Conventional transplantable biomedical devices generally request sophisticated surgery which however often causes big trauma and serious pain to the patients. Here, we show an alternative way of directly making three-dimensional (3-D) medical electronics inside the biological body through sequential injections of biocompatible packaging material and liquid metal ink. As the most typical electronics, a variety of medical electrodes with different embedded structures were demonstrated to be easily formed at the target tissues. Conceptual in vitro experiments provide strong evidences for the excellent performances of the injectable electrodes. Further in vivo animal experiments disclosed that the formed electrode could serve as both highly efficient ECG (Electrocardiograph) electrode and stimulator electrode. These findings clarified the unique features and practicability of the liquid metal based injectable 3-D fabrication of medical electronics. The present strategy opens the way for directly manufacturing electrophysiological sensors or therapeutic devices in situ via a truly minimally invasive approach.
To assess the potential immunological and virological effects that result from short-course antiretroviral treatment during primary HIV infection (PHI). And to investigate whether treatment initiation time, treatment duration and follow-up time after treatment interruption would affect these post-treatment immunovirological outcomes.
We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane Library (to September 2013) and retrieved conference abstracts for studies regarding effects of early treatment during PHI on CD4 count and viral load (VL). Using the method of calculating weighted mean differences with Stata11.0, we conducted meta-analyses on the effect of early treatment on CD4 count and VL. Then we performed subgroup analyses by follow-up time after treatment interruption, treatment initiation time and treatment duration. Baseline immunovirological characteristics were also analyzed to account for potential bias.
Compared to the untreated arm, treatment during PHI not only increased CD4 count by 85.92 cells/μl but also lowered viral load by 0.30 log copies/ml within one year after treatment interruption. However, the benefits declined gradually, reaching no significance 12-24 months after treatment interruption. Baseline immunovirological characteristics and sensitivity analyses of randomized controlled trials indicated that the benefits mentioned above were underestimated. Extending treatment duration beyond 12 months did not increase efficacy.
Short-course treatment during PHI was associated with immunological and virological benefits which last for at least one year after treatment interruption. The conclusions from our study would help the decision-making in the clinical management of PHI.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has extremely restricted host and hepatocyte tropism. HBV-based vectors could form the basis of novel therapies for chronic hepatitis B and other liver diseases and would also be invaluable for the study of HBV infection. Previous attempts at developing HBV-based vectors encountered low yields of recombinant viruses and/or lack of sufficient infectivity/cargo gene expression in primary hepatocytes, which hampered follow-up applications. In this work, we constructed a novel vector based on a naturally occurring, highly replicative HBV mutant with a 207-bp deletion in the preS1/polymerase spacer region. By applying a novel insertion strategy that preserves the continuity of the polymerase open reading frame (ORF), recombinant HBV (rHBV) carrying protein or small interfering RNA (siRNA) genes were obtained that replicated and were packaged efficiently in cultured hepatocytes. We demonstrated that rHBV expressing a fluorescent reporter (DsRed) is highly infective in primary tree shrew hepatocytes, and rHBV expressing HBV-targeting siRNA successfully inhibited antigen expression from coinfected wild-type HBV. This novel HBV vector will be a powerful tool for hepatocyte-targeting gene delivery, as well as the study of HBV infection.
Defects in insulin secretion and reduction in β-cell mass are associated with type 2 diabetes in humans, and understanding the basis for these dysfunctions may reveal strategies for diabetes therapy. In this study, we show that pancreas-specific knockout of growth factor receptor–binding protein 10 (Grb10), which is highly expressed in pancreas and islets, leads to elevated insulin/IGF-1 signaling in islets, enhanced β-cell mass and insulin content, and increased insulin secretion in mice. Pancreas-specific disruption of Grb10 expression also improved glucose tolerance in mice fed with a high-fat diet and protected mice from streptozotocin-induced β-cell apoptosis and body weight loss. Our study has identified Grb10 as an important regulator of β-cell proliferation and demonstrated that reducing the expression level of Grb10 could provide a novel means to increase β-cell mass and reduce β-cell apoptosis. This is critical for effective therapeutic treatment of both type 1 and 2 diabetes.
