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1.  Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in the Early CPAP and Pulse Oximetry Trial 
The New England journal of medicine  2012;367(26):2495-2504.
Previous results from our trial of early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus early surfactant treatment in infants showed no significant difference in the outcome of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. A lower (vs. higher) target range of oxygen saturation was associated with a lower rate of severe retinopathy but higher mortality. We now report longer-term results from our prespecified hypotheses.
Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned infants born between 24 weeks 0 days and 27 weeks 6 days of gestation to early CPAP with a limited ventilation strategy or early surfactant administration and to lower or higher target ranges of oxygen saturation (85 to 89% or 91 to 95%). The primary composite outcome for the longer-term analysis was death before assessment at 18 to 22 months or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months of corrected age.
The primary outcome was determined for 1234 of 1316 enrolled infants (93.8%); 990 of the 1058 surviving infants (93.6%) were evaluated at 18 to 22 months of corrected age. Death or neurodevelopmental impairment occurred in 27.9% of the infants in the CPAP group (173 of 621 infants), versus 29.9% of those in the surfactant group (183 of 613) (relative risk, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.10; P = 0.38), and in 30.2% of the infants in the lower-oxygen-saturation group (185 of 612), versus 27.5% of those in the higher-oxygen-saturation group (171 of 622) (relative risk, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.32; P = 0.21). Mortality was increased with the lower-oxygen-saturation target (22.1%, vs. 18.2% with the higher-oxygen-saturation target; relative risk, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.55; P = 0.046).
We found no significant differences in the composite outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment among extremely premature infants randomly assigned to early CPAP or early surfactant administration and to a lower or higher target range of oxygen saturation. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; SUPPORT number, NCT00233324.)
PMCID: PMC4140695  PMID: 23268664
2.  Umbilical Cord Milking Improves Transition in Premature Infants at Birth 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94085.
Umbilical cord milking (UCM) improves blood pressure and urine output, and decreases the need for transfusions in comparison to immediate cord clamping (ICC). The immediate effect of UCM in the first few minutes of life and the impact on neonatal resuscitation has not been described.
Women admitted to a tertiary care center and delivering before 32 weeks gestation were randomized to receive UCM or ICC. A blinded analysis of physiologic data collected on the newborns in the delivery room was performed using a data acquisition system. Heart rate (HR), SpO2, mean airway pressure (MAP), and FiO2 in the delivery room were compared between infants receiving UCM and infants with ICC.
41 of 60 neonates who were enrolled and randomized had data from analog tracings at birth. 20 of these infants received UCM and 21 had ICC. Infants receiving UCM had higher heart rates and higher SpO2 over the first 5 minutes of life, were exposed to less FiO2 over the first 10 minutes of life than infants with ICC.
UCM when compared to ICC had decreased need for support immediately following delivery, and in situations where resuscitation interventions were needed immediately, UCM has the advantage of being completed in a very short time to improve stability following delivery.
Trial Registration NCT01434732
PMCID: PMC3978008  PMID: 24709780
3.  Safety and Effectiveness of Meropenem in Infants With Suspected or Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections 
The safety and effectiveness of meropenem in young infants with suspected or confirmed intra-abdominal infections were evaluated. was well tolerated in this cohort of critically-ill infants, and the majority of infants treated with meropenem (84%) met the definition of therapeutic success.
Background. Intra-abdominal infections are common in young infants and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Meropenem is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial with excellent activity against pathogens associated with intra-abdominal infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and effectiveness of meropenem in young infants with suspected or complicated intra-abdominal infections.
Methods. Preterm and term infants <91 days of age with suspected or confirmed intra-abdominal infections hospitalized in 24 neonatal intensive care units were studied in an open-label, multiple-dose study. Adverse events and serious adverse events were collected through 3 and 30 days following the last meropenem dose, respectively. Effectiveness was assessed by 3 criteria: death, bacterial cultures, and presumptive clinical cure score.
Results. Of 200 subjects enrolled in the study, 99 (50%) experienced an adverse event, and 34 (17%) had serious adverse events; no adverse events were probably or definitely related to meropenem. The most commonly reported adverse events were sepsis (6%), seizures (5%), elevated conjugated bilirubin (5%), and hypokalemia (5%). Only 2 of the serious adverse events were determined to be possibly related to meropenem (isolated ileal perforation and an episode of fungal sepsis). Effectiveness was evaluable in 192 (96%) subjects, and overall treatment success was 84%.
Conclusions. Meropenem was well tolerated in this cohort of critically ill infants, and the majority of infants treated with meropenem met the definition of therapeutic success.
Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00621192.
PMCID: PMC3491861  PMID: 22955430
4.  Low Oxygen Saturation Target Range is Associated with Increased Incidence of Intermittent Hypoxemia 
The Journal of pediatrics  2012;161(6):1047-1052.
