Ninety-eight percent of the 3.7 million neonatal deaths and 3.3 million stillbirths per year occur in developing countries, and evaluation of community-based interventions is needed.
Using a train-the-trainer model, local instructors trained birth attendants from rural communities in six countries (Argentina, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guatemala, India, Pakistan, and Zambia) in the World Health Organization Essential Newborn Care course (routine neonatal care, resuscitation, thermoregulation, breastfeeding, kangaroo care, care of the small baby, and common illnesses), and in a modified version of the American Academy of Pediatrics Neonatal Resuscitation Program (in depth basic resuscitation), except in Argentina.
The Essential Newborn Care intervention was assessed with a before and after design (N=57, 643). The Neonatal Resuscitation Program intervention was assessed as a cluster randomized controlled trial (N=62,366). The primary outcome was 7-day neonatal mortality.
The 7-day follow-up rate was 99.2%. Following Essential Newborn Care training, there was no significant reduction from baseline in all-cause 7-day neonatal (RR 0.99; CI 0.81, 1.22) or perinatal mortality; there was a significant reduction in the stillbirth rate (RR 0.69; CI 0.54, 0.88; p<0.01). Seven-day neonatal mortality, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality were not reduced in clusters randomized to Neonatal Resuscitation Program training as compared with control clusters.
Seven-day neonatal mortality did not decrease following the introduction of Essential Newborn Care training of community-based birth attendants, although the rate of stillbirths was reduced following this intervention. Subsequent training in the Neonatal Resuscitation Program did not significantly reduce the mortality rates. (clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT00136708).
neonatal mortality; perinatal mortality; developing countries; health systems; effectiveness
Perinatal brain injury; cerebral palsy; resuscitation; hypothermia; hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; biomarker
We examined the association between elevated concentrations of 25 blood proteins in blood spots collected on postnatal days 1, 7, and 14 from infants < 28 weeks gestation who survived to 24 months and the risk of two patterns of early lung disease i.e., early and persistent pulmonary dysfunction (EPPD), and normal early pulmonary function followed by pulmonary deterioration (PD). 38% (N=347) of our cohort had PD, and 43% (N=383) had EPPD. On postnatal day 14, elevated concentrations of two proteins (RANTES and VEGF) were associated with reduced risk of PD. Similarly, the risk of EPPD was also reduced if three proteins had elevated concentrations on postnatal day 14 (RANTES, MMP-1, and VEGF). In contrast, the risk of EPPD was increased if on day 14 two proteins had elevated concentrations (IL-8 and ICAM-1). Inflammation might influence the risk of EPPD and PD, or be a consequence of lung damage or therapies to minimize lung dysfunction.
To determine population-based stillbirth rates and to determine whether the timing and maturity of the stillbirths suggest a high proportion of potentially preventable deaths.
Prospective observational study.
Communities in six low-income countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Zambia, Guatemala, India, and Pakistan) and one site in a mid-income country (Argentina).
Pregnant women residing in the study communities.
Over a five-year period, in selected catchment areas, using multiple methodologies, trained study staff obtained pregnancy outcomes on each delivery in their area.
Main outcome measures
Pregnancy outcome, stillbirth characteristics.
Outcomes of 195 400 deliveries were included. Stillbirth rates ranged from 32 per 1 000 in Pakistan to 8 per 1 000 births in Argentina. Three-fourths (76%) of stillbirth off-spring were not macerated, 63% were ≥37 weeks and 48% weighed 2 500g or more. Across all sites, women with no education, of high and low parity, of older age, and without access to antenatal care were at significantly greater risk for stillbirth (p<0.001). Compared to those delivered by a physician, women delivered by nurses and traditional birth attendants had a lower risk of stillbirth.
In these low-middle income countries, most stillbirth offspring were not macerated, were reported as ≥37 weeks’ gestation, and almost half weighed at least 2 500g. With access to better medical care, especially in the intrapartum period, many of these stillbirths could likely be prevented.
Developing countries; intrapartum stillbirth; stillbirth
Rationale: Benefits of identifying risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature infants include providing prognostic information, identifying infants likely to benefit from preventive strategies, and stratifying infants for clinical trial enrollment.
Objectives: To identify risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and the competing outcome of death, by postnatal day; to identify which risk factors improve prediction; and to develop a Web-based estimator using readily available clinical information to predict risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death.
