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1.  Death or Neurodevelopmental Impairment at 18 To 22 Months in a Randomized Trial of Early Dexamethasone to Prevent Death or Chronic Lung Disease in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants 
The Journal of pediatrics  2013;164(1):34-39.e2.
To evaluate the incidence of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18 to 22 months corrected age in subjects enrolled in a trial of early dexamethasone treatment to prevent death or chronic lung disease in extremely low birth weight infants.
Evaluation of infants at 18 to 22 months corrected age included anthropomorphic measurements, a standard neurological examination, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, including the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and the Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI). NDI was defined as moderate or severe cerebral palsy, MDI or PDI less than 70, blindness, or hearing impairment.
Death or NDI at 18 to 22 months corrected age was similar in the dexamethasone and placebo groups (65 vs 66 percent, p= 0.99 among those with known outcome). The proportion of survivors with NDI was also similar, as were mean values for weight, length, and head circumference and the proportion of infants with poor growth (50 vs 41 percent, p=0.42 for weight less than 10th percentile). Forty nine percent of infants in the placebo group received treatment with corticosteroid compared to 32% in the dexamethasone group (p=0.02).
The risk of death or NDI and rate of poor growth were high but similar in the dexamethasone and placebo groups. The lack of a discernible effect of early dexamethasone on neurodevelopmental outcome may be due to frequent clinical corticosteroid use in the placebo group.
PMCID: PMC4120744  PMID: 23992673
neurodevelopmental outcome; growth; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; cerebral palsy; neonatal follow-up
2.  Concurrent Diabetes Mellitus may Negatively Influence Clinical Progression and Response to Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer 
Frontiers in Oncology  2015;5:129.
To determine if a concurrent diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is associated with worse outcomes in advanced prostate cancer (PC). The effect diabetes may have on the progression of advanced PC is poorly understood.
Data on 148 advanced PC patients (35 with concurrent diabetes) were collected from an institutional database to obtain diabetic status, data on treatment types and durations, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values before, during, and after treatment. Time to castration resistance following the onset of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and overall survival (OS) in patients with and without diabetes were compared using univariate Cox regression analyses as the primary endpoints. Differences in PSA response to treatments were compared using chi-squared tests as a secondary endpoint.
With a median follow-up of 29 months, time to castration resistance did not differ significantly between patients with and without diabetes who underwent ADT. However, in a subset of patients who received ADT without radiographic evidence of metastases (N = 47), those with diabetes progressed to castration-resistant disease more quickly than those without DM (hazard ratio for progression with diabetes = 4.58; 95% CI: 1.92–10.94; p = 0.0006). Also, a lower percentage of patients undergoing ADT with diabetes had PSA declines of at least 50% (p = 0.17) and reached a nadir PSA <0.2 ng/mL (p = 0.06). OS did not differ based on diabetic status. No differences were seen in response to first-line therapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Diabetes mellitus may have a detrimental effect on progression of advanced PC, particularly in those patients without radiographic evidence of metastases. Further study is necessary to fully elucidate the effect of diabetes on PC outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4467174  PMID: 26125012
androgen deprivation therapy; diabetes mellitus; time to castration-resistant prostate cancer; insulin resistance and cancer; hormone-sensitive prostate cancer
3.  Analysis of the Correlation between Endorectal MRI Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Biochemical Recurrence in Patients with High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer 
Intermediate endpoints are desirable to expedite the integration of neoadjuvant systemic therapy into the treatment strategy for high-risk localized prostate cancer. Endorectal MRI at 1.5 Tesla (1.5T erMRI) response has been utilized as an endpoint in neoadjuvant trials but has not been correlated with clinical outcomes.
Data were pooled from two trials exploring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk localized prostate cancer. Trial 1 explored docetaxel for 6 months and Trial 2 explored docetaxel plus bevacizumab for 4.5 months, both prior to radical prostatectomy. erMRI was done at baseline and end of chemotherapy. 1.5T erMRI response, based upon T2W sequences, was recorded. Multivariable Cox regression was undertaken to evaluate the association between clinical parameters and biochemical recurrence.
There were 53 evaluable patients in the combined analysis: 20 (33%) achieved a PSA response, 16 (27%) achieved an erMRI partial response, and 24 (40%) achieved an erMRI minor response. Median follow-up was 4.2 years and 33 of 53 evaluable (62%) patients developed biochemical recurrence. On multivariable analysis, PSA response did not correlate with biochemical recurrence (HR=0.58, 95% CI 0.25–1.33) and paradoxically erMRI response was associated with a significantly shorter time to biochemical recurrence (HR=2.47, 95% CI 1.00–6.13).
