The olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) derived from olfactory bulb (OB) may improve motor function after transplantation in injured spinal cord. However, the effects of OEC transplantation on sensory function have not been reported yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether OEC transplantation could affect the sensory function and to analyze the underlying mechanism.
OEC transplantation into the hemisected spinal cords can result in hyperalgesia, indicated by radiant and mechanical stimuli towards the plantar surface in rats. This could be associated with upregulation of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), indicated by RT-PCR. Immunofluorecent staining showed that BDNF was mainly located in the neurons of the laminas I and II of the dorsal horn. Moreover, a notable upregulation on the level of p-ERK (phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase), the downstream molecule of BDNF, was detected by using Western Blot. These findings indicate that the increased BDNF level associated with the p-ERK was possibly involved in neuropathic pain in hemisected spinal cord subjected to OEC transplantation.
The transplantation of OECs may induce the noticeable pain hypersensitivity in rats after hemisected spinal cord injury, and the possible mechanism may be associated with the phosphorylation of ERK and the activated BDNF overexpression.
Olfactory ensheathing cells; Spinal cord injury; Hemisection; Cell transplantation; Rat; p-ERK; BDNF; Hyperalgesia
Anomopterellidae was originally classified as a family within the Evanioidea, and later lowered to a subfamily, Anomopterellinae, of Praeaulacidae. Up to date, only Rasnitsyn 1975, with four species, was assigned to Anomopterellinae. Due to their special wing venation and their metasomal attachment similar to those known in Evanioidea, the systematic position of Anomopterellinae in Evanioidea has been in contention.
Here we report a new fossil genus Synaphopterella gen. nov. and six species from the Middle Jurassic of China and transfer Anomopterella stenocera Rasnitsyn, 1975, from Upper Jurassic of Kazakhstan, to Choristopterella gen. nov. We place these three genera in the restored family Anomopterellidae and provide a key to known genera and species.
Based on new fossil specimens and phylogenetic analyses, Praeaulacidae has the most basal position in Evanioidea and it is justifiable to restore Anomopterellidae Rasnitsyn, 1975 as a full family. Comparing the size of all described anomopterellids from China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan, we conclude that the species from China have larger bodies and forewings. Diversity of the Praeaulacidae and Anomopterellidae in the late Middle Jurassic of Daohugou suggests that Evanioidea appeared at least before the late Middle Jurassic.
Despite explosive growth in genomic datasets, the methods for studying epigenomic mechanisms of gene regulation remain primitive. Here we present a model-based approach to systematically analyze the epigenomic functions in modulating transcription factor-DNA binding. Based on the first principles of statistical mechanics, this model considers the interactions between epigenomic modifications and a cis-regulatory module, which contains multiple binding sites arranged in any configurations. We compiled a comprehensive epigenomic dataset in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, including DNA methylation (MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq), DNA hydroxymethylation (5-hmC-seq), and histone modifications (ChIP-seq). We discovered correlations of transcription factors (TFs) for specific combinations of epigenomic modifications, which we term epigenomic motifs. Epigenomic motifs explained why some TFs appeared to have different DNA binding motifs derived from in vivo (ChIP-seq) and in vitro experiments. Theoretical analyses suggested that the epigenome can modulate transcriptional noise and boost the cooperativity of weak TF binding sites. ChIP-seq data suggested that epigenomic boost of binding affinities in weak TF binding sites can function in mES cells. We showed in theory that the epigenome should suppress the TF binding differences on SNP-containing binding sites in two people. Using personal data, we identified strong associations between H3K4me2/H3K9ac and the degree of personal differences in NFκB binding in SNP-containing binding sites, which may explain why some SNPs introduce much smaller personal variations on TF binding than other SNPs. In summary, this model presents a powerful approach to analyze the functions of epigenomic modifications. This model was implemented into an open source program APEG (Affinity Prediction by Epigenome and Genome, http://systemsbio.ucsd.edu/apeg).