Methods: We assessed infants of 23–30 weeks' gestation born in 17 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network and enrolled in the Neonatal Research Network Benchmarking Trial from 2000–2004.
Measurements and Main Results: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was defined as a categorical variable (none, mild, moderate, or severe). We developed and validated models for bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk at six postnatal ages using gestational age, birth weight, race and ethnicity, sex, respiratory support, and FiO2, and examined the models using a C statistic (area under the curve). A total of 3,636 infants were eligible for this study. Prediction improved with advancing postnatal age, increasing from a C statistic of 0.793 on Day 1 to a maximum of 0.854 on Day 28. On Postnatal Days 1 and 3, gestational age best improved outcome prediction; on Postnatal Days 7, 14, 21, and 28, type of respiratory support did so. A Web-based model providing predicted estimates for bronchopulmonary dysplasia by postnatal day is available at https://neonatal.rti.org.
Conclusions: The probability of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature infants can be determined accurately using a limited amount of readily available clinical information.
bronchopulmonary dysplasia; prematurity; low-birth-weight infant
Nearly half the world’s babies are born at home. We sought to evaluate the training, knowledge, skills, and access to medical equipment and testing for home birth attendants across 7 international sites.
Face-to-face interviews were done by trained interviewers to assess level of training, knowledge and practices regarding care during the antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum periods. The survey was administered to a sample of birth attendants conducting home or out-of-facility deliveries in 7 sites in 6 countries (India, Pakistan, Guatemala, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Zambia).
A total of 1226 home birth attendants were surveyed. Less than half the birth attendants were literate. Eighty percent had one month or less of formal training. Most home birth attendants did not have basic equipment (e.g., blood pressure apparatus, stethoscope, infant bag and mask manual resuscitator). Reporting of births and maternal and neonatal deaths to government agencies was low. Indian auxilliary nurse midwives, who perform some home but mainly clinic births, were far better trained and differed in many characteristics from the birth attendants who only performed deliveries at home.
Home birth attendants in low-income countries were often illiterate, could not read numbers and had little formal training. Most had few of the skills or access to tests, medications and equipment that are necessary to reduce maternal, fetal or neonatal mortality.
Home births; Traditional birth attendants; Perinatal mortality
Lung inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and may be accompanied by a systematic inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of systemic inflammation in the development of BPD in a cohort of extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs) by examining the relationships between inflammation-associated proteins in neonatal blood samples and pulmonary outcomes. Proteins were measured in blood specimens collected on postnatal days 1–3, 5–8 and 12–15 from 932 ELGANs. Increased risk of BPD was associated with elevated blood concentrations of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules and proteases. Reduced risk was prominently associated with increased concentrations of one chemokine, RANTES. Elevations of inflammatory proteins associated with BPD risk occurred during the first days following birth, and inflammation intensified thereafter. Therefore, exposures that promote inflammation after the first postnatal days may be more critical in the pathogenesis of BPD. Fetal growth restriction, a known BPD risk factor, was not accompanied by proteins elevations and therefore does not appear to be mediated by systemic inflammation. By contrast, mechanical ventilation altered protein levels and may be associated with systemic inflammation.
To evaluate, in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs), relationships between indicators of early postnatal hypotension and cranial ultrasound indicators of cerebral white matter damage imaged in the nursery and cerebral palsy diagnoses at 24 month follow-up.
The 1041 infants in this prospective study were born at < 28 weeks gestation, were assessed for 3 indicators of hypotension in the first 24 postnatal hours, had at least one set of protocol cranial ultrasound scans, and were evaluated with a structured neurologic exam at 24 months corrected age. Indicators of hypotension included: 1) lowest mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the lowest quartile for gestational age; 2) treatment with a vasopressor; and 3) blood pressure lability, defined as the upper quartile of the difference between each infant’s lowest and highest MAP. Outcomes included indicators of cerebral white matter damage, i.e. moderate/severe ventriculomegaly or an echolucent lesion on cranial ultrasound, and cerebral palsy diagnoses at 24 months gestation. Logistic regression was used to evaluate relationships among hypotension indicators and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders.
Twenty-one percent of surviving infants had a lowest blood pressure in the lowest quartile for gestational age, 24% were treated with vasopressors, and 24% had labile blood pressure. Among infants with these hypotension indicators, 10% percent developed ventriculomegaly and 7% developed an echolucent lesion. At 24-months follow-up, 6% had developed quadriparesis, 4% diparesis, and 2% hemiparesis. After adjusting for confounders, we found no association between indicators of hypotension, and indicators of cerebral white matter damage or a cerebral palsy diagnosis.