Response by 1.5T erMRI does not correlate with a decreased likelihood of biochemical recurrence in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and may be associated with inferior outcomes. These data do not support the use of 1.5T erMRI response as a primary endpoint in neoadjuvant chemotherapy trials.
PMCID: PMC4026061  PMID: 23712318
Prostate cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; endorectal MRI; intermediate endpoints
4.  Phase Ib/II Trial of Gemcitabine, Cisplatin, and Lenalidomide as First-Line Therapy in Patients With Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma 
The Oncologist  2014;19(9):915-916.
Outcomes with current chemotherapy in metastatic urothelial carcinoma (MUC) remain poor. Lenalidomide, an antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory agent, enhances the effects of chemotherapy in preclinical studies. In this phase Ib/II study, we sought to determine a tolerable dose of lenalidomide in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GCL) in patients with MUC and to explore the safety and activity of this regimen.
Patients with chemotherapy-naïve MUC received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 and cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1 every 21 days. In phase Ib, there were four planned escalating dose levels of lenalidomide (10, 15, 20, and 25 mg) daily on days 1–14.
Seven patients received GCL in phase Ib. The dose of lenalidomide was not escalated beyond 10 mg because of cytopenias requiring repeated dose delays and reductions. Two additional patients were enrolled in phase II, but the study was ultimately terminated due to poor tolerability and slow accrual. The most frequent grade ≥3 adverse events were cytopenias and diarrhea. Three of the nine patients experienced an objective response (one complete response, two partial responses).
Chronic administration of the GCL regimen was poorly tolerated because of additive and cumulative myelosuppression.
PMCID: PMC4153455  PMID: 25052451
5.  Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants with Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation or Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis 
To determine if extremely low birth weight infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis have a higher risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment and neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors (secondary outcome) at 18–22 months corrected age compared to infants with spontaneous intestinal perforation and infants without necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous intestinal perforation.
Study Design
Retrospective analysis of the Neonatal Research Network very low birth weight registry, evaluating extremely low birth weight infants born between 2000–2005. The study infants were designated into 3 groups: 1) Spontaneous intestinal perforation without necrotizing enterocolitis; 2) Surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (Bell's stage III); and 3) Neither spontaneous intestinal perforation nor necrotizing enterocolitis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the clinical group and death or neurodevelopmental impairment, controlling for multiple confounding factors including center.
Infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis had the highest rate of death prior to hospital discharge (53.5%) and death or neurodevelopmental impairment (82.3%) compared to infants in the spontaneous intestinal perforation group (39.1% and 79.3%) and no necrotizing enterocolitis/no spontaneous intestinal perforation group (22.1% and 53.3%; p<0.001). Similar results were observed for neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors. On logistic regression analysis, both spontaneous intestinal perforation and surgical necrotizing enterocolitis were associated with increased risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (adjusted OR 2.21, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.2 and adjusted OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.5, 2.9 respectively) and neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors (adjusted OR 2.17, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.2 and adjusted OR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.4 respectively).
Spontaneous intestinal perforation and surgical necrotizing enterocolitis are associated with a similar increase in the risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment and neurodevelopmental impairment among extremely low birth weight survivors at 18–22 months corrected age.
PMCID: PMC3877158  PMID: 24135709
spontaneous intestinal perforation; necrotizing enterocolitis; extremely low birth weight; neurodevelopmental impairment
6.  Roles of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Natural Inhibitors in Prostate Cancer Progression 
Cancers  2014;6(3):1298-1327.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of zinc-dependent endopeptidases involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix, play an important role in tissue remodeling associated with various physiological processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and tissue repair, as well as pathological processes including cirrhosis, arthritis and cancer. The MMPs are well established as mediators of tumor invasion and metastasis by breaking down connective tissue barriers. Although there has been a vast amount of literature on the role of MMPs in invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of various cancers, the role of these endopeptidases in prostate cancer progression has not been systematically reviewed. This overview summarizes findings on the tissue and blood expression of MMPs, their function, regulation and prognostic implication in human prostate cancer, with a focus on MMP-2, -7, -9, MT1-MMP and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1). This review also summarizes the efficacy and failure of early-generation matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer and highlights the lessons and challenges for next generation MMPIs.