1-17-2 is a rat anti-human DEC-205 monoclonal antibody that induces internalization and delivers antigen to dendritic cells (DCs). The potentially clinical application of this antibody is limited by its murine origin. Traditional humanization method such as complementarity determining regions (CDRs) graft often leads to a decreased or even lost affinity. Here we have developed a novel antibody humanization method based on computer modeling and bioinformatics analysis. First, we used homology modeling technology to build the precise model of Fab. A novel epitope scanning algorithm was designed to identify antigenic residues in the framework regions (FRs) that need to be mutated to human counterpart in the humanization process. Then virtual mutation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were used to assess the conformational impact imposed by all the mutations. By comparing the root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) of CDRs, we found five key residues whose mutations would destroy the original conformation of CDRs. These residues need to be back-mutated to rescue the antibody binding affinity. Finally we constructed the antibodies in vitro and compared their binding affinity by flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay. The binding affinity of the refined humanized antibody was similar to that of the original rat antibody. Our results have established a novel method based on epitopes scanning and MD simulation for antibody humanization.
To investigate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and new detection of DM using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose (2-hPG) in hypertensive outpatients in China.
Multicenter cross-sectional study.
46 hospitals in China.
Study patients were consecutively recruited from June to December 2009 from hypertension outpatient clinics in 46 hospitals in 22 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in China. At least 100 consecutive patients were recruited in each hospital. FPG was measured for all patients and 2-hPG was measured in those without a history of DM. A total of 4942 hypertensive outpatients aged ≥20 years were included.
Prevalence of DM was 24.3% (which included both previously and newly diagnosed cases). Among the 1202 patients with DM, 417 (34.7%) were newly detected. In patients aged <45 years, 52.6% of cases of DM were newly detected. Of the 417 cases of newly detected diabetes, 54.9% were identified using FPG tests and the remaining 45.1% by 2-hPG tests; 27.1% of patients with newly detected DM had FPG <6.1 mmol/L and 16.5% had FPG <5.6 mmol/L. Among the elderly patients (≥65 years), 32.4% had normal FPG (<6.1 mmol/L) and 24.5% had optimal FPG (<5.6 mmol/L).
Our findings showed a high prevalence of DM and newly detected DM among Chinese hypertensive outpatients. Application of additional 2-hPG testing to FPG assay can improve the detection rate of DM, especially in elderly patients.
Epidemiology; Public Health
AIM: To compare the efficacy and side effects of low-dose amitriptyline (AMT) with proton pump inhibitor treatment in patients with globus pharyngeus.
METHODS: Thirty-four patients who fulfilled the Rome III criteria for functional esophageal disorders were included in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 25 mg AMT before bedtime (AMT group) or 40 mg Pantoprazole once daily for 4 wk (conventional group). The main efficacy endpoint was assessed using the Glasgow Edinburgh Throat Scale (GETS). The secondary efficacy endpoints included the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form health survey [social functioning (SF)-36] and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Treatment response was defined as a > 50% reduction in GETS scores. All patients entering this study recorded side effects at days 1, 8, 15, 22 and 29 using a visual analogue scale.
RESULTS: Thirty patients completed the study. After 4 wk of treatment, the AMT group had a greater response than the conventional group (75% vs 35.7%, P = 0.004). At day 3, the AMT group showed significantly more improvement than the Conventional group in GETS score (3.69 ± 1.14 vs 5.64 ± 1.28, P = 0.000). After 4 wk of treatment, the AMT group showed significantly greater improvement in GETS score and sleep quality than the Conventional group (1.25 ± 1.84 vs 3.79 ± 2.33, 4.19 ± 2.07 vs 8.5 ± 4.97; P < 0.01 for both). Additionally, the AMT group was more likely than the Conventional group to experience improvement in the SF-36, including general health, vitality, social functioning and mental health (P = 0.044, 0.024, 0.049 and 0.005). Dry mouth, sleepiness, dizziness and constipation were the most common side effects.
