.807
PMCID: PMC2612690  PMID: 18541843
11.  Novel RDH12 mutations associated with Leber congenital amaurosis and cone-rod dystrophy: Biochemical and clinical evaluations 
Vision research  2007;47(15):2055-2066.
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) gene in patients affected with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) and autosomal dominant/recessive cone-rod dystrophies (CORD). Changes in the promoter region, coding regions and exon/intron junctions of the RDH12 gene were evaluated using direct DNA sequencing of patients affected with LCA (n = 36 cases), RP (n = 62) and CORD (n = 21). The allele frequency of changes observed was assessed in a multiethnic control population (n = 159 individuals). Detailed biochemical and structural modeling analysis of the observed mutations were performed to assess their biological role in the inactivation of Rdh12. A comprehensive clinical assessment of retinal structure and function in LCA patients carrying mutations in the RDH12 gene was completed. Of the six changes identified, three were novel including a homozygous C201R change in a patient affected with LCA, a heterozygous A177V change in patients affected with CORD and a heterozygous G46G change in a patient affected with LCA. A novel compound heterozygote T49M/A269fsX270 mutation was also found in a patient with LCA, and both homozygous and heterozygous R161Q changes were seen in 26 patients affected with LCA, CORD or RP. These R161Q, G46G and the A177V sequence changes were shown to be polymorphic. We found that Rdh12 mutant proteins associated with LCA were inactive or displayed only residual activity when expressed in COS-7 and Sf9 cells, whereas those mutants that were considered polymorphisms were fully active. Thus, impairment of retinal structure and function for patients carrying these mutations correlated with the biochemical properties of the mutants.
doi:10.1016/j.visres.2007.04.005
PMCID: PMC2441904  PMID: 17512964
Visual cycle; Photoreceptors; Retina; RDH12; Retinol; LCA; CORD; Retinal diseases; Rhodopsin
12.  An Essential Role for DYF-11/MIP-T3 in Assembling Functional Intraflagellar Transport Complexes 
PLoS Genetics  2008;4(3):e1000044.
MIP-T3 is a human protein found previously to associate with microtubules and the kinesin-interacting neuronal protein DISC1 (Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1), but whose cellular function(s) remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that the C. elegans MIP-T3 ortholog DYF-11 is an intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein that plays a critical role in assembling functional kinesin motor-IFT particle complexes. We have cloned a loss of function dyf-11 mutant in which several key components of the IFT machinery, including Kinesin-II, as well as IFT subcomplex A and B proteins, fail to enter ciliary axonemes and/or mislocalize, resulting in compromised ciliary structures and sensory functions, and abnormal lipid accumulation. Analyses in different mutant backgrounds further suggest that DYF-11 functions as a novel component of IFT subcomplex B. Consistent with an evolutionarily conserved cilia-associated role, mammalian MIP-T3 localizes to basal bodies and cilia, and zebrafish mipt3 functions synergistically with the Bardet-Biedl syndrome protein Bbs4 to ensure proper gastrulation, a key cilium- and basal body-dependent developmental process. Our findings therefore implicate MIP-T3 in a previously unknown but critical role in cilium biogenesis and further highlight the emerging role of this organelle in vertebrate development.
Author Summary
The transport of protein complexes and associated cargo along microtubule tracks represents an essential eukaryotic process responsible for a multitude of cellular functions, including cell division, vesicle movement to membranes, and trafficking along dendrites, axons, and cilia. The latter organelles are hair-like cellular appendages implicated in cell and fluid motility, sensing and transducing information from their environment, and development. Their biogenesis and maintenance depends on a kinesin- and dynein-mediated motility process termed intraflagellar transport (IFT). In addition to comprising these specialized molecular motors, the IFT machinery consists of large multisubunit complexes whose exact composition and organization has not been fully defined. Here we identify a protein, DYF-11/MIP-T3, that is conserved in all ciliated organisms and is associated with IFT in C. elegans. Disruption of C. elegans DYF-11 results in structurally compromised cilia, likely as a result of IFT motor and subunit misassembly. Animals lacking DYF-11 display chemosensory anomalies, consistent with a role for the protein in cilia-associated sensory processes. In zebrafish, MIP-T3 is essential for gastrulation movements during development, similar to that observed for other ciliary components, including Bardet-Biedl syndrome proteins. In conclusion, we have identified a novel IFT machinery component that is also essential for development in vertebrates.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000044
PMCID: PMC2268012  PMID: 18369462
13.  Genetic analysis of chromosome 20-related posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy: genetic heterogeneity and exclusion of three candidate genes 
Molecular Vision  2008;14:71-80.