PMCID: PMC4190542  PMID: 24978435
MMP; TIMP; prostate cancer
7.  The role of cabazitaxel in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer 
For decades, cytotoxic therapy was considered ineffective for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Earlier therapies such as estramustine and mitoxantrone received regulatory approval based upon improvement in palliative endpoints. In 2004, docetaxel became the first treatment to demonstrate a significant survival benefit in patients with mCRPC based on two randomized phase III studies, TAX327 and SWOG 99-16. Cabazitaxel, a third-generation taxane, was chosen for clinical development based on its decreased affinity for the drug efflux pump, p-glycoprotein, which is a frequent cause of drug resistance in docetaxel-resistant preclinical models. In 2010, cabazitaxel was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as the first therapy to show a survival benefit for the treatment of patients with docetaxel-refractory mCRPC. This review summarizes the existing literature on the use of cabazitaxel, focusing on its efficacy and safety in combination with prednisone in the treatment of mCRPC, as well as its role in an era of new therapeutic options.
PMCID: PMC4003844  PMID: 24883107
cabazitaxel; castration resistant; docetaxel; efficacy; prostate cancer; safety; taxane
9.  Indomethacin Prophylaxis to Prevent Intraventricular Hemorrhage: Association between Incidence and Timing of Drug Administration 
The Journal of pediatrics  2013;163(3):706-10.e1.
To test the hypothesis that administration of indomethacin prophylaxis before 6 hours of life results in a lower incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) compared with administration after 6 hours of life, and that the effects of early prophylaxis depend on gestational age (GA) and sex in very low birth weight infants (birth weight <1250 g).
Study design
Very low birth weight infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit between 2003 and 2010 who received indomethacin prophylaxis were analyzed retrospectively. Exclusion criteria included unknown time of indomethacin prophylaxis, death at <12 hours of life, congenital anomalies, and unavailable head ultrasound report. Infants were dichotomized based on the timing of indomethacin prophylaxis (<6 hours or >6 hours of life) to compare incidence of IVH all grades and severe (grade 3–4) IVH. Secondary analyses examined the effects of the time of indomethacin prophylaxis initiation by GA and sex on the incidence of IVH.
A total of 868 infants (431 males and 437 females) met the criteria for analysis. Indomethacin prophylaxis was given at <6 hours of life in 730 infants and at >6 hours of life to 168 infants. The 2 groups differed with respect to antenatal steroid exposure, GA, outborn prevalence, and pneumothoraces. After multivariate analysis, there were no between-group differences in all-grade or severe IVH. However, females, but not males, treated at <6 hours of life had a lower incidence of severe IVH (P < .05), particularly at lower GAs.
Prophylactic indomethacin administered before 6 hours of life is not associated with lower incidence of IVH.
PMCID: PMC3939677  PMID: 23522865
10.  Vitamin A Supplementation in Extremely Low- Birth-Weight Infants: Subgroup Analysis in Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants 
American journal of perinatology  2013;30(9):771-780.
Preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction are at increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). A randomized clinical trial by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) preterm infants requiring early respiratory support decreased the risk of developing BPD.
Study Design
A subgroup analysis of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants from the original NICHD trial was performed to test the hypothesis that in infants requiring early respiratory support, vitamin A supplementation decreases the relative risk of BPD or death in premature SGA infants to a greater extent than in gestational age–equivalent vitamin A–treated appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants.
Although vitamin A supplementation significantly increased serum retinol concentrations in AGA ELBW infants (median [5th percentile, 95th percentile]: 16.3 [−7.0, 68.8] versus 2.4 [−13.9, 55.1]; p < 0.001), no increases were noted in SGA ELBW infants.
Given the limited power of this analysis due to a low number of SGA infants, these data did not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that vitamin A supplementation in preterm SGA infants requiring early respiratory support decreases the relative risk of BPD or death as compared with preterm AGA infants.
