To describe characteristics and outcome of mechanically ventilated patients admitted to three newly established intensive care units (ICU) in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia for 2009 H1N1 influenza infection.
The retrospective observational study included all mechanically ventilated adult patients of three university-affiliated hospitals between November 1, 2009 and March 1 2010 who had 2009 H1N1 influenza infection confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) from nasopharyngeal swab specimens and respiratory secretions.
The study included 50 patients, 31 male (62%), aged 43 ± 13 years. Median time from hospital to ICU admission was 1 day (range 1-2). Sixteen patients (30%) presented with one or more chronic medical condition: 8 (16%) with chronic lung disease, 5 (10%) with chronic heart failure, and 3 (6%) with diabetes mellitus. Thirty-two (64%) were obese. Forty-eight patients (96%) experienced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 28 (56%) septic shock, and 27 (54%) multiorgan failure. Forty-five patients (90%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated, 5 received non-invasive mechanical ventilation, 7 (14%) high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, and 7 (14%) renal replacement therapy. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 7 (4-14) days. Hospital mortality was 52%.