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2.  Clinical outcomes of patients requiring ventilatory support in Brazilian intensive care units: a multicenter, prospective, cohort study 
Critical Care  2013;17(2):R63.
Introduction
Contemporary information on mechanical ventilation (MV) use in emerging countries is limited. Moreover, most epidemiological studies on ventilatory support were carried out before significant developments, such as lung protective ventilation or broader application of non-invasive ventilation (NIV). We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, outcomes and risk factors for hospital mortality and failure of NIV in patients requiring ventilatory support in Brazilian intensive care units (ICU).
Methods
In a multicenter, prospective, cohort study, a total of 773 adult patients admitted to 45 ICUs over a two-month period requiring invasive ventilation or NIV for more than 24 hours were evaluated. Causes of ventilatory support, prior chronic health status and physiological data were assessed. Multivariate analysis was used to identifiy variables associated with hospital mortality and NIV failure.
Results
Invasive MV and NIV were used as initial ventilatory support in 622 (80%) and 151 (20%) patients. Failure with subsequent intubation occurred in 54% of NIV patients. The main reasons for ventilatory support were pneumonia (27%), neurologic disorders (19%) and non-pulmonary sepsis (12%). ICU and hospital mortality rates were 34% and 42%. Using the Berlin definition, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was diagnosed in 31% of the patients with a hospital mortality of 52%. In the multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio (OR), 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.03), comorbidities (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.28 to 3.17), associated organ failures (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.20), moderate (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.35) to severe ARDS (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.41), cumulative fluid balance over the first 72 h of ICU (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.39 to 4.28), higher lactate (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.50), invasive MV (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.32 to 5.39) and NIV failure (OR, 3.95; 95% CI, 1.74 to 8.99) were independently associated with hospital mortality. The predictors of NIV failure were the severity of associated organ dysfunctions (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.34), ARDS (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.10 to 4.82) and positive fluid balance (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.02 to 4.30).
Conclusions
Current mortality of ventilated patients in Brazil is elevated. Implementation of judicious fluid therapy and a watchful use and monitoring of NIV patients are potential targets to improve outcomes in this setting.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01268410.
doi:10.1186/cc12594
PMCID: PMC3672504  PMID: 23557378
3.  Intensive care of the cancer patient: recent achievements and remaining challenges 
A few decades have passed since intensive care unit (ICU) beds have been available for critically ill patients with cancer. Although the initial reports showed dismal prognosis, recent data suggest that an increased number of patients with solid and hematological malignancies benefit from intensive care support, with dramatically decreased mortality rates. Advances in the management of the underlying malignancies and support of organ dysfunctions have led to survival gains in patients with life-threatening complications from the malignancy itself, as well as infectious and toxic adverse effects related to the oncological treatments. In this review, we will appraise the prognostic factors and discuss the overall perspective related to the management of critically ill patients with cancer. The prognostic significance of certain factors has changed over time. For example, neutropenia or autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) have less adverse prognostic implications than two decades ago. Similarly, because hematologists and oncologists select patients for ICU admission based on the characteristics of the malignancy, the underlying malignancy rarely influences short-term survival after ICU admission. Since the recent data do not clearly support the benefit of ICU support to unselected critically ill allogeneic BMT recipients, more outcome research is needed in this subgroup. Because of the overall increased survival that has been reported in critically ill patients with cancer, we outline an easy-to-use and evidence-based ICU admission triage criteria that may help avoid depriving life support to patients with cancer who can benefit. Lastly, we propose a research agenda to address unanswered questions.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-1-5
PMCID: PMC3159899  PMID: 21906331
4.  Severe acute tumor lysis syndrome in patients with germ-cell tumors 
Germ-cell tumors are a high-proliferative type of cancer that may evolve to significant bulky disease. Tumor lysis syndrome is rarely reported in this setting. The reports of three patients with germ-cell tumors who developed severe acute tumor lysis syndrome following the start of their anticancer therapy are presented. All patients developed renal dysfunction and multiorgan failure. Patients with extensive germ-cell tumors should be kept on close clinical and laboratory monitoring. Physicians should be aware of this uncommon but severe complication and consider early admission to the intensive care unit for the institution of measures to prevent acute renal failure.
doi:10.4103/0970-1591.44267
PMCID: PMC2684391  PMID: 19468517
Acute renal failure; germ-cell tumors; tumor lysis syndrome
5.  Cytokine profiles as markers of disease severity in sepsis: a multiplex analysis 
Critical Care  2007;11(2):R49.
Introduction
The current shortage of accurate and readily available, validated biomarkers of disease severity in sepsis is an important limitation when attempting to stratify patients into homogeneous groups, in order to study pathogenesis or develop therapeutic interventions. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytokine profile in plasma of patients with severe sepsis by using a multiplex system for simultaneous detection of 17 cytokines.
Methods
This was a prospective cohort study conducted in four tertiary hospitals. A total of 60 patients with a recent diagnosis of severe sepsis were included. Plasma samples were collected for measurement of cytokine concentrations. A multiplex analysis was performed to evaluate levels of 17 cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, interferon-γ, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF], granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 and tumour necrosis factor-α). Cytokine concentrations were related to the presence of severe sepsis or septic shock, the severity and evolution of organ failure, and early and late mortality.
Results
Concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, interferon-γ, MCP-1 and tumour necrosis factor-α were significantly higher in septic shock patients than in those with severe sepsis. Cytokine concentrations were associated with severity and evolution of organ dysfunction. With regard to the severity of organ dysfunction on day 1, IL-8 and MCP-1 exhibited the best correlation with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. In addition, IL-6, IL-8 and G-CSF concentrations during the first 24 hours were predictive of worsening organ dysfunction or failure of organ dysfunction to improve on day three. In terms of predicting mortality, the cytokines IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and G-CSF had good accuracy for predicting early mortality (< 48 hours), and IL-8 and MCP-1 had the best accuracy for predicting mortality at 28 days. In multivariate analysis, only MCP-1 was independently associated with prognosis.
Conclusion
In this exploratory analysis we demonstrated that use of a multiple cytokine assay platform allowed identification of distinct cytokine profiles associated with sepsis severity, evolution of organ failure and death.
doi:10.1186/cc5783
PMCID: PMC2206478  PMID: 17448250

Results 1-5 (5)