PMCID: PMC3923571  PMID: 23329565
vitamin A; IUGR–intrauterine growth restriction; BPD–bronchopulmonary dysplasia; SGA–small for gestational age; AGA–appropriate for gestational age
11.  Angiogenesis inhibitor therapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma: Toxicity and treatment patterns in clinical practice from a global medical chart review 
The aim of this study was to assess the treatment patterns and safety of sunitinib, sorafenib and bevacizumab in real-world clinical settings in US, Europe and Asia. Medical records were abstracted at 18 community oncology clinics in the US and at 21 tertiary oncology centers in US, Europe and Asia for 883 patients ≥18 years who had histologically/cytologically confirmed diagnosis of advanced RCC and received sunitinib (n=631), sorafenib (n=207) or bevacizumab (n=45) as first-line treatment. No prior treatment was permitted. Data were collected on all adverse events (AEs) and treatment modifications, including discontinuation, interruption and dose reduction. Treatment duration was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Demographics were similar across treatment groups and regions. Median treatment duration ranged from 6.1 to 10.7 months, 5.1 to 8.5 months and 7.5 to 9.8 months for sunitinib, sorafenib and bevacizumab patients, respectively. Grade 3/4 AEs were experienced by 26.0, 28.0 and 15.6% of sunitinib, sorafenib and bevacizumab patients, respectively. Treatment discontinuations occurred in 62.4 (Asia) to 63.1% (US) sunitinib, 68.8 (Asia) to 90.0% (Europe) sorafenib, and 66.7 (Asia) to 81.8% (US) bevacizumab patients. Globally, treatment modifications due to AEs occurred in 55.1, 54.2 and 50.0% sunitinib, sorafenib and bevacizumab patients, respectively. This study in a large, global cohort of advanced RCC patients found that angiogenesis inhibitors are associated with high rates of AEs and treatment modifications. Findings suggest an unmet need for more tolerable agents for RCC treatment.
PMCID: PMC3867384  PMID: 24247547
renal cell carcinoma; angiogenesis inhibitors; safety; treatment patterns; interruption; dose reduction
12.  Association of Prostate Cancer Risk Loci with Disease Aggressiveness and Prostate Cancer–Specific Mortality 
Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)  2011;4(5):10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0292.
Genome-wide association studies have detected more than 30 inherited prostate cancer risk variants. While clearly associated with risk, their relationship with clinical outcome, particularly prostate cancer–specific mortality, is less well known. We investigated whether the risk variants are associated with various measures of disease aggressiveness and prostate cancer–specific mortality. In a cohort of 3,945 men of European ancestry with prostate cancer, we genotyped 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP): 35 known prostate cancer risk variants and one SNP (rs4054823) that was recently reported to be associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness. The majority of subjects had a diagnosis of prostate cancer between 1995 and 2004, and the cohort included a total of 580 prostate cancer–specific deaths. We evaluated associations between the 36 polymorphisms and prostate cancer survival, as well as other clinical parameters including age at diagnosis, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis, and Gleason score. Two SNPs, rs2735839 at chromosome 19q13 and rs7679673 at 4q24, were associated with prostate cancer–specific survival (P = 7 × 10−4 and 0.014, respectively). A total of 12 SNPs were associated with other variables (P < 0.05): age at diagnosis, PSA at diagnosis, Gleason score, and/or disease aggressiveness based on D’Amico criteria. Genotype status at rs4054823 was not associated with aggressiveness or outcome. Our results identify two common polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer–specific mortality.
PMCID: PMC3811002  PMID: 21367958
13.  TIMP-1 Promotes Accumulation of Cancer Associated Fibroblasts and Cancer Progression 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77366.
Treatment options for late stage prostate and colon cancer are limited and there is an urgent need to develop more effective and targeted novel therapies, which starts with identification and validation of novel therapeutic targets. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) levels are elevated in cancer patient plasma and elevated TIMP-1 levels are associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, it is unknown whether TIMP-1 serves merely as a biomarker of cancer progression or has a functional role in promoting cancer progression and can serve as a cancer therapeutic target, which is the main objective of this study. Here, we show that stroma of human prostate and colon cancer express higher levels of TIMP-1 compared to their normal counterparts and increased expression of TIMP-1 promotes in vivo growth of both cancer types. We demonstrate for the first time that increased TIMP-1 expression stimulates accumulation of cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) within prostate and colon cancer tissues and that TIMP-1 enhances prostate CAF proliferation and migration in vitro and promotes ERK1/2 kinase activation in these CAF cells. Our results establish the novel promotive effects of TIMP-1 on cancer progression and on accumulation of CAFs that in turn provides a pro-tumor microenvironment. Together, these results establish the potential of TIMP-1 as a novel target for cancer therapy and the mechanism underlying the pro-tumor activity of TIMP-1.