Purpose
Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant condition which maps to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 20. Mutations in the VSX1 transcription factor have been reported in patients affected with PPCD, keratoconus, or a combination of both phenotypes. However, no mutation was identified in the coding region of VSX1 in the family used for the original mapping. To clarify the genetic basis of PPCD1, a thorough analysis was performed on the original PPCD1 family and two other PPCD1-linked families. As part of the analysis, the expression profile, transcript variants, and evolutionary conserved regions of VSX1, a key candidate gene within the linkage interval, were characterized.
Methods
Haplotype analysis was performed using highly informative markers on the pericentromeric region of chromosome 20. VSX1 transcript variants were identified using RT–PCR and characterized by 3′RACE assay. Temporal expression profile of VSX1 was evaluated using semi-quantitative real-time RT–PCR on human tissues. Evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) were identified in the vicinity of VSX1 using publicly available sequence alignments (UCSC and rVista) and sequenced for mutation analysis.
Results
Recombination events were identified that narrow the PPCD1-disease interval from 20 to 16.44 cM. This smaller interval includes the CHED1 locus and a recently described PPCD locus in Czech families. The three strongest candidate genes of the PPCD1-CHED1 overlap region (RBBP9, ZNF133, SLC24A3) did not show any mutations in our PPCD1-linked families. Semi-quantitative real-time RT–PCR detected VSX1 expression in neonatal human cornea. Six transcript variants of VSX1 were characterized. Four of the transcript variants spliced to two novel exons downstream of the gene. Mutation analysis of the PPCD1-linked families did not reveal any mutations in the full genomic sequence of VSX1 (considering all splice variants) or in the six cis- regulatory modules predicted in the vicinity of VSX1 (100 kb).
Conclusions
This is the first documentation of VSX1 expression in human neonatal cornea. We provide evidence for genetic heterogeneity of chromosome 20-related PPCD and refinement of the original PPCD1 interval. The full genomic sequence of VSX1 and coding exons of three other candidate genes were excluded from being pathogenic in the original PPCD1 family.
PMCID: PMC2267740  PMID: 18253095
14.  Eight previously unidentified mutations found in the OA1 ocular albinism gene 
BMC Medical Genetics  2006;7:41.
Background
Ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) is an X-linked ocular disorder characterized by a severe reduction in visual acuity, nystagmus, hypopigmentation of the retinal pigmented epithelium, foveal hypoplasia, macromelanosomes in pigmented skin and eye cells, and misrouting of the optical tracts. This disease is primarily caused by mutations in the OA1 gene.
Methods
The ophthalmologic phenotype of the patients and their family members was characterized. We screened for mutations in the OA1 gene by direct sequencing of the nine PCR-amplified exons, and for genomic deletions by PCR-amplification of large DNA fragments.
Results
We sequenced the nine exons of the OA1 gene in 72 individuals and found ten different mutations in seven unrelated families and three sporadic cases. The ten mutations include an amino acid substitution and a premature stop codon previously reported by our team, and eight previously unidentified mutations: three amino acid substitutions, a duplication, a deletion, an insertion and two splice-site mutations. The use of a novel Taq polymerase enabled us to amplify large genomic fragments covering the OA1 gene. and to detect very likely six distinct large deletions. Furthermore, we were able to confirm that there was no deletion in twenty one patients where no mutation had been found.
Conclusion
The identified mutations affect highly conserved amino acids, cause frameshifts or alternative splicing, thus affecting folding of the OA1 G protein coupled receptor, interactions of OA1 with its G protein and/or binding with its ligand.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-7-41
PMCID: PMC1468396  PMID: 16646960

Results 1-14 (14)