CONCLUSION: Low-dose AMT is well tolerated and can significantly improve patient symptoms, sleep and quality of life. Thus, low-dose AMT may be an effective treatment for globus pharyngeus.
Amitriptyline; Globus pharyngeus; Side effect; Pantoprazole; Treatment response
To characterize downstream effectors of p300 acetyltransferase in the myocardium.
Acetyltransferase p300 is a central driver of the hypertrophic response to increased workload, but its biological targets and downstream effectors are incompletely known.
Methods and Results
Mice expressing a myocyte-restricted transgene encoding acetyltransferase p300, previously shown to develop spontaneous hypertrophy, were observed to undergo robust compensatory blood vessel growth together with increased angiogenic gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated binding of p300 to the enhancers of the angiogenic regulators Angpt1 and Egln3. Interestingly, p300 overexpression in vivo was also associated with relative upregulation of several members of the anti-angiogenic miR-17∼92 cluster in vivo. Confirming this finding, both miR-17-3p and miR-20a were upregulated in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes following adenoviral transduction of p300. Relative expression of most members of the 17∼92 cluster was similar in all 4 cardiac chambers and in other organs, however, significant downregulation of miR-17-3p and miR-20a occurred between 1 and 8 months of age in both wt and tg mice. The decline in expression of these microRNAs was associated with increased expression of VEGFA, a validated miR-20a target. In addition, miR-20a was demonstrated to directly repress p300 expression through a consensus binding site in the p300 3′UTR. In vivo transduction of p300 resulted in repression both of p300 and of p300-induced angiogenic transcripts.
p300 drives an angiogenic transcription program during hypertrophy that is fine-tuned in part through direct repression of p300 by miR-20a.
GABAA receptors have important physiological functions, as revealed by pharmacological studies and experiments involving gene-targeted mouse models, and are the target of widely used drugs such as the benzodiazepines. In this review, we are summarizing current knowledge about the function of α2-containing GABAA receptors, a receptor subtype representing approximately 15–20% of all GABAA receptors. This receptor subtype mediates anxiolytic-like, reward-enhancing, and antihyperalgesic actions of diazepam, and has antidepressant-like properties. Secondary insufficiency of α2-containing GABAA receptors has been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and may be involved in cognitive impairment in other disorders. Moreover, polymorphisms in the GABRA2 gene encoding the GABAA receptor α2 subunit have been found to be linked to chronic alcohol dependence and to polydrug abuse. Thus, α2-containing GABAA receptors are involved in the regulation and/or modulation of emotional behaviors and of chronic pain, and appear to be a valid target for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and chronic pain.
GABAA receptor; benzodiazepines; anxiety; depression; chronic pain; schizophrenia
Glycerol is a major by-product in bioethanol fermentation by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and decreasing glycerol formation for increased ethanol yield has been a major research effort in the bioethanol field. A new strategy has been used in the present study for reduced glycerol formation and improved ethanol fermentation performance by finely modulating the expression of GPD1 in the KAM15 strain (fps1Δ pPGK1-GLT1 gpd2Δ). The GPD1 promoter was serially truncated from the 3′ end by 20 bp to result in a different expression strength of GPD1. The two engineered promoters carrying 60- and 80-bp truncations exhibited reduced promoter strength but unaffected osmostress response. These two promoters were integrated into the KAM15 strain, generating strains LE34U and LE35U, respectively. The transcription levels of LE34U and LE35U were 37.77 to 45.12% and 21.34 to 24.15% of that of KAM15U, respectively, depending on osmotic stress imposed by various glucose concentrations. In very high gravity (VHG) fermentation, the levels of glycerol for LE34U and LE35U were reduced by 15.81% and 30.66%, respectively, compared to KAM15U. The yield and final concentration of ethanol for LE35U were 3.46% and 0.33% higher, respectively, than those of KAM15U. However, fermentation rate and ethanol productivity for LE35U were reduced. On the other hand, the ethanol yield and final concentration for LE34U were enhanced by 2.28% and 2.32%, respectively, compared to those of KAM15U. In addition, a 2.31% increase in ethanol productivity was observed for LE34U compared to KAM15U. These results verified the feasibility of our strategy for yeast strain development.