PMCID: PMC3797040  PMID: 24143225
14.  Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with Docetaxel and Bevacizumab in Patients with High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer: A Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium Trial 
Cancer  2012;118(19):4777-4784.
Treatment of high-risk localized prostate cancer remains inadequate. We performed a phase II multicenter trial of neoadjuvant docetaxel plus bevacizumab prior to radical prostatectomy.
Eligibility included any of the following: PSA > 20 ng/ml or PSA velocity > 2 ng/ml/yr, cT3 disease, any biopsy Gleason 8–10, Gleason 7 with T3 disease by endorectal (er) MRI. Also, ≥50% biopsy cores involved and either Gleason 7 or PSA >10 or cT2 disease were eligible. Patients were treated with docetaxel 70 mg/m2 q 3weeks × 6 cycles and bevacizumab 15 mg/m2 q 3 weeks × 5 cycles. The primary endpoint was partial response by erMRI.
41 patients were treated. Median age was 55 yrs (range, 40–66 yrs). Baseline characteristics included: median PSA 10.1 ng/mL, cT2 49%, cT3 32%, and Gleason 8–10 73%. Thirty-eight of 41 (93%) patients completed all 6 cycles. Grade ≥ 3 adverse events were rare, though 3/41 (7%) experienced febrile neutropenia. Twelve patients (29%; 95% CI 16%, 45%) achieved a > 50% reduction in tumor volume and 22% (95% CI 11%, 38%) achieved a >50% post-treatment decline in PSA. Thirty-seven of the 41 pts underwent radical prostatectomy; there were no complete pathologic responses.
Neoadjuvant docetaxel and bevacizumab is safe, and demonstrates clinical activity, in men with high-risk localized prostate cancer. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in prostate cancer, and perioperative antiangiogenic therapy in solid tumors in general, requires further elucidation through ongoing and planned randomized trials.
PMCID: PMC3791849  PMID: 22282219
15.  The Impact of Common Genetic Variations in Genes of the Sex Hormone Metabolic Pathways on Steroid Hormone Levels and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness 
Our previous work suggested that there was no significant association between plasma steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer (CaP) tumor grade at diagnosis. In this study, we systematically tested the hypothesis that inherited variations in the androgen and estrogen metabolic pathways may be associated with plasma levels of steroid hormones, or CaP aggressiveness at diagnosis.
Plasma hormone levels including total testosterone, total estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in a cohort of 508 patients identified with localized CaP. D’Amico risk classification at diagnosis was also determined. 143 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 30 genes that are involved in androgen and estrogen metabolism were selected for analysis. The global association of genotypes with plasma hormone levels and CaP aggressiveness (D’Amico risk classification) was statistically analyzed. Q-values were estimated to account for multiple testing.
We observed significant associations between plasma testosterone level and SNPs in HSD17B2 (rs1424151), HSD17B3 (rs9409407) and HSD17B1 (rs12602084), with P values of 0.002, 0.006 and 0.006, respectively. We also observed borderline significant associations between prostate aggressiveness at diagnosis and SNPs in AKR1C1 (rs11252845; P = 0.005), UGT2B15 (rs2045100; P = 0.007) and HSD17B12 (rs7932905; P = 0.008). No individual SNP was associated with both clinical variables.
Genetic variants of genes in hormone metabolic pathways may influence plasma androgen levels or CaP aggressiveness. However, it appears that the inherited variations affecting plasma hormone levels differ from those affecting disease aggressiveness.
PMCID: PMC3773969  PMID: 21900597
Prostate cancer; Hormone metabolism; Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms
16.  Inherited Variations in AR, ESR1, and ESR2 Genes Are Not Associated With Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness or With Efficacy of Androgen Deprivation Therapy 
Sex steroid hormone receptors mediate essential processes in normal prostate growth and contribute to prostate cancer development.
In this study, we investigated the association between common inherited variation of the AR, ESR1, and ESR2 genes and two clinically relevant traits: the risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer and the response to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in a hospital-based cohort. A total of 43 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the loci of AR (n = 4), ESR1 (n = 32), and ESR2 (n = 7) were successfully genotyped in 4,073 prostate cancer cases.
None of these single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with disease aggressiveness as assessed by the D'Amico risk classification, pathologic stage, or the response to ADT.