We developed a model-based approach to systematically analyze the epigenomic functions in modulating transcription factor-DNA binding. We postulated the existence of TF-specific epigenomic motifs, which could explain why some TFs appeared to have different DNA binding motifs derived from in vivo and in vitro experiments. The theoretical results suggested that the epigenome can modulate transcriptional noise and boost the cooperativity of weak TF binding sites. A preliminary analysis of the existing data suggested that epigenomic boost of binding affinities in weak TF binding sites could be a widespread regulatory mechanism in mES cells. Moreover, using personal data, we identified strong associations between H3K4me2/H3K9ac and the degree of individual differences in NFκB binding in SNP-containing binding sites, suggesting the theoretical mechanism for epigenome to attenuate the TF binding differences on SNP-containing binding sites in two individuals may contribute to link genomic variation to phenotypic variation. Thus, this model presents a powerful approach to analyze the functions of epigenomic modifications.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by immune cells. Th22 cells are CD4+ T cells that secret IL-22 but not IL-17 or IFN-γ and are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease. The roles of Th22 cells in the pathophysiologic procedures of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the profile of Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells in ACS patients, including unstable angina (UA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients.
Design and Methods
In this study, 26 AMI patients, 16 UA patients, 16 stable angina (SA) patients and 16 healthy controls were included. The frequencies of Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells in AMI, UA, SA patients and healthy controls were examined by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of IL-22, IL-17 and IFN-γ were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells were significantly increased in AMI and UA patients compared with SA patients and healthy controls. Moreover, plasma IL-22 level was significantly elevated in AMI and UA patients. In addition, Th22 cells correlated positively with IL-22 as well as Th17 cells in AMI and UA patients.
Our findings showed increased frequencies of both Th22 and Th17 cells in ACS patients, which suggest that Th22 and Th17 cells may play a potential role in plaque destabilization and the development of ACS.
It is well-known that end caps and the peptide length can dramatically influence the thermodynamics of the helix–coil transition. However, their roles in determining the kinetics of the helix–coil transition have not been studied extensively and are less well understood. Kinetic Ising models and sequential kinetic models involving barrier crossing via diffusion all predict that the helix formation time depends monotonically on the peptide length with the relaxation time increasing with respect to increasing chain length. Here, we have studied the helix–coil transition kinetics of a series of Ala-based α-helical peptides of different length (19–39 residues), with and without end caps, using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy coupled with laser-induced temperature jump (T-jump) initiation method. The helical content of these peptides was kinetically monitored by probing the amide carbonyl stretching frequencies (i.e., the amide I′ band) of the peptide backbone. We found that the relaxation rates for peptides with efficient end caps are more rapid than those of the corresponding peptides without good end caps. These results indicate that efficient end-capping sequences can not only stabilize preexisting helices but also promote helix formation through initiation. Furthermore, we found that the relaxation times of these peptides, following a T-jump of 1–11 °C, show rather complex behaviors as a function of the peptide length, in disagreement with theoretical predications. Theses results are not readily explained by theories in which Ala is taken to have a single helical propensity (s). However, recent studies have suggested that s depends on chain length; when this factor is considered, the mean first-passage times of the coil-to-helix transition show similar dependence on the peptide length as those observed experimentally.
This unit describes the Wash U Epigenome Browser, a next-generation genomic data visualization system. The Browser currently hosts ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics data for human and model organisms. The Browser displays many sequencing-based data sets across all or part of the genome, on specific gene sets or pathways, and in the context of their metadata. Investigators can order, filter, aggregate, classify and display data interactively based on given feature sets including metadata features, annotated biological pathways, and user-defined collections of genes or genomic coordinates. Further, statistical tests can be performed on selected data. Individual labs can upload their sequencing or array-based data as custom tracks and display them in the context of consortium data, allowing for direct comparisons. The Browser is an increasingly important and widely accessible tool for deriving biological insights from unprecedented amounts of high-quality genomic, epigenomic and expression data.
genome browser; DNA sequencing data sets; high-throughput genomics; epigenomics
Cultivated bananas are large, vegetatively-propagated members of the genus Musa. More than 1,000 cultivars are grown worldwide and they are major economic and food resources in numerous developing countries. It has been suggested that cultivated bananas originated from the islands of Southeast Asia (ISEA) and have been developed through complex geodomestication pathways. However, the maternal and parental donors of most cultivars are unknown, and the pattern of nucleotide diversity in domesticated banana has not been fully resolved.
