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author:("wold, Eunice")
1.  Maintaining Participation and Momentum in Longitudinal Research Involving High-Risk Families 
Journal of Nursing Scholarship  2012;44(2):120-126.
Purpose
The purpose of the current study was to identify and describe strategies available to optimize retention of a high-risk research cohort and assist in the recovery of study participants following participant dropout.
Design and Methods
The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which investigated the effects of prenatal substance exposure (cocaine or opiates) on child outcome, is a prospective longitudinal follow-up study that extended from birth through 15 years of age. Retention strategies to maximize participation and factors that might negatively impact compliance were examined over the course of five follow-up phases.
Findings
At the conclusion of the 15-year visits, MLS had successfully maintained compliance at 76%. Retention rates did not differ by exposure group.
Conclusions
Maintaining ongoing participation of enrolled study subjects is a critical element of any successful longitudinal study. Strategies that can be used to reengage and maintain participants in longitudinal research include persistence, flexibility with scheduling, home visits, long-distance trips, increased incentives, and development of a computerized tracking system. Establishing rapport with families and ensuring confidentiality contributed to overall participant retention. The use of multiple tracking techniques is essential.
Clinical Relevance
Researchers are challenged to maintain participants in longitudinal studies to ensure the integrity of their research.
doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2012.01439.x
PMCID: PMC3366028  PMID: 22458928
Longitudinal research; participant retention; tracking; compliance
2.  Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure at 9 Years of Age 
Journal of hypertension  2010;28(6):1166-1175.
Background
Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to intrauterine growth retardation and poor birth outcomes; little is known about the effects on longer-term medical outcomes, such as overweight status and hypertension in childhood. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and body mass index and blood pressure at 9 years of age among children followed prospectively in a multi-site longitudinal study evaluating the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on childhood outcome.
Design/Methods
This analysis includes 880 children (277 cocaine exposed and 603 with no cocaine exposure) with blood pressure, height, and weight measurements at 9 years of age. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure and body mass index and blood pressure at 9 years of age after controlling for demographics, other drug exposure, birth weight, maternal weight, infant postnatal weight gain, and childhood television viewing, exercise and dietary habits at 9 years. Path analyses were used to further explore these relationships.
Results
At 9 years of age, 15% of the children were pre-hypertensive and 19% were hypertensive; 16% were at risk for overweight status and 21% were overweight. A small percentage of women were exposed to high levels of prenatal cocaine throughout pregnancy. Among children born to these women, a higher body mass index was noted. Path analysis suggested that high cocaine exposure has an indirect effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure that is mediated through its effect on body mass index.
Conclusion
High levels of in-utero cocaine exposure are a marker for elevated body mass index and blood pressure among children born full term.
PMCID: PMC2874425  PMID: 20486281
Prenatal cocaine exposure; Body mass index; Childhood hypertension; Overweight; Obesity

Results 1-2 (2)