The absence of an association between indicators of hypotension and cerebral white matter damage and or cerebral palsy suggests that early hypotension may not be important in the pathogenesis of brain injury in ELGANs.
hypotension; mean arterial blood pressure; cranial ultrasound; ventriculomegaly; echolucent lesion; cerebral palsy; extremely preterm infants
Each year, an estimated six million perinatal deaths occur worldwide, and 98% of these deaths occur in lowand middle-income countries. These estimates are based on surveys in both urban and rural areas, and they may underrepresent the problem in rural areas. This study was conducted to quantify perinatal mortality, to identify the associated risk factors, and to determine the most common causes of early neonatal death in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Data were collected on 1,892 births. Risk factors associated with perinatal deaths were identified using multivariate analysis with logistic regression models. Causes of early neonatal deaths were determined by physician-review of information describing death. The perinatal mortality rate was 61 per 1,000 births; the stillbirth rate was 30 per 1,000 births; and the early neonatal death rate was 32 per 1,000 livebirths. Clinically-relevant factors independently associated with perinatal death included: low birthweight [odds ratio (OR)=13.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.82-23.35], breech presentation (OR)=12.41; 95% CI 4.62-33.33), lack of prenatal care (OR=2.70, 95% CI 1.81-4.02), and parity greater than 4 (OR=1.93 95% CI 1.11-3.37). Over one-half of early neonatal deaths (n=37) occurred during the first two postnatal days, and the most common causes were low birthweight/prematurity (47%), asphyxia (34%), and infection (8%). The high perinatal mortality rate in rural communities in the DRC, approximately one-half of which is attributable to early neonatal death, may be modifiable. Specifically, deaths due to breech presentation, the second most common risk factor, may be reduced by making available emergency obstetric care. Most neonatal deaths occur soon after birth, and nearly three-quarters are caused by low birthweight/prematurity or asphyxia. Neonatal mortality might be reduced by targeting interventions to improve neonatal resuscitation and care of larger preterm infants.
Neonatal mortality; Observational studies; Perinatal mortality; Population-based studies; Prospective studies; Stillbirths; Congo
Because of a physician shortage in many low-income countries, the use of nonphysicians to classify perinatal mortality (stillbirth and early neonatal death) using verbal autopsy could be useful.
To determine the extent to which underlying perinatal causes of deaths assigned by nonphysicians in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo using a verbal autopsy method are concordant with underlying perinatal cause of death assigned by physician panels.
Using a train-the-trainer model, 13 physicians and 40 nonphysicians were trained to determine cause of death using a standardized verbal autopsy training program. Subsequently, panels of two physicians and individual nonphysicians from this trained cohort independently reviewed verbal autopsy data from a sample of 118 early neonatal deaths and 134 stillbirths. With the cause of death assigned by the physician panel as the reference standard, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and cause-specific mortality fractions were calculated to assess nonphysicians' coding responses. Robustness criteria to assess how well nonphysicians performed were used.
Causes of early neonatal death and stillbirth assigned by nonphysicians were concordant with physician-assigned causes 47% and 57% of the time, respectively. Tetanus filled robustness criteria for early neonatal death, and cord prolapse filled robustness criteria for stillbirth.
There are significant differences in underlying cause of death as determined by physicians and nonphysicians even when they receive similar training in cause of death determination. Currently, it does not appear that nonphysicians can be used reliably to assign underlying cause of perinatal death using verbal autopsy.
In many developing countries, the majority of births are attended by traditional birth attendants, who lack formal training in neonatal resuscitation and other essential care required by the newly born infant. In these countries, the major causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, infection, and low-birth-weight/prematurity. Death from these causes is potentially modifiable using low-cost interventions, including neonatal resuscitation training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on perinatal mortality of training birth attendants in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) using two established programs.
This study, a secondary analysis of DRC-specific data collected during a multi-country study, was conducted in two phases. The effect of training using the WHO Essential Newborn Care (ENC) program was evaluated using an active baseline design, followed by a cluster randomized trial of training using an adaptation of a neonatal resuscitation program (NRP). The perinatal mortality rates before ENC, after ENC training, and after randomization to additional NRP training or continued care were compared. In addition, the influence of time following resuscitation training was investigated by examining change in perinatal mortality during sequential three-month increments following ENC training.