Carboxyl-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) has been shown to suppress the transcription of several tumor suppressors in vitro. Paradoxically, a previous report showed that CtBP1 mRNA was down-regulated in melanoma. Using immunostaining, we found that a large percentage of human melanomas were positive for CtBP1 protein. Further, we demonstrated that CtBP1 expression in melanoma cells contributes to cell proliferation and genome instability, two aspects promoting melanoma initiation and progression. Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 1(Brca1), a core protein in DNA damage repair, was repressed by CtBP1 in melanoma cells. Consistently, Brca1 loss was found in human malignant melanoma tissues inversely correlated with CtBP1 expression levels. Additionally, the inhibitor of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs), p16INK4a, whose loss has been related to the pathogenesis of melanoma, was repressed by CtBP1 as well. Our findings suggest an important role of CtBP1 in the transcriptional control of p16INK4a and Brca1, with CtBP1 over-expression potentially contributing to increased proliferation and DNA damage in melanoma.
Brca1; CtBP1; p16INK4a; transcription; tumor suppressor; melanoma
A dual-specificity, paralogue-free Cdc14 phosphatase was located in the nuclei of Beauveria bassiana (filamentous entomopathogen) and functionally characterized. Inactivation of cdc14 caused defective cytokinesis due to multinucleate cells formed in Δcdc14 and 89% decrease of blastospore production, followed by slower growth and a loss of ≥ 96% conidial yield under normal conditions. These defects coincided well with drastic down-regulation of 25 genes required for mitosis and conidiation. Moreover, Δcdc14 became hypersensitive to oxidative, osmotic, and cell wall and mitosis perturbing stresses, and lost 41−70% of conidial thermotolerance, UV-B resistance and virulence, accompanied with transcriptional down-regualtion of various signaling factors and stress-responsive effectors and depressed phosphorylation signals of Hog1 and Slt2 in high-osmolarity glycerol and cell-wall integrity pathways. All changes were well restored by rescuing cdc14. Our findings indicate that Cdc14 vital for the fungal cytokinesis acts as a signaling hub in regulating not only asexual development but multi-stress responses and virulence.
Close relationships between ticks and microbial communities are important for tick fitness and pathogen colonization and transmission. Haemaphysalis longicornis, distributed widely in China, can carry and transmit various pathogens and pose serious damages to public health and economics. However, little is known about the broader array of microbial communities and symbionts in H. longicornis under natural conditions. In the present study, we investigated the composition of bacterial communities associated with H. longicornis and evaluated the putative symbionts.
The eubacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of H. longicornis were constructed and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. In addition, diagnostic PCR was performed to assess the prevalence, vertical transmission and infection sites of the symbionts in H. longicornis.
Vertically-transmitted symbionts, potential pathogens and allochthonous nonpathogenic bacteria were identified from the field-collected H. longicornis. Three types of symbionts (Coxiella-like, Arsenophonus-like and Rickettsia-like symbionts) were identified in a single host simultaneously. A series of analyses revealed the vertical transmission, prevalence, and infection sites of these symbionts. However, only Coxiella-like bacteria were transmitted stably in the laboratory-reared ticks. In addition, we identified a novel Coxiella-like agent with 95.31% sequence similarity to the taxon described previously.
The present study demonstrated that natural H. longicornis harboured a diverse array of microbial communities. Three types of symbionts were identified in a single host simultaneously. Moreover, high prevalence, vertical transmission and the infection sites supported an obligate symbiotic association between Coxiella symbiont and its host. The role of Coxiella symbiont in the host fitness and the interaction among microbial communities remained to be elucidated. Our investigation of microbial communities in the ticks revealed the complexity of ecological interactions between host and microbe and provided insight for the biological control of ticks.