Our results suggest that common genetic variations in AR, ESR1, or ESR2 are not strongly associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness or response to ADT.
Our study did not find convincing evidence of inherited variations in the major receptors for androgens and estrogens and their associations with prostate cancer traits.
PMCID: PMC3755451  PMID: 20615892
17.  Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: Association with Indometacin Therapy and Effects on Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 18-22 months Corrected Age 
Spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) is associated with the use of postnatal glucocorticoids and indometacin in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. We hypothesized: 1) an association of SIP with the use of antenatal steroids (ANS) and indometacin either as prophylaxis for IVH (P Indo) or for treatment of PDA (Indo/PDA) and 2) an increased risk of death or abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants with SIP at 18-22 months corrected age.
We retrospectively identified ELBW infants with SIP in the Neonatal Research Network’s generic database. Unadjusted analysis identified the differences in maternal, neonatal and clinical variables between infants with and without SIP. Logistic regression analysis identified the adjusted odds ratio for SIP with reference to ANS, P Indo and Indo/PDA. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed among survivors at 18 to 22 months corrected age.
Indo/PDA was associated with an increased risk of SIP (adjusted OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.25,2.08), while P Indo and ANS were not. SIP was independently associated with an increased risk of death or NDI (adjusted OR−1.85; 95% CI 1.32,2.60) and NDI among survivors (adjusted OR−1.75, 95% CI 1.20,2.55).
Indometacin used for IVH prophylaxis and ANS were not associated with the occurrence of SIP in ELBW infants. Indometacin used for treatment of symptomatic PDA was however associated with an increased risk of SIP. ELBW infants with SIP have an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3753803  PMID: 22684157
extremely low birth weight infant; intestinal perforation; indometacin; cerebral palsy
18.  Hemodynamic Effects of Delayed Cord Clamping in Premature Infants 
Pediatrics  2012;129(3):e667-e672.
Delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been advocated during preterm delivery to improve hemodynamic stability during the early neonatal period. The hemodynamic effects of DCC in premature infants after birth have not been previously examined. Our objective was to compare the hemodynamic differences between premature infants randomized to either DCC or immediate cord clamping (ICC).
This prospective study was conducted on a subset of infants who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of DCC versus ICC. Entry criteria included gestational ages of 240 to 316 weeks. Twins and infants of mothers with substance abuse were excluded. Serial Doppler studies were performed at 6 ± 2, 24 ± 4, 48 ± 6, and 108 ± 12 hours of life. Measurements included superior vena cava blood flow, right ventricle output, middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (BFV), superior mesenteric artery BFV, left ventricle shortening fraction, and presence of a persistent ductus arteriosus.
Twenty-five infants were enrolled in the DCC group and 26 in the ICC group. Gestational age, birth weight, and male gender were similar. Admission laboratory and clinical events were also similar. DCC resulted in significantly higher superior vena cava blood flow over the study period, as well as greater right ventricle output and right ventricular stroke volumes at 48 hours. No differences were noted in middle cerebral artery BFV, mean superior mesenteric artery BFV, shortening fraction, or the incidence of a persistent ductus arteriosus.
DCC in premature infants is associated with potentially beneficial hemodynamic changes over the first days of life.
PMCID: PMC3356138  PMID: 22331336
delayed cord clamping; premature infants
19.  Does Aggressive Phototherapy Increase Mortality while Decreasing Profound Impairment among the Smallest and Sickest Newborns? 
Aggressive phototherapy (AgPT) is widely used and assumed to be safe and effective for even the most immature infants. We assessed whether the benefits and hazards for the smallest and sickest infants differed from those for other extremely low birth weight (ELBW; (≤1000 g) infants in our Neonatal Research Network trial, the only large trial of AgPT.
Study Design
ELBW infants (n=1974) were randomized to AgPT or conservative phototherapy at age 12–36 hours. The effect of AgPT on outcomes (death; impairment; profound impairment; death or impairment [primary outcome], and death or profound impairment) at 18–22 months corrected age was related to BW stratum (501–750 g; 751–1000 g) and baseline severity of illness using multilevel regression equations. The probability of benefit and of harm was directly assessed with Bayesian analyses.