We studied the genetics of 16 cultivated and 18 wild Musa accessions using two single-copy nuclear (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSS I, also known as Waxy, and alcohol dehydrogenase 1, Adh1) and two chloroplast (maturase K, matK, and the trnL-F gene cluster) genes. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that all A-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas were grouped together with those of ISEA subspecies of M. acuminata (A-genome). Similarly, the B- and S-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas clustered with the wild species M. balbisiana (B-genome) and M. schizocarpa (S-genome), respectively. Notably, it has been shown that distinct haplotypes of each cultivar (A-genome group) were nested together to different ISEA subspecies M. acuminata. Analyses of nucleotide polymorphism in the Waxy and Adh1 genes revealed that, in comparison to the wild relatives, cultivated banana exhibited slightly lower nucleotide diversity both across all sites and specifically at silent sites. However, dramatically reduced nucleotide diversity was found at nonsynonymous sites for cultivated bananas.
Our study not only confirmed the origin of cultivated banana as arising from multiple intra- and inter-specific hybridization events, but also showed that cultivated banana may have not suffered a severe genetic bottleneck during the domestication process. Importantly, our findings suggested that multiple maternal origins and a reduction in nucleotide diversity at nonsynonymous sites are general attributes of cultivated bananas.
Understanding relationships among species is a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through next generation sequencing and related technologies enable phylogeny reconstruction by providing unprecedented numbers of characters for analysis. One approach to SNP-based phylogeny reconstruction is to identify SNPs in a subset of individuals, and then to compile SNPs on an array that can be used to genotype additional samples at hundreds or thousands of sites simultaneously. Although powerful and efficient, this method is subject to ascertainment bias because applying variation discovered in a representative subset to a larger sample favors identification of SNPs with high minor allele frequencies and introduces bias against rare alleles. Here, we demonstrate that the use of hybridization intensity data, rather than genotype calls, reduces the effects of ascertainment bias. Whereas traditional SNP calls assess known variants based on diversity housed in the discovery panel, hybridization intensity data survey variation in the broader sample pool, regardless of whether those variants are present in the initial SNP discovery process. We apply SNP genotype and hybridization intensity data derived from the Vitis9kSNP array developed for grape to show the effects of ascertainment bias and to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among Vitis species. We demonstrate that phylogenies constructed using hybridization intensities suffer less from the distorting effects of ascertainment bias, and are thus more accurate than phylogenies based on genotype calls. Moreover, we reconstruct the phylogeny of the genus Vitis using hybridization data, show that North American subgenus Vitis species are monophyletic, and resolve several previously poorly known relationships among North American species. This study builds on earlier work that applied the Vitis9kSNP array to evolutionary questions within Vitis vinifera and has general implications for addressing ascertainment bias in array-enabled phylogeny reconstruction.
Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) can deliver cell-impermeable therapeutic cargos into cells. In particular, CPP-cargo conjugates tend to accumulate inside cells by endocytosis. However, they often remain trapped inside endocytic organelles and fail to reach the cytosolic space of cells efficiently. In this review, the evidence for CPP-mediated endosomal escape is discussed. In addition, several strategies that have been utilized to enhance the endosomal escape of CPP-cargos are described. The recent development of branched systems that display multiple copies of a CPP is presented. The use of viral or synthetic peptides that can disrupt the endosomal membrane upon activation by the low pH of endosomes is also discussed. Finally, we survey how CPPs labeled with chromophores can be used in combination with light to stimulate endosomal lysis. The mechanisms and challenges associated with these intracellular delivery methodologies are discussed.