Haemaphysalis longicornis; Microbial communities; Coxiella-like symbiont; Arsenophonus-like symbiont; Rickettsia-like symbiont
Pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction or hyper-reactivity occurs in association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) more frequently than previously recognized. Emerging evidence suggests that subtle inflammation exists in the airways among IBD patients even in the absence of any bronchopulmonary symptoms, and with normal pulmonary functions. The pulmonary impairment is more pronounced in IBD patients with active disease than in those in remission. A growing number of case reports show that the IBD patients develop rapidly progressive respiratory symptoms after colectomy, with failure to isolate bacterial pathogens on repeated sputum culture, and often request oral corticosteroid therapy. All the above evidence indicates that the inflammatory changes in both the intestine and lung during IBD. Clinical or subclinical pulmonary inflammation accompanies the main inflammation of the bowel. Although there are clinical and epidemiological reports of chronic inflammation of the pulmonary and intestinal mucosa in IBD, the detailed mechanisms of pulmonary-intestinal crosstalk remain unknown. The lung has no anatomical connection with the main inflammatory site of the bowel. Why does the inflammatory process shift from the gastrointestinal tract to the airways? The clinical and subclinical pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction, or hyper-reactivity among IBD patients need further evaluation. Here, we give an overview of the concordance between chronic inflammatory reactions in the airways and the gastrointestinal tract. A better understanding of the possible mechanism of the crosstalk among the distant organs will be beneficial in identifying therapeutic strategies for mucosal inflammatory diseases such as IBD and allergy.
Inflammatory bowel disease; Pulmonary symptoms; Gut-lung crosstalk; Biao-Li relationship; Social manner
Plasmalogens play multiple roles in the structures of biological membranes, cell membrane lipid homeostasis and human diseases. We report the isolation and identification of choline plasmalogens (ChoPlas) from swine liver by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/MS. The growth and viability of hepatoma cells (CBRH7919, HepG2 and SMMC7721) was determined following ChoPlas treatment comparing with that of human normal immortal cell lines (HL7702). Result indicated that ChoPlas inhibited hepatoma cell proliferation with an optimal concentration and time of 25 μmol/L and 24 h. To better understand the mechanism of the ChoPlas-induced inhibition of hepatoma cell proliferation, Caveolin-1 and PI3K/Akt pathway signals, including total Akt, phospho-Akt(pAkt) and Bcl-2 expression in CBRH7919 cells, were determined by western blot. ChoPlas treatment increased Caveolin-1 expression and reduced the expression of phospho-Akt (pAkt) and Bcl-2, downstream targets of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Further cell cycle analysis showed that ChoPlas treatment induced G1 and G1/S phase transition cell cycle arrest. The expression of essential cell cycle regulatory proteins involved in the G1 and G1/S phase transitions, cyclin D, CDK4, cyclin E and CDK2, were also analyzed by western blot. ChoPlas reduced CDK4, cyclin E and CDK2 expression. Taken together, the results indicate that swine liver-derived natural ChoPlas inhibits hepatoma cell proliferation associated with Caveolin-1 and PI3K/Akt signals.
Inflammation; Mammalian target of rapamycin; LDL receptor pathway; Atherosclerosis
HOTAIR, a long intervening non-coding RNA (lincRNA), associates with the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) and is reported to reprogram chromatin organization and promote tumor progression. However, little is known about the roles of this gene in the development of chemoresistance phenotype of lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). Thus, we investigated the involvement of HOTAIR in the resistance of LAD cells to cisplatin. In this study, we show that HOTAIR expression was significantly upregulated in cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells compared with in parental A549 cells. Knockdown of HOTAIR by RNA interference could resensitize the responses of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, overexpression of HOTAIR could decrease the sensitivity of A549 and SPC-A1 cells to cisplatin. We also found that the siRNA/HOTAIR1-mediated chemosensivity enhancement was associated with inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis enhancement through regulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 (p21) expression. Also, pcDNA/p21or siRNA/p21 could mimic the effects of siRNA/HOTAIR1 or pcDNA/HOTAIR on the sensitivity of LAD cells to cisplatin. Importantly, siRNA/p21 or pcDNA/p21 could partially rescue the effects of siRNA/HOTAIR1 or pcDNA/HOTAIR on both p21 expression and cisplatin sensitivity in LAD cells. Further, HOTAIR was observed to be significantly downregulated in cisplatin-responding LAD tissues, and its expression was inversely correlated with p21 mRNA expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that upregulation of HOTAIR contributes to the cisplatin resistance of LAD cells, at least in part, through the regulation of p21 expression.