Baseline illness severity was well characterized using mechanical ventilation and FiO2 at 24 hours age. Among mechanically ventilated infants ≤750 g BW (n =684), a reduction in impairment and in profound impairment was offset by higher mortality (p for interaction <0.05) with no significant effect on composite outcomes. Conservative Bayesian analyses of this subgroup identified a 99% (posterior) probability that AgPT increased mortality, a 97% probability that AgPT reduced impairment, and a 99% probability that AgPT reduced profound impairment.
Findings from the only large trial of AgPT suggest that AgPT may increase mortality while reducing impairment and profound impairment among the smallest and sickest infants. New approaches to reduce their serum bilirubin need development and rigorous testing.
PMCID: PMC3558278  PMID: 22652561
Phototherapy; bilirubin; severity of illness; ELBW infant; impairment; randomized clinical trial; statistical interaction; Bayesian analysis
20.  Cytokines and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants 
The Journal of pediatrics  2011;159(6):919-925.e3.
To determine if selected pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines/mediators of inflammation reported to be related to development of cerebral palsy predict neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight infants.
Study design
Infants with birth weights ≤ 1000 g (n=1067) had blood samples collected at birth and on days 3±1, 7±1, 14±3, and 21±3 to examine the association between cytokines and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The analyses were focused on five cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, RANTES, and IL-2) reported to be most predictive of CP in term and late preterm infants.
IL-8 was higher on days 0–4 and subsequently in infants who developed CP compared with infants who did not develop CP in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Other cytokines (IL-12, IL-17, TNF-β, SIL-rα, MIP-1β) were found to be altered on days 0–4 in infants who developed CP.
CP in former preterm infants may, in part, have a late perinatal and/or early neonatal inflammatory origin.
PMCID: PMC3215787  PMID: 21798559
21.  Is phototherapy exposure associated with better or worse outcomes in 501–1000 gram birth weight infants? 
To compare risk-adjusted outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants who never received phototherapy (NoPTx) to those who received any phototherapy (PTx) in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network randomized trial of Aggressive vs. Conservative Phototherapy.
Outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age included death, neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI), and Bayley Scales Mental Developmental Index (MDI). Regression models evaluated the independent association of PTx with adverse outcomes controlling for center and other potentially confounding variables.
Of 1972 infants, 216 were NoPTx and 1756 were PTx. For the entire 501–1000 g BW cohort, PTx was not independently associated with death or NDI (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.60 –1.20), death, or adverse neurodevelopmental endpoints. However, among infants 501–750 g BW, the rate of significant developmental impairment with MDI<50 was significantly higher for NoPTx (29%) than PTx (12%) (p=0.004).
Phototherapy did not appear to be independently associated with death or NDI for the overall ELBW group. Whether PTx increases mortality could not be excluded due to bias from deaths before reaching conservative treatment threshold. The higher rate of MDI<50 in the 501–750g BW NoPTx group is concerning, and consistent with NRN Trial results.
PMCID: PMC3505994  PMID: 21272067
22.  Multicenter Phase 2 Trial of the Hsp-90 Inhibitor, IPI-504 (retaspimycin hydrochloride), in Patients with Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer 
Urology  2011;78(3):626-630.
Evaluation of clinical activity and safety of IPI-504 (retaspimycin hydrochloride) in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
A single arm trial was conducted in two cohorts: Group A (chemotherapy-naïve), Group B (docetaxel-treated). IPI-504 was administered intravenously at 400 mg/m2 on Days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle. Trial expansion was planned if at least one prostate specific antigen (PSA) or radiographic response was noted per cohort. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected following the first dose; safety was assessed throughout.
Nineteen patients were enrolled (4 in Group A; 15 in Group B), with a median age of 66 years (range 49-78). Group B had received a median of 2 prior chemotherapy regimens. All Group B patients had bone metastases; 66% had measurable soft tissue or visceral metastases. One Group A patient remained on trial for 9 cycles; PSA declined 48% from baseline. No PSA responses were observed in other patients. Adverse events reported in >25% of the study population included nausea (47%), diarrhea (42%), fatigue (32%), anorexia (26%), and arthralgia (26%). Two patients in Group B died on study, involving study drug-related events of hepatic failure and ketoacidosis, respectively.
In this study, Hsp90 inhibition with IPI-504 administered as a single agent had a minimal effect on PSA or tumor burden and was associated with unacceptable toxicity in several patients; therefore, further evaluation in CRPC patients is not warranted. IPI-504 is being investigated at less intensive doses and schedules in other tumor types.