endosomal escape; cell-penetrating peptide; photochemical internalization; multivalent peptides; pH-dependent membrane-active peptides
Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between fumonisin B1 (FB1) and human esophageal cancer in China, Iran and South Africa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of FB1 on the proliferation, cell-cycle and apoptosis of normal human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs) and to explore the molecular mechanisms of these effects. The proliferation of HEECs treated with FB1 was assessed using a colorimetric assay, while analyses of the cell cycle and apoptosis were performed using flow cytometry and the measurement of the protein expressions of genes associated with the cell cycle was conducted using western blotting. The results showed that FB1 stimulated the proliferation of HEECs, decreased the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase and reduced apoptosis. The western blotting results showed that FB1 significantly increased the protein expression of cyclin D1 and significantly decreased the protein expression of cyclin E, p21 and p27. The results indicated that FB1 stimulated the proliferation of HEECs by affecting the cell cycle and apoptosis. This mechanism was associated with changes in cyclin D1, cyclin E, p21 and p27 expression.
fumonisin B1; normal human esophageal epithelial cells; proliferation; cell cycle; apoptosis
Exposure to particulate air pollution is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, although the pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that particulate matter (PM) exposure triggers massive oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells (ECs), resulting in the loss of EC integrity and lung vascular hyperpermeability. We investigated the protective role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gaseous molecule present in the circulation, on PM-induced human lung EC barrier disruption and pulmonary inflammation. Alterations in EC monolayer permeability, as reflected by transendothelial electrical resistance (TER), the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and murine pulmonary inflammatory responses, were studied after exposures to PM and NaSH, an H2S donor. Similar to N-acetyl cysteine (5 mM), NaSH (10 μM) significantly scavenged PM-induced EC ROS and inhibited the oxidative activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Concurrent with these events, NaSH (10 μM) activated Akt, which helps maintain endothelial integrity. Both of these pathways contribute to the protective effect of H2S against PM-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, NaSH (20 mg/kg) reduced vascular protein leakage, leukocyte infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine release in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids in a murine model of PM-induced lung inflammation. These data suggest a potentially protective role for H2S in PM-induced inflammatory lung injury and vascular hyperpermeability.
particulate matter; hydrogen sulfide; endothelial permeability; Akt
Arbidol is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is used clinically to treat influenza. In this study, the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of arbidol were investigated in healthy male Chinese volunteers after a single oral administration of 200 mg of arbidol hydrochloride. A total of 33 arbidol metabolites were identified in human plasma, urine, and feces. The principal biotransformation pathways included sulfoxidation, dimethylamine N-demethylation, glucuronidation, and sulfate conjugation. The major drug-related component in the plasma was sulfinylarbidol (M6-1), followed by unmetabolized arbidol, N-demethylsulfinylarbidol (M5), and sulfonylarbidol (M8). The exposures of M5, M6-1, and M8, as determined by the metabolite-to-parent area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to t (AUC0-t) ratio, were 0.9 ± 0.3, 11.5 ± 3.6, and 0.5 ± 0.2, respectively. In human urine, glucuronide and sulfate conjugates were detected as the major metabolites, accounting for 6.3% of the dose excreted within 0 to 96 h after drug administration. The fecal specimens mainly contained the unchanged arbidol, accounting for 32.4% of the dose. Microsomal incubation experiments demonstrated that the liver and intestines were the major organs that metabolize arbidol in humans. CYP3A4 was the major isoform involved in arbidol metabolism, whereas the other P450s and flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) played minor roles. These results indicated possible drug interactions between arbidol and CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers. Further investigations are needed to understand the importance of M6-1 in the efficacy and safety of arbidol, because of its high plasma exposure and long elimination half-life (25.0 h).
The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler’s system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu’s concept). Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species) and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species). The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92%) and 472 temperate genera (51.08%). The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species). These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and southern China. Mount Jinggangshan region is an important north-south floristic passageway and is also a boundary between the floras of eastern, central and south China.
