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1.  Impact of More Than a Decade of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Use on Carriage and Invasive Potential in Native American Communities 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2011;205(2):280-288.
Background. We assessed the impact of 12 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) use on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and serotype-specific invasive disease potential among Native Americans.
Methods. Families were enrolled in a carriage study from 2006 to 2008; nasopharyngeal specimens and risk factor information were collected monthly for 7 visits. Pneumococcal carriage prevalence was compared with that before (1998–2000) and during (2001–2002) PCV7 introduction. We compared invasive disease incidence and carriage prevalence before and after PCV7 introduction to estimate changes in serotype-specific invasive potential.
Results. We enrolled 1077 subjects from 302 households. There was an absolute reduction in carriage prevalence of 8.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5%–11.4%) in children aged <5 years and 3.1% (95% CI, 1.1%–5.1%) in adults. In children aged <5 years, vaccine-serotype carriage prevalence decreased by 22.8% (95% CI, 20.1%–25.3%), and nonvaccine serotype (NVT) increased by 15.9% (95% CI, 12.4%–19.3%). No significant change was detected in serotype-specific invasive potential after PCV7 introduction.
Conclusions. Pneumococcal carriage prevalence decreased in all ages since PCV7 introduction; vaccine-serotype carriage has been nearly eliminated, whereas the prevalence of NVT carriage has increased. The increase in the NVT invasive disease rate seems to be proportional to the increase in colonization prevalence.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jir730
PMCID: PMC3244367  PMID: 22128315
3.  Rapid Screening for Penicillin Susceptibility of Systemic Pneumococcal Isolates by Restriction Enzyme Profiling of the pbp2B Gene 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1998;36(8):2359-2362.
Restriction digest profiling of pneumococcal pbp2b-specific amplicons was effective for screening penicillin resistance. The pbp2b amplicon of all pneumococcal isolates for which the MICs of penicillin were ≤0.03 μg/ml had one of two different susceptible restriction profiles, and all 33 isolates for which MICs were 0.5 μg/ml or greater had one of seven distinct resistant profiles. Low-concentration penicillin resistance (MICs = 0.06 μg/ml to 0.25 μg/ml) was associated with sensitive HaeIII profiles in some isolates; however, RsaI profiling and pbp2b sequence analysis of such isolates revealed that some isolates contained low-level resistant pbp2b alleles, while others had susceptible pbp2b alleles. This data indicates that low-level penicillin resistance is sometimes conferred by determinants other than pbp2b.
PMCID: PMC105050  PMID: 9666024
4.  Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in American Indian Households after a Decade of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Use 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e79578.
Background
Young children played a major role in pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, acquisition, and transmission in the era before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) use. Few studies document pneumococcal household dynamics in the routine-PCV7 era.
Methods
We investigated age-specific acquisition, household introduction, carriage clearance, and intra-household transmission in a prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in 300 American Indian households comprising 1,072 participants between March 2006 and March 2008.
Results
Pneumococcal acquisition rates were 2–6 times higher in children than adults. More household introductions of new pneumococcal strains were attributable to children <9 years than adults ≥17 years (p<0.001), and older children (2–8 years) than younger children (<2 years) (p<0.008). Compared to children <2 years, carriage clearance was more rapid in older children (2–4 years, HRclearance 1.53 [95% CI: 1.22, 1.91]; 5–8 years, HRclearance 1.71 [1.36, 2.15]) and adults (HRclearance 1.75 [1.16, 2.64]). Exposure to serotype-specific carriage in older children (2–8 years) most consistently increased the odds of subsequently acquiring that serotype for other household members.
Conclusions
In this community with a high burden of pneumococcal colonization and disease and routine PCV7 use, children (particularly older children 2–8 years) drive intra-household pneumococcal transmission: first, by acquiring, introducing, and harboring pneumococcus within the household, and then by transmitting acquired serotypes more efficiently than household members of other ages.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079578
PMCID: PMC3894936  PMID: 24465365

Results 1-4 (4)