More than two-thirds of deliveries were attended by traditional birth attendants and occurred in homes; these proportions decreased after ENC training. There was no apparent decline in perinatal mortality when the outcome of all deliveries prior to ENC training was compared to those after ENC but before NRP training. However, there was a gradual but significant decline in perinatal mortality during the year following ENC training (RR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96), which was independently associated with time following training. The decline was attributable to a decline in early neonatal mortality. NRP training had no demonstrable effect on early neonatal mortality.
Training DRC birth attendants using the ENC program reduces perinatal mortality. However, a period of utilization and re-enforcement of training may be necessary before a decline in mortality occurs. ENC training has the potential to be a low cost, high impact intervention in developing countries.
This trial has been registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (identifier NCT00136708).
The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS), are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA), were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC.
Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks) or the third (32 - 36 weeks) trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling.
A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L) for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h) for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L) for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h) for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%).
In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that higher AS doses would be required to maintain similar DHA levels in pregnant women as achieved in non-pregnant controls.
Considerable effort has been devoted to the development of strategies to reduce the incidence of chronic lung disease, including use of medications, nutritional therapies, and respiratory care practices. Unfortunately, most of these strategies have not been successful. To date, the only two treatments developed specifically to prevent CLD whose efficacy is supported by evidence from randomized, controlled trials are the parenteral administration of vitamin A and corticosteroids. Two other therapies, the use of caffeine for the treatment of apnea of prematurity and aggressive phototherapy for the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia were evaluated for the improvement of other outcomes and found to reduce CLD. Cohort studies suggest that the use of CPAP as a strategy for avoiding mechanical ventilation might also be beneficial. Other therapies reduce lung injury in animal models but do not appear to reduce CLD in humans. The benefits of the efficacious therapies have been modest, with an absolute risk reduction in the 7–11% range. Further preventive strategies are needed to reduce the burden of this disease. However, each will need to be tested in randomized, controlled trials, and the expectations of new therapies should be modest reductions of the incidence of the disease.
chronic lung disease; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; prevention; prophylaxis; vitamin A; corticosteroids; caffeine
In many malaria-endemic countries, increasing resistance may soon compromise the efficacy of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventative treatment (IPT) of malaria in pregnancy. Artemisinin-based IPT regimens represent a promising potential alternative to SP. Pharmacokinetic and safety data supporting the use of artemisinin derivatives in pregnancy are urgently needed.
Subjects included pregnant women with asymptomatic falciparum parasitaemia between 22-26 weeks (n = 13) or 32-36 weeks gestation (n = 13), the same women at three months postpartum, and 25 non-pregnant parasitaemic controls. All subjects received 200 mg orally administered AS. Plasma total and free levels of AS and its active metabolite DHA were determined using a validated LC-MS method. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using standard methods.
All pregnant women delivered live babies. The median birth weight was 3025 grams [range 2130, 3620]; 2 of 26 babies had birth weights less than 2500 grams. Rates of parasite clearance by 12 hours post-dose were high and comparable among the groups. Rapid elimination of AS was observed in all three groups. The 90% CI for the pregnancy:postpartum ratio of geometric means for total and free AUC fell within the pre-specified 0.66 - 1.50 therapeutic equivalence interval. However, more pronounced pharmacokinetic differences were observed between the pregnancy and control subjects, with the 90% CI for the pregnancy:control ratio of geometric means for both total 0.68 (90% CI 0.57-0.81) and free AUC 0.78 (90% CI 0.63-0.95) not fully contained within the 0.66 - 1.50 interval. All subjects cleared parasites rapidly, and there was no difference in the percentage of women who were parasitaemic 12 hours after dosing.
A single dose of orally administered AS was found to be both effective and without adverse effects in this study of second and third trimester pregnant women in the DRC. Although DHA AUC during pregnancy and postpartum were similar, the AUC for the pregnant group was less than the non-pregnant controls. The findings of this study suggest that additional studies on the pharmacokinetics of AS in pregnant women are needed.
Inadequate and inappropriate complementary feeding are major factors contributing to excess morbidity and mortality in young children in low resource settings. Animal source foods in particular are cited as essential to achieve micronutrient requirements. The efficacy of the recommendation for regular meat consumption, however, has not been systematically evaluated.