To test the hypothesis that preterm infants randomized to a low vs high O2 saturation target range have a higher incidence of intermittent hypoxemia.
Study design
A subcohort of 115 preterm infants with high resolution pulse oximetry enrolled in the Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomized Trial were randomized to low (85%-89%) or high (91%-95%) O2 saturation target ranges. Oxygen saturation was monitored until 36 weeks postmenstrual age or until the infant was breathing room air without respiratory support for ≥72 hours.
The low target O2 saturation group had a higher rate of intermittent hypoxemia (≤80% for ≥10 seconds and ≤3 minutes) prior to 12 days and beyond 57 days of life (P < .05). The duration shortened (P < .0001) and the severity increased (P < .0001) with increasing postnatal age with no differences between target saturation groups. The higher rate of intermittent hypoxemia events in the low target group was associated with a time interval between events of <1 minute.
A low O2 saturation target was associated with an increased rate of intermittent hypoxemia events that was dependent on postnatal age. The duration and severity of events was comparable between target groups. Further investigation is needed to assess the role of intermittent hypoxemia and their timing on neonatal morbidity.
PMCID: PMC3730286  PMID: 22738947
5.  Enrollment of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in a Clinical Research Study May Not Be Representative 
Pediatrics  2012;129(3):480-484.
The Surfactant Positive Airway Pressure and Pulse Oximetry Randomized Trial (SUPPORT) antenatal consent study demonstrated that mothers of infants enrolled in the SUPPORT trial had significantly different demographics and exposure to antenatal steroids compared with mothers of eligible, but not enrolled infants. The objective of this analysis was to compare the outcomes of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy of prematurity, severe intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia (IVH/PVL), death, and death/severe IVH/PVL for infants enrolled in SUPPORT in comparison with eligible, but not enrolled infants.
Perinatal characteristics and neonatal outcomes were compared for enrolled and eligible but not enrolled infants in bivariate analyses. Models were created to test the effect of enrollment in SUPPORT on outcomes, controlling for perinatal characteristics.
There were 1316 infants enrolled in SUPPORT; 3053 infants were eligible, but not enrolled. In unadjusted analyses, enrolled infants had significantly lower rates of death before discharge, severe IVH/PVL, death/severe IVH/PVL (all < 0.001), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (P = .003) in comparison with eligible, but not enrolled infants. The rate of severe retinopathy of prematurity was not significantly different. After adjustment for perinatal factors, enrollment in the trial was not a significant predictor of any of the tested clinical outcomes.
The results of this analysis demonstrate significant outcome differences between enrolled and eligible but not enrolled infants in a trial using antenatal consent, which were likely due to enrollment bias resulting from the antenatal consent process. Additional research and regulatory review need to be conducted to ensure that large moderate-risk trials that require antenatal consent can be conducted in such a way as to ensure the generalizability of results.
PMCID: PMC3289530  PMID: 22371462
antenatal steroids; clinical research/trials; informed consent; neonatal
6.  Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Preterm Infants: An Individual-Patient Data Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials 
Pediatrics  2011;128(4):729-739.
Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is an effective therapy for pulmonary hypertension and hypoxic respiratory failure in term infants. Fourteen randomized controlled trials (n = 3430 infants) have been conducted on preterm infants at risk for chronic lung disease (CLD). The study results seem contradictory.
Individual-patient data meta-analysis included randomized controlled trials of preterm infants (<37 weeks' gestation). Outcomes were adjusted for trial differences and correlation between siblings.
Data from 3298 infants in 12 trials (96%) were analyzed. There was no statistically significant effect of iNO on death or CLD (59% vs 61%: relative risk [RR]: 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92–1.01]; P = .11) or severe neurologic events on imaging (25% vs 23%: RR: 1.12 [95% CI: 0.98–1.28]; P = .09). There were no statistically significant differences in iNO effect according to any of the patient-level characteristics tested. In trials that used a starting iNO dose of >5 vs ≤5 ppm there was evidence of improved outcome (interaction P = .02); however, these differences were not observed at other levels of exposure to iNO. This result was driven primarily by 1 trial, which also differed according to overall dose, duration, timing, and indication for treatment; a significant reduction in death or CLD (RR: 0.85 [95% CI: 0.74–0.98]) was found.
Routine use of iNO for treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants cannot be recommended. The use of a higher starting dose might be associated with improved outcome, but because there were differences in the designs of these trials, it requires further examination.
PMCID: PMC3387905  PMID: 21930540
inhaled nitric oxide; chronic lung disease; respiratory disease; preterm infants; individual-patient data meta-analysis
7.  Prediction of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia by Postnatal Age in Extremely Premature Infants 
Rationale: Benefits of identifying risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature infants include providing prognostic information, identifying infants likely to benefit from preventive strategies, and stratifying infants for clinical trial enrollment.