It has been recognized for a long time that engagement of B cell antigen receptors (BCRs) on immature B cells or mature B cells leads to completely opposite cell fate decisions. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that crosslinking of BCRs on human EU12 μHC+ immature B cells resulted in complete internalization of cell surface BCRs. After loss of cell surface BCRs, restimulation of EU12 μHC+ cells showed impaired Ca2+ flux, delayed SYK phosphorylation, and decreased CD19 and FOXO1 phosphorylation, which differ from those in mature Daudi or Ramos B cells with partial internalization of BCRs. In contrast, sustained phosphorylation and reactivation of ERK upon restimulation were observed in the EU12 μHC+ cells after BCR internalization. Taken together, these results show that complete internalization of cell surface BCRs in EU12 μHC+ cells specifically alters the downstream signaling events, which may favor receptor editing versus cell activation.
The identification of cancer-associated long non-coding RNAs and the investigation of their molecular and biological functions are important for understanding the molecular biology and progression of cancer. HOTAIR (HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA) has been implicated in several cancers; however, its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression pattern of HOTAIR in NSCLC and to evaluate its biological role and clinical significance in tumor progression.
Expression of HOTAIR was analyzed in 42 NSCLC tissues and four NSCLC cell lines by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Over-expression and RNA interference (RNAi) approaches were used to investigate the biological functions of HOTAIR. The effect of HOTAIR on proliferation was evaluated by MTT and colony formation assays, and cell migration and invasion were evaluated by transwell assays. Tail vein injection of cells was used to study metastasis in nude mice. Protein levels of HOTAIR targets were determined by western blot analysis. Differences between groups were tested for significance using Student’s t-test (two-tailed).
HOTAIR was highly expressed both in NSCLC samples and cell lines compared with corresponding normal counterparts. HOTAIR upregulation was correlated with NSCLC advanced pathological stage and lymph-node metastasis. Moreover, patients with high levels of HOTAIR expression had a relatively poor prognosis. Inhibition of HOTAIR by RNAi decreased the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells in vitro and impeded cell metastasis in vivo. HOXA5 levels were affected by HOTAIR knockdown or over-expression in vitro.
Our findings indicate that HOTAIR is significantly up-regulated in NSCLC tissues, and regulates NSCLC cell invasion and metastasis, partially via the down-regulation of HOXA5. Thus, HOTAIR may represent a new marker of poor prognosis and is a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC intervention.
Long non-coding RNA; HOTAIR; Non-small cell lung cancer; Prognosis; Metastasis
Magnetic resonance imaging; coronary artery disease
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the combined use of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), bortezomib or SN50, and the chemotherapy agents arsenic acid (As2O3), fluorouracil (5FU), oxaliplatin or paclitaxel on the growth and apoptosis of HT-29 cells. Cell morphology was observed using inverted microscopy, and cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using the MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The activities of NF-κB were analyzed by western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Cell growth was significantly inhibited by As2O3, oxaliplatin and paclitaxel in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05), while 5FU inhibited cell growth in a time-dependent manner only (P<0.05). The growth inhibition rate and apoptosis induction ratio were increased following the combined treatment of the chemotherapy agent and NF-κB inhibitor. The expression of NF-κB p65 was upregulated when cells were treated with a chemotherapy drug, however it was downregulated following combined treatment or treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor alone. In conclusion, an NF-κB inhibitor combined with a chemotherapy drug effectively inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and inhibited NF-κB activity to enhance the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of HT-29 cells.