Primary sarcoma of the aorta is extremely rare and accounts for <1% of all sarcomas. The present study describes the case of a 45-year-old male who presented with lower limb and abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) arteriography revealed a tumor that extended from the infrarenal aorta to the aortic bifurcation. The external and internal iliac arteries were occluded by the tumor incursion. Palliative surgery was performed for the sarcoma since the patient refused a radical resection. To improve the blood supply to the lower limbs, an axillary bifemoral bypass was established. Following the surgery, the pain was significantly reduced. However, the patient succumbed due to extensive metastasis 6 months after this surgery. Aortic sarcoma is an extremely rare disease with a poor prognosis. A diagnosis at a relatively early stage is necessary for a longer survival time. Radical surgery is the most significant treatment. Patients at advanced stages should consider palliative surgery in order to improve their quality of life.
abdominal aortic aneurysm; palliative surgery
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is characterized by chronic pulmonary inflammation and fibrotic nodular lesions that usually lead to progressive fibrosis. Inflammation is the first step in the development of CWP. E-selectin, an adhesion molecule, is involved in the development of various inflammatory diseases.
We investigated the association between the functional polymorphisms in SELE and the risk of CWP in Han Chinese population. Three polymorphisms (T1880C/rs5355, T1559C/rs5368, A16089G/rs4786) in SELE were genotyped and analyzed in a case-control study with 697 CWP cases and 694 controls. The genotyping was based on the TaqMan method with the ABI 7900HT Real Time PCR system.
The SELE rs5368 CT genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of CWP (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02–1.60, P = 0.03) relative to the CC genotype. The statistical analysis of classification and regression tree (CART) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) were used to predict the interactions among risk factors of CWP. The MDR analysis found that the best interaction model was the two-factor model that contains pack-years smoked and SELE rs5368 genotypes. For non-smokers, the CART analysis showed an increased risk of CWP for carriers of the SELE rs_5368 variant genotype compared with the common genotype (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.11–2.05, P = 0.0069).
The results suggest that the T1559C/rs5368 polymorphism and smoking are involved in the susceptibility to CWP. Further studies are warranted to validate these findings.
The predictive value of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) to sensitivity to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of all relevant published data to assess the association of TYMS expression with the clinical outcomes of pemetrexed-based regimen in advanced NSCLC.
Patients and Methods
We conducted an electronic search using using PubMed, Embase, OVID and Cochrane Library databases and manual search. Pooled odds ratio (OR) for the response rate and hazard ratio (HR) for the overall survival and progression free survival were calculated using the software Revman 5.0.
There were 11 studies (n=798) met our criteria for evaluation. Response rate to pemetrexed-based regimen was significantly higher in patients with low/negative TYMS (OR=2.96, 95%CI [1.81, 4.86] P<0.0001). Patients with low/negative TYMS who were treated with pemetrexed-based regimen had longer progression free survival (HR 0.50, 95%CI [0.41, 0.61] P <0.00001) and overall survival (HR 0.41, 95%CI [0.22, 0.78] P=0.007) than those with high/positive TYMS.
Low/negative TYMS expression was significantly associated with higher response rate, longer median survival and longer progression free survival for advanced NSCLC patients receiving pemtrexed-based chemotherapy. Hence, TYMS may be a potential predictor of sensitivity to pemtrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC. Large scale prospective clinical trials are still warranted.
Gastric cancer has one of the highest morbidities and mortalities worldwide. Early detection is key measure to improve the outcome of gastric cancer patients. In our efforts to identify potential markers for gastric cancer detection, we coupled xenotransplantation mouse model with a plasma proteomic approach. MKN45 gastric cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into nude mice and plasma samples from mice bearing different sizes of tumors were collected and subjected to iTRAQ and mass spectrometry analysis. ITIH3 protein was found to be more highly expressed in plasma of tumor bearing mice compared to control. Subsequent screening of ITIH3 expression in 167 clinical plasma samples, including 83 cancer-free subjects and 84 gastric cancer patients, revealed higher ITIH3 level in the plasma of gastric cancer patients. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve estimated a maximal sensitivity of 96% at 66% specificity for ITIH3 in gastric cancer detection. In addition, plasma from early stage gastric cancer patient has significantly (p < 0.001) higher level of ITIH3 compared to that from noncancer subject. Our data suggest that ITIH3 may be a useful biomarker for early detection of gastric cancer.