Objectives: To identify risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and the competing outcome of death, by postnatal day; to identify which risk factors improve prediction; and to develop a Web-based estimator using readily available clinical information to predict risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death.
Methods: We assessed infants of 23–30 weeks' gestation born in 17 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network and enrolled in the Neonatal Research Network Benchmarking Trial from 2000–2004.
Measurements and Main Results: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was defined as a categorical variable (none, mild, moderate, or severe). We developed and validated models for bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk at six postnatal ages using gestational age, birth weight, race and ethnicity, sex, respiratory support, and FiO2, and examined the models using a C statistic (area under the curve). A total of 3,636 infants were eligible for this study. Prediction improved with advancing postnatal age, increasing from a C statistic of 0.793 on Day 1 to a maximum of 0.854 on Day 28. On Postnatal Days 1 and 3, gestational age best improved outcome prediction; on Postnatal Days 7, 14, 21, and 28, type of respiratory support did so. A Web-based model providing predicted estimates for bronchopulmonary dysplasia by postnatal day is available at
Conclusions: The probability of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature infants can be determined accurately using a limited amount of readily available clinical information.
PMCID: PMC3136997  PMID: 21471086
bronchopulmonary dysplasia; prematurity; low-birth-weight infant
8.  Antenatal Consent in the SUPPORT Trial: Challenges, Costs, and Representative Enrollment 
Pediatrics  2010;126(1):e215-e221.
The purposes of this study were to quantify the time and effort involved in obtaining prenatal consent for the Neonatal Research Network Surfactant Positive Airway Pressure and Pulse Oximetry Randomized Trial (SUPPORT) and to determine whether the enrolled infants were representative of the eligible population.
Eligible subjects were likely to deliver in the SUPPORT gestational age window (24–27 6/7; weeks). Data included who approached the subjects for consent, how often they approached, the duration of each contact, whether consent was obtained, and whether subjects were enrolled in the trial. Eligible, nonenrolled infants entered into the Neonatal Research Network Generic Database throughout the period of SUPPORT enrollment were compared with enrolled infants.
A total of 2826 women were identified at 18 sites, 2228 were approached for consent, and 1219 (54.7%) agreed. For 76.9% of those approached, <3 visits (mean: 2.0 ± 1.2 visits) were required to complete the consent process. Of the 659 infants with consent who were delivered within the study window, 611 were enrolled. Mothers who received a neonatal consultation were more likely to give consent (P < .001). The proportion of infants not exposed to steroids was significantly greater in the nonapproached group than in the approached group (20.0% vs 3.4%; P < .0001).
In a trial that involved preterm infants and required prenatal consent, >5 women were identified as being likely to deliver in the SUPPORT gestational age window for each 1 who delivered an enrolled infant.
PMCID: PMC3057215  PMID: 20587676
informed consent; prenatal; neonatal
9.  Inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis 
BMC Pediatrics  2010;10:15.
Preterm infants requiring assisted ventilation are at significant risk of both pulmonary and cerebral injury. Inhaled Nitric Oxide, an effective therapy for pulmonary hypertension and hypoxic respiratory failure in the full term infant, has also been studied in preterm infants. The most recent Cochrane review of preterm infants includes 11 studies and 3,370 participants. The results show a statistically significant reduction in the combined outcome of death or chronic lung disease (CLD) in two studies with routine use of iNO in intubated preterm infants. However, uncertainty remains as a larger study (Kinsella 2006) showed no significant benefit for iNO for this combined outcome. Also, trials that included very ill infants do not demonstrate significant benefit. One trial of iNO treatment at a later postnatal age reported a decrease in the incidence of CLD. The aim of this individual patient meta-analysis is to confirm or refute these potentially conflicting results and to determine the extent to which patient or treatment characteristics may explain the results and/or may predict benefit from inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants.
The Meta-Analysis of Preterm Patients on inhaled Nitric Oxide (MAPPiNO) Collaboration will perform an individual patient data meta-analysis to answer these important clinical questions. Studies will be included if preterm infants receiving assisted ventilation are randomized to receive inhaled Nitric Oxide or to a control group. The individual patient data provided by the Collaborators will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis where possible. Binary outcomes will be analyzed using log-binomial regression models and continuous outcomes will be analyzed using linear fixed effects models. Adjustments for trial differences will be made by including the trial variable in the model specification.
Thirteen (13) trials, with a total of 3567 infants are eligible for inclusion in the MAPPiNO systematic review. To date 11 trials (n = 3298, 92% of available patients) have agreed to participate. Funding was successfully granted from Ikaria Inc as an unrestricted grant. A collaborative group was formed in 2006 with data collection commencing in 2007. It is anticipated that data analysis will commence in late 2009 with results being publicly available in 2010.
PMCID: PMC2860486  PMID: 20331899

Results 1-9 (9)