A cluster randomized efficacy trial was designed to test the hypothesis that 12 months of daily intake of beef added as a complementary food would result in greater linear growth velocity than a micronutrient fortified equi-caloric rice-soy cereal supplement. The study is being conducted in 4 sites of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research located in Guatemala, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Zambia in communities with toddler stunting rates of at least 20%. Five clusters per country were randomized to each of the food arms, with 30 infants in each cluster. The daily meat or cereal supplement was delivered to the home by community coordinators, starting when the infants were 6 months of age and continuing through 18 months. All participating mothers received nutrition education messages to enhance complementary feeding practices delivered by study coordinators and through posters at the local health center. Outcome measures, obtained at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months by a separate assessment team, included anthropometry; dietary variety and diversity scores; biomarkers of iron, zinc and Vitamin B12 status (18 months); neurocognitive development (12 and 18 months); and incidence of infectious morbidity throughout the trial. The trial was supervised by a trial steering committee, and an independent data monitoring committee provided oversight for the safety and conduct of the trial.
Findings from this trial will test the efficacy of daily intake of meat commencing at age 6 months and, if beneficial, will provide a strong rationale for global efforts to enhance local supplies of meat as a complementary food for young children.
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common diagnosis among extremely premature infants, especially in those with lung disease. Treatments are often used to close the PDA. Despite nearly three decades of research, the question of whether the benefits of treatments to prevent ductal patency or promote closure outweigh the risks of these treatments remains unanswered. The authors rarely use treatments designed to close the PDA. This article reviews three considerations in support of this restrained approach: rates of spontaneous closure of the ductus arteriosus; adverse effect of persistent ductal patency; and benefits and risks of treatments for closure.
patent ductus arteriosus; indomethacin; ibuprofen; ductal ligation
Improvement in survival of extremely premature infants over the past several decades has resulted in an increase in the number infants with chronic lung disease (CLD). Historical neonatal exposures associated with CLD now less frequently precede the disease. There is now increasing interest in exposures and events before delivery that predict CLD. The objective of this study was to identify current antenatal predictors of CLD.
Patients and Methods
We collected data about antenatal, placental and neonatal characteristics of 1241 newborns delivered before completion of the 28th week of gestation who were enrolled in a 14-center, observational study conducted during the years 2002-2004. Associations between antenatal factors, microbiologic and histologic characteristics of the placenta, and selected neonatal characteristics and CLD risk were first evaluated in univariate analyses. Subsequent multivariate analyses investigated the contribution of antenatal factors, particularly fetal growth restriction (FGR), to CLD risk.
Among the antenatal factors, birth weight Z-score, used as a marker of FGR, provided the most information about CLD risk. Indicators of placental inflammation and infection were not associated with increased risk of CLD. Within nearly all strata of antenatal, placental and neonatal variables, growth restricted infants were at increased CLD risk compared with infants who were not growth restricted. FGR was the only maternal or antenatal characteristic that was highly predictive of CLD after adjustment for other risk factors.
FGR is independently associated with the risk of CLD. Thus factors that control fetal somatic growth may have a significant impact on vulnerability to lung injury, and in this way increase CLD risk. Future investigations should focus on the impact of FGR on growth factors that modulate lung growth.
chronic lung disease; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; prematurity; preterm infant
Extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs) are at increased risk of chronic lung disease (CLD) and of developmental delay. Some studies have suggested that CLD contributes to developmental delay.
Patients and Methods
We examined data collected prospectively on 915 infants born before the 28th week of gestation in 2002–2004 who were assessed at 24 months of age with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-2nd Edition or the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. We excluded infants who were not able to walk independently (Gross Motor Function Classification System score < 1) and, therefore, more likely to have functionally important fine motor impairments. We defined CLD as receipt of oxygen at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age and classified infants as either not receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) (CLD without MV) or receiving MV (CLD with MV).
Forty-nine percent of ELGANs had CLD; of these, 14% were receiving MV at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. ELGANs without CLD had the lowest risk of a Mental Developmental Index (MDI) or a Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) of <55, followed by ELGANs with CLD not receiving MV, and ELGANs with CLD receiving MV (9%, 12%, and 18% for the MDI and 7%, 10%, and 20% for the PDI, respectively). In time-oriented multivariate models, the risk of an MDI of <55 was associated with the following variables: gestational age of <25 weeks; single mother; late bacteremia; pneumothorax; and necrotizing enterocolitis. The risk of a PDI of <55 was associated with variables such as single mother, a complete course of antenatal corticosteroids, early and persistent pulmonary dysfunction, pulmonary deterioration during the second postnatal week, pneumothorax, and pulmonary interstitial emphysema. CLD, without or with MV, was not associated with the risk of either a low MDI or a low PDI. However, CLD with MV approached, but did not achieve, nominal statistical significance (odds ratio: 1.9 [95% confidence interval: 0.97–3.9]) for the association with a PDI of <55.
