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1.  Foetal Loss and Enhanced Fertility Observed in Mice Treated with Zidovudine or Nevirapine 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e107899.
Background
Health concerns for HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have moved from morbidity to the challenges of long-term ART. We investigated the effect of Zidovudine or Nevirapine on reproductive capacity across two mouse generations.
Methods
A prospective mouse study with drugs administered through one spermatogenic cycle. Mouse groups (16 males and 10 females) were given Zidovudine or Nevirapine for 56 days. Males were mated to untreated virgin females to determine dominant lethal effects. Twenty females (10 treated and 10 untreated) mated with the treated males per dose and gave birth to the F1 generation. Parental mice were withdrawn from drugs for one spermatogenic cycle and mated to the same dams to ascertain if effects are reversible. The F1 generation were exposed for another 56 days and mated to produce the F2 generation.
Results
Foetal loss was indicated in the dominant lethal assay as early as four weeks into drug administration to the males. At the first mating of the parental generation to produce the F1 generation, births from 10 dams/dose when the ‘father-only’ was exposed to Zidovudine (10, 100 and 250 mg/kg) was 3, 2 and 1 while it was 7, 1 and 4 respectively when ‘both-parents’ were exposed. Similarly births from the parental generation first mating when the ‘father-only’ was exposed to Nevirapine (5, 50 and 150 mg/kg) was 2, 2 and 0 while it was 6, 5 and 9 respectively when ‘both-parents’ were exposed. However, fertility was not significantly different neither by dose nor by the parental exposure. The F1 mice mated to produce the F2 generation recorded only one birth.
Conclusion
The dominant lethal analysis showed foetal loss occurred when the “fathers-only” were treated while fertility was enhanced when “both-parents” were on therapy at the time of mating.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107899
PMCID: PMC4169457  PMID: 25233270
2.  Incidence of and socio-biologic risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth in HIV positive Nigerian women 
Background
Recent studies have identified HIV as a leading contributor to preterm delivery and its associated morbidity and mortality. However little or no information exists in our sub-region on this subject. Identifying the factors associated with preterm delivery in HIV positive women in our country and sub-region will not only prevent mother to child transmission of HIV virus but will also reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with prematurity and low birth weight. This study was designed to determine the incidence and risk factors for preterm delivery in HIV positive Nigerians.
Method
The required data for this retrospective study was extracted from the data base of a cohort study of the outcome of prevention of mother to child transmission at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos. Only data of women that met the eligibility of spontaneous delivery after 20 weeks of gestation were included. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institution’s Ethical Review Board.
Results
181 women out of the 1626 eligible for inclusion into the study had spontaneous preterm delivery (11.1%). The mean birth weight was 3.1 ± 0.4 kg, with 10.3% having LBW. Spontaneous preterm delivery was found to be significantly associated with unmarried status (cOR: 1.7;1.52-2.57), baseline CD4 count <200 cells/mm3(cOR: 1.8; 1.16-2.99), presence of opportunistic infection at delivery (cOR: 2.2;1.23-3.57), multiple pregnancy (cOR 10.4; 4.24 – 26.17), use of PI based triple ARV therapy (eOR 10.2; 5.52 – 18.8) in the first trimester (cOR 2.5; 1.77 – 3.52) on univariate analysis. However after multivariate analysis controlling for potential confounding variables including low birth weight, only multiple pregnancy (aOR: 8.6; CI: 6.73 – 12.9), presence of opportunistic infection at delivery (aOR: 1.9; CI: 1.1 – 5.7), and 1st trimester exposure to PI based triple therapy (aOR: 5.4; CI: 3.4 – 7.8) retained their significant association with preterm delivery.
Conclusion
The spontaneous preterm delivery rate among our cohort was 11.1%. HIV positive women with multiple pregnancies, symptomatic HIV infection at delivery and first trimester fetal exposure to PI based triple therapy were found to be at risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. Early booking and non-use of PI based triple therapy in the first trimester will significantly reduce the risk of preterm delivery.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-93
PMCID: PMC3449176  PMID: 22958756
Spontaneous preterm birth/delivery HIV; Pregnancy; Viral load; CD4 count; Low birth weight

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