ITIH3; gastric cancer; plasma; proteomics; mouse xenograft
The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is a widely accepted model that is used to predict the prognosis of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who are treated using chemotherapy. However, the prognostic value of the IPI has been a focal point of debate in the immunochemotherapy era. The aim of this study was to reassess the value of the IPI and revised IPI (R-IPI) in a Chinese population. A multicentre retrospective analysis of DLBCL patients who were treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP)-like chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus rituximab (R-CHOP-like) was performed. The prognostic values of IPI and R-IPI at the time of diagnosis with respect to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated. Among the 438 patients in the study, 241 received a CHOP-like regimen and 197 patients received an R-CHOP-like regimen. Although the IPI remained predictive for the CHOP-like group, it failed to distinguish between the various prognostic categories in the R-CHOP-like group. Notably, redistribution of the IPI factors into R-IPI factors identified three discrete prognostic groups with significantly different outcomes in both the CHOP-like and R-CHOP-like groups. In the R-CHOP-like group, these three risk groups, very good, good and poor, had distinctly different 3-year PFS rates of 96, 84.3 and 67.5% (P=0.001), and 3-year OS rates of 96, 87.6 and 71.1% (P=0.003), respectively. Our study demonstrates the power of the R-IPI as a simplified and more clinically relevant predictor of disease outcome than the standard IPI in DLBCL populations in the rituximab era. Therefore, the R-IPI merits further study in a larger population-based prospective study.
International Prognostic Index; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; rituximab
This article aims to investigate the expression of vacuolar-H + −ATPase (V-ATPase) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its variations with pathological type and grade. Furthermore, to evaluate the chemotherapy drug sensitivity of different cancer tissues as well as its correlation with V-ATPase expression in NSCLC.
V-ATPase expression was examined in 92 NSCLC tissue samples using the immunohistochemical Envision method and immunofluorescence assay. The location of V-ATPase expression was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and the difference of its expression rate was evaluated. The sensitivity of cancer tissues to chemotherapy drug was examined using MTT assay and its correlation with the V-ATPase expression was tested in NSCLC by Spearman rank correlation analysis.
V-ATPase expression was mainly localized in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. The expression rate of V-ATPase was 71.43% in squamous cell lung cancer, significantly lower than that of the lung adenocarcinoma (83.72%, P = 0.000). In different pathological grades of squamous cell lung cancer, the expression rate of V-ATPase was 58.33% in grade II, significantly lower than that of the grade III (84.00%, P = 0.014). The expression rate of V-ATPase in grade II lung adenocarcinoma was 76.67%, significantly lower than that of the grade ΙΙΙ adenocarcinoma (100.0%, P = 0.012). Correlation analysis showed that the sensitivity of NSCLC tissues to cyclophosphamide, gemcitabine, doxorubicin, paclitaxel and cisplatin was significantly correlated with the V-ATPase expression rate (P < 0.05).
V-ATPase was overexpressed in NSCLC. The expression of V-ATPase was related to the pathological type and grade of cancer and was likely associated with chemotherapy drug resistance in NSCLC.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7515811511020000
Non-small cell lung cancer; V-ATPase; Drug resistance; Drug sensitivity
Neurturin (NRTN) is a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of ligands that exerts its actions via Ret tyrosine kinase and GFRα2. Expression of the Ret/GFRα2 co-receptor complex is primarily restricted to the peripheral nervous system and is selectively expressed by sensory neurons that bind the isolectin B4 (IB4). To determine how target-derived NRTN affects sensory neuron properties, transgenic mice that overexpress NRTN in keratinocytes (NRTN-OE mice) were analyzed. Overexpression of NRTN increased the density of PGP9.5-positive, but not calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive, free nerve endings in footpad epidermis. GFRα2- immunopositive somata were hypertrophied in NRTN-OE mice. Electron microscopic analysis further revealed hypertrophy of unmyelinated sensory axons and a subset of myelinated axons. Overexpression of NRTN increased the relative level of mRNAs encoding GFRα2 and Ret, the ATP receptor P2X3 (found in IB4-positive, GFRα2-expressing sensory neurons), the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 2a, and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily member M8 (TRPM8) in sensory ganglia. Behavioral testing of NRTN-OE mice revealed an increased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli in glabrous skin of the hind paw. NRTN-OE mice also displayed increased behavioral sensitivity to cool temperature (17°C-20°C) and oral sensitivity to menthol. The increase in cool and menthol sensitivity correlated with a significant increase in TRPM8 expression and the percentage of menthol-responsive cutaneous sensory neurons. These data indicate that the expression level of NRTN in the skin modulates gene expression in cutaneous sensory afferents and behavioral sensitivity to thermal, chemical and mechanical stimuli.