colon cancer; NF-κB inhibitor; chemotherapy; bortezomib; pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate; SN50
Limited improvement in long term survival of lung cancer patients has been achieved by conventional chemotherapy or targeted therapy. To explore the potentials of tumor initiating cells (TIC)-directed therapy, it is essential to identify the cell targets and understand their maintenance mechanisms. We have analyzed the performance of ALDH/CD44 co-expression as TIC markers and treatment targets of lung cancer using well-validated in vitro and in vivo analyses in multiple established and patient-derived lung cancer cells. The ALDHhiCD44hi subset showed the highest enhancement of stem cell phenotypic properties compared to ALDHhiCD44lo, ALDHloCD44hi, ALDHloCD44lo cells and unsorted controls. They showed higher invasion capacities, pluripotency genes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors expression, lower intercellular adhesion protein expression and higher G2/M phase cell cycle fraction. In immunosuppressed mice, the ALDHhiCD44hi xenografts showed the highest tumor induction frequency, serial transplantability, shortest latency, largest volume and highest growth rates. Inhibition of sonic Hedgehog and Notch developmental pathways reduced ALDH+CD44+ compartment. Chemotherapy and targeted therapy resulted in higher ALDHhiCD44hi subset viability and ALDHloCD44lo subset apoptosis fraction. ALDH inhibition and CD44 knockdown led to reduced stemness gene expression and sensitization to drug treatment. In accordance, clinical lung cancers containing a higher abundance of ALDH and CD44-coexpressing cells was associated with lower recurrence-free survival. Together, results suggested the ALDHhiCD44hi compartment was the cellular mediator of tumorigenicity and drug resistance. Further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms underlying ALDHhiCD44hi TIC maintenance would be beneficial for the development of long term lung cancer control.
lung cancer; tumor initiating cell; aldehyde dehydrogenase; CD44; drug resistance
Adiponectin is an adipokine that can suppress the proliferation of various human carcinoma cells. Although its anti-tumor activities have been suggested by many clinical investigations and animal studies, the underlying mechanisms are not fully characterized. In MMTV-polyomavirus middle T antigen (MMTV-PyVT) transgenic mice models, reduced- or complete loss-of-adiponectin expression promotes mammary tumor development. The present study demonstrated that while tumor development in control MMTV-PyVT mice is associated with a progressively decreased circulating cholesterol concentration, adiponectin deficient MMTV-PyVT mice showed significantly elevated total- and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels. Cholesterol contents in tumors derived from adiponectin deficient mice were dramatically augmented. High fat high cholesterol diet further accelerated the tumor development in adiponectin deficient PyVT mice. The protein levels of LDL receptor (LDLR) were found to be upregulated in adiponectin-deficient tumor cells. In human breast carcinoma cells, treatment with LDL-cholesterol or overexpressing LDLR elevates nuclear beta-catenin activity and facilitates tumor cell proliferation. On the other hand, adiponectin decreased LDLR protein expression in breast cancer cells and inhibited LDL-cholesterol-induced tumor cell proliferation. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence demonstrated a stimulatory effect of adiponectin on autophagy process, which mediated the down-regulation of LDLR. Adiponectin-induced reduction of LDLR was blocked by treatment with a specific inhibitor of autophagy, 3-methyladenine. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that adiponectin elicits tumor suppressive effects by modulating cholesterol homeostasis and LDLR expression in breast cancer cells, which is at least in part attributed to its role in promoting autophagic flux.
Adiponectin; breast cancer; autophagy; cholesterol; LDLR
Inflammation is essential for host defense but can cause tissue damage and organ failure if unchecked. How the inflammation is resolved remains elusive. Here we report that the transcription factor Miz1 was required for terminating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Genetic disruption of the Miz1 POZ domain, which is essential for its transactivation or repression activity, resulted in hyper-inflammation, lung injury and increased mortality in LPS-treated mice while reduced bacterial load and mortality in mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Loss of the Miz1 POZ domain prolonged pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Upon stimulation, Miz1 was phosphorylated at Ser178, which is required for recruiting histone deacetylase 1 to repress transcription of C/EBP-δ, an amplifier of inflammation. Our data provide a long-sought mechanism underlying resolution of LPS-induced inflammation.