Among children without severe gross motor delays, risk factors for CLD account for the association between CLD and developmental delay. Once those factors are considered in time-oriented risk models, CLD does not seem to increase the risk of either a low MDI or a low PDI. However, severe CLD might increase the risk of a low PDI.
lung disease; prematurity; preterm infant; neurodevelopmental outcome
Pulmonary disease among infants of <28 weeks' gestation (extremely low gestational age newborns) often has the following pattern: the infant starts out with little need for supplemental oxygen and ventilatory support in the first postnatal week but then has pulmonary deterioration in the second postnatal week, with an increased need for supplemental oxygen and respiratory support. We evaluated the antecedents and correlates of patterns of early lung disease, with particular emphasis on pulmonary deterioration, in a large cohort study (the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn [ELGAN] study).
Patients and Methods
We examined data collected prospectively on 1340 infants born between 2002 and 2004 at 23 to 27 completed weeks of gestation and who survived to 14 days. Pulmonary deterioration was defined as receipt of fraction of inspired oxygen <0.23 on any day between days 3 and 7 and receipt of fraction of inspired oxygen ≥ 0.25 on day 14.
One fifth (20%) of the infants had consistently low fraction of inspired oxygen, approximately two fifths (38%) had pulmonary deterioration, and the remaining approximately two fifths (43%) had consistently high fraction of inspired oxygen (early and persistent lung dysfunction). Compared with infants who had consistently low fraction of inspired oxygen, infants who experienced pulmonary deterioration had lower gestational ages and lower birth weights, had higher scores for neonatal acute physiology, and received more intensive modes of respiratory support. Gender, multifetal pregnancy, cesarean delivery, antenatal steroids, chorioamnionitis, and funisitis were not associated with pulmonary deterioration. The incidence of chronic lung disease, defined as oxygen therapy at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, was 17% in the consistently low fraction of inspired oxygen group, 51% in the pulmonary deterioration group, and 67% in the early and persistent pulmonary dysfunction group. The incidence of death in these 3 groups before 36 weeks' postmenstrual age was 1%, 3%, and 5%, respectively.
Nearly 40% of extremely low gestational age newborns experience pulmonary deterioration in the first 2 postnatal weeks, and half of these infants develop chronic lung disease. Indicators of developmental immaturity and illness severity were associated with both pulmonary deterioration and chronic lung disease. Studying the antecedents of pulmonary deterioration might provide new insights about chronic lung disease pathogenesis.
lung disease; prematurity; preterm infant
The goals were to identify the blood pressures of extremely low gestational age newborns that prompt intervention, to identify other infant characteristics associated with receipt of therapies intended to increase blood pressure, and to assess the interinstitutional variability in the use of these therapies.
The cohort included 1507 extremely low gestational age newborns born at 23 weeks to
276/7 weeks of gestation, at 14 institutions, between March 2002 and August 2004; 1387 survived the first postnatal week. Blood pressures were measured as clinically indicated. Interventions were grouped as any treatment (ie, vasopressor and/or fluid boluses of >10 mL/kg) and vasopressor treatment, and logistic regression analyses were performed.
At each gestational age, the lowest mean arterial pressures in treated and untreated infants tended to increase with advancing postnatal age. Infants who received any therapy tended to have lower mean arterial pressures than infants who did not, but uniform thresholds for treatment were not apparent. The proportion of infants receiving any treatment decreased with increasing gestational age from 93% at 23 weeks to 73% at 27 weeks. Treatment nearly always began during the first 24 hours of life. Lower gestational age, lower birth weight, male gender, and higher Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology–II values were associated with any treatment and vasopressor treatment. Institutions varied greatly in their tendency to offer any treatment and vasopressor treatment. Neither the lowest mean arterial pressure on the day of treatment nor other characteristics of the infants accounted for center differences in treatment.
Blood pressure in extremely premature infants not treated for hypotension increased directly with both increasing gestational age and postnatal age. The decision to provide treatment was associated more strongly with the center where care was provided than with infant attributes.
premature infant; blood pressure; hypotension