To examine the relationships between sleep problems and prenatal exposure to cocaine, opiates, marijuana, alcohol, and nicotine in children 1 month to 12 years of age.
Sleep data was collected by maternal report in a prospective longitudinal follow-up of children participating in the Maternal Lifestyle multisite study.
Hospital based research centers in Providence, RI, Miami, FL, Detroit, MI, and Memphis, TN
There were 808 participants: 374 exposed to cocaine and/or opiates; 434 comparison.
Prenatal cocaine, opiate, marijuana, alcohol, and nicotine exposure.
Sleep problems in early, middle, and late childhood, assessed as composites of maternal report items.
Of the five substances, prenatal nicotine exposure was the only unique predictor of sleep problems (B = .074, R2 Δ = .008, p = .012) with adjustment for covariates including SES, marital status, physical abuse, prenatal medical care, and postnatal cigarette smoke exposure.
Prenatal exposure to nicotine was positively associated with children's sleep problems persisting throughout the first 12 years of life. Targeting this group of children for educational and behavioral efforts to prevent and treat sleep problems is merited given that good sleep may serve as a protective factor for other developmental outcomes.