PMCID: PMC3166448  PMID: 21762967
Castration-resistant prostate cancer; CRPC; Hsp90 inhibition; chemotherapy
23.  PC3 Is a Cell Line Characteristic of Prostatic Small Cell Carcinoma 
The Prostate  2011;71(15):1668-1679.
The majority of the prostatic cancers are adenocarcinomas characterized by glandular formation and the expression of luminal differentiation markers androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Most adenocarcinomas are indolent and androgen-dependent. Hormonal therapy that inhibits AR signaling produces symptomatic relief in patients with advanced and metastatic adenocarcinomas. Prostatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC) is a variant form of prostate cancer (PC). In contrast to adenocarcinoma, the tumor cells of SCNC do not form glands and are negative for AR and PSA. SCNC is extremely aggressive and does not respond to hormonal therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the important and relevant features of two most commonly used PC cell lines, LNCaP and PC3, with prostatic adenocarcinoma and SCNC.
Xenograft tumors of LNCaP and PC3 were prepared and compared with human prostatic adenocarcinoma and SCNC for the expression of key signaling molecules by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.
LNCaP cells express AR and PSA and their growth is inhibited by androgen withdrawal, similar to human prostatic adenocarcinoma. PC3 cells do not express AR and PSA and their proliferation is independent of androgen, similar to SCNC. Adenocarcinoma cells and LNCaP cells are negative for neuroendocrine markers and stem cell-associated marker CD44 while SCNC and PC3 cells are positive. LNCaP cells have identical cytokeratin profiles to adenocarcinoma while PC3 cells have cytokeratin profiles similar to SCNC.
LNCaP cells share common features with adenocarcinoma while PC3 cells are characteristic of SCNC.
PMCID: PMC3426349  PMID: 21432867
prostate cancer; small cell carcinoma; adenocarcinoma; PC3; LNCaP
24.  Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium: A New Instrument for Prostate Cancer Clinical Research 
Clinical Genitourinary Cancer  2009;7(1):51-57.
In 2005, the US Department of Defense, through the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Office of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs, created a funding mechanism to form a clinical trials consortium to conduct phase I and II studies in prostate cancer. This is the first report of the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium (PCCTC).
Patients and Methods
The Department of Defense award supports a consortium of 10 prostate cancer research centers. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center was awarded the Coordinating Center grant for the consortium and charged with creating an infrastructure to conduct early-phase multicenter clinical trials. Each participating center was required to introduce ≥ 1 clinical trial per year and maintain accrual of a minimum of 35 patients per year.
The PCCTC was launched in 2006 and now encompasses 10 leading prostate cancer research centers. Fifty-one trials have been opened, and 1386 patients have been accrued at member sites. Members share an online clinical trial management system for protocol tracking, electronic data capture, and data storage. A legal framework has been instituted, and standard operating procedures, an administrative structure, editorial support, centralized budgeting, and mechanisms for scientific review are established.
The PCCTC fulfills a congressional directive to create a clinical trials instrument dedicated to early-phase prostate cancer studies. The member institutions have built an administrative, informatics, legal, financial, statistical, and scientific infrastructure to support this endeavor. Clinical trials are open and accruing in excess of federally mandated goals.
PMCID: PMC3394090  PMID: 19213669
Clinical consortium; Collaborative; Infrastructure; Phase I/II trial
25.  SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 May Determine Time to Progression for Patients Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;29(18):2565-2573.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), an important treatment for advanced prostate cancer, is highly variable in its effectiveness. We hypothesized that genetic variants of androgen transporter genes, SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3, may determine time to progression on ADT.
Patients and Methods
A cohort of 538 patients with prostate cancer treated with ADT was genotyped for SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The biologic function of a SLCO2B1 coding SNP in transporting androgen was examined through biochemical assays.
Three SNPs in SLCO2B1 were associated with time to progression (TTP) on ADT (P < .05). The differences in median TTP for each of these polymorphisms were about 10 months. The SLCO2B1 genotype, which allows more efficient import of androgen, enhances cell growth and is associated with a shorter TTP on ADT. Patients carrying both SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 genotypes, which import androgens more efficiently, exhibited a median 2-year shorter TTP on ADT, demonstrating a gene-gene interaction (Pinteraction = .041).
Genetic variants of SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 may function as pharmacogenomic determinants of resistance to ADT in prostate cancer.
PMCID: PMC3138634  PMID: 21606417

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