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1.  Pattern, challenges and correlates of condom use among Nigerians living with HIV infection 
Objective
To determine the pattern, challenges and correlates of condom use among Nigerians living with HIV Infection.
Methods
A cross sectional questionnaire study among HIV positive adults attending an HIV treatment centre in Lagos, Nigeria. Data entry and analysis were done with Epi-info version 3.5.1.
Results
The mean age of respondents was 35 (SD=7.7; range: 17-58 years) and mean age at sexual debut was 20 years old (range: 7-37 years). Majority were women (66.6%), had at least secondary school education(91.1%), married (68.2%)), on ART (50.7%) and knew their partners HIV status(60.9%). The rate of condom use at last sex act was 65.9%, but only 48.8% used condom consistently. Factors associated with condom use were male gender (OR=2.43, CI=1.35-4.33, P=0.002), less than secondary school education (OR=3.12, CI=1.04-9.28, P=0.05) and Not knowing partner's HIV status (OR=1.90, CI=1.04-3.80, P=0.04). Refusal to use condom (28.4%) were as a result of pregnancy intention, undesirability of condom in marriage and decreased sexual pleasure.
Conclusion
There is low consistent condom use rate of 48.8% among this cohort despite their exposure to behavioural change messages. A review of the present counselling strategy and combination prevention is therefore advocated.
doi:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1003
PMCID: PMC4025263
Condom use; HIV; Nigeria; Positive prevention
2.  Molecular Characterization of the Circulating Strains of Vibrio cholerae during 2010 Cholera Outbreak in Nigeria 
This study aimed at characterizing the phenotypic and toxigenic status of circulating strains of cholera during outbreaks in Nigeria, employing molecular typing techniques. Two hundred and one samples of rectal swabs, stool, vomitus, water (from the well, borehole, sachet, stream, and tap) and disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) were collected from three states in the country. The samples were inoculated on thiosulphate-citrate bile salt-sucrose (TCBS), Cary-Blair transport medium and smeared on glass slides for direct examination. The Vibrio cholerae isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and characterized using PCR of the cytotoxin gene A (ctxA), wbeO1, and wbfO139 gene primer. Of the 201 samples screened, 96 were positive for V. cholerae O1 (48%), with 69 (72%) positive for ctxA gene. The results from this study showed that the circulating strains of cholera in Nigeria were of Ogawa serotype, also observed in other outbreaks in Nigeria (1991, 1992, and 1996). However, the strains were of the Classical biotype and were mainly (72%) ctxA gene-positive. This current investigation has confirmed the production of cholera toxin by the circulating strains, and this could be harnessed for possible cholera vaccine production in Nigeria.
PMCID: PMC3702338  PMID: 23930335
Cholera toxin gene A; Classical; Ogawa; V. cholerae; Nigeria
3.  Incidence of and socio-biologic risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth in HIV positive Nigerian women 
Background
Recent studies have identified HIV as a leading contributor to preterm delivery and its associated morbidity and mortality. However little or no information exists in our sub-region on this subject. Identifying the factors associated with preterm delivery in HIV positive women in our country and sub-region will not only prevent mother to child transmission of HIV virus but will also reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with prematurity and low birth weight. This study was designed to determine the incidence and risk factors for preterm delivery in HIV positive Nigerians.
Method
The required data for this retrospective study was extracted from the data base of a cohort study of the outcome of prevention of mother to child transmission at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos. Only data of women that met the eligibility of spontaneous delivery after 20 weeks of gestation were included. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institution’s Ethical Review Board.
Results
181 women out of the 1626 eligible for inclusion into the study had spontaneous preterm delivery (11.1%). The mean birth weight was 3.1 ± 0.4 kg, with 10.3% having LBW. Spontaneous preterm delivery was found to be significantly associated with unmarried status (cOR: 1.7;1.52-2.57), baseline CD4 count <200 cells/mm3(cOR: 1.8; 1.16-2.99), presence of opportunistic infection at delivery (cOR: 2.2;1.23-3.57), multiple pregnancy (cOR 10.4; 4.24 – 26.17), use of PI based triple ARV therapy (eOR 10.2; 5.52 – 18.8) in the first trimester (cOR 2.5; 1.77 – 3.52) on univariate analysis. However after multivariate analysis controlling for potential confounding variables including low birth weight, only multiple pregnancy (aOR: 8.6; CI: 6.73 – 12.9), presence of opportunistic infection at delivery (aOR: 1.9; CI: 1.1 – 5.7), and 1st trimester exposure to PI based triple therapy (aOR: 5.4; CI: 3.4 – 7.8) retained their significant association with preterm delivery.
Conclusion
The spontaneous preterm delivery rate among our cohort was 11.1%. HIV positive women with multiple pregnancies, symptomatic HIV infection at delivery and first trimester fetal exposure to PI based triple therapy were found to be at risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. Early booking and non-use of PI based triple therapy in the first trimester will significantly reduce the risk of preterm delivery.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-93
PMCID: PMC3449176  PMID: 22958756
Spontaneous preterm birth/delivery HIV; Pregnancy; Viral load; CD4 count; Low birth weight

Results 1-3 (3)