GFRα2; IB4; ASIC2a; nociceptor
The evolution of competitive ability of invasive plant species is generally studied in the context of adaptive responses to novel biotic environments (enemy release) in introduced ranges. However, invasive plants may also respond to novel abiotic environments. Here we studied differences in competitive ability between Chromolaena odorata plants of populations from nonnative versus native ranges, considering biogeographical differences in both biotic and abiotic environments. An intraspecific competition experiment was conducted at two nutrient levels in a common garden. In both low and high nutrient treatments, C. odorata plants from nonnative ranges showed consistently lower root to shoot ratios than did plants from native ranges grown in both monoculture and competition. In the low nutrient treatment, C. odorata plants from nonnative ranges showed significantly lower competitive ability (competition-driven decreases in plant height and biomass were more), which was associated with their lower root to shoot ratios and higher total leaf phenolic content (defense trait). In the high nutrient treatment, C. odorata plants from nonnative ranges showed lower leaf toughness and cellulosic contents (defense traits) but similar competitive ability compared with plants from native ranges, which was also associated with their lower root to shoot ratios. Our results indicate that genetically based shifts in biomass allocation (responses to abiotic environments) also influence competitive abilities of invasive plants, and provide a first potential mechanism for the interaction between range and environment (environment-dependent difference between ranges).
The reaction of thioamino acids and N-terminal peptides, mediated by hindered isonitriles and HOBt, gives rise to peptide bonds. In one pathway, oxytocin was synthesized by eight such reiterative amidations. In another stereospecific track, oxytocin was constructed by native chemical ligation, wherein the two building blocks were assembled by thioacid amine amidation. The NMR spectra of oxytocin and dihydro-oxytoxin suggest a high level of pre-organization in the latter, perhaps favoring oxidative folding.
Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-βs), including beta2 (TGF-β2), constitute a superfamily of multifunctional cytokines with important implications in morphogenesis, cell differentiation and tissue remodeling. TGF-β2 is thought to play important roles in multiple developmental processes and neuron survival. However, before we carried out these investigations, a TGF-β2 gene down-regulated transgenic animal model was needed. In the present study, expressional silencing TGF-β2 was achieved by select predesigning interference short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting mouse TGF-β2 genes.
Four homozygous transgenic offspring were generated by genetic manipulation and the protein expressions of TGF-β2 were detected in different tissues of these mice. The transgenic mice were designated as Founder 66, Founder 16, Founder 53 and Founder 41. The rates of TGF-β2 down-expression in different transgenic mice were evaluated. The present study showed that different TGF-β2 expressions were detected in multiple tissues and protein levels of TGF-β2 decreased at different rates relative to that of wild type mice. The expressions of TGF-β2 proteins in transgenic mice (Founder 66) reduced most by 52%.
The present study generated transgenic mice with TGF-β2 down-regulated, which established mice model for systemic exploring the possible roles of TGF-β2 in vivo in different pathology conditions.
TGF-β2; Knock down; Transgenic mouse; Protein levels; Distributions
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the principal cause of invasive cervical cancer and benign genital lesions. There are currently 30 HPV types linked to cervical cancer. HPV infection also leads to other types of cancer. We developed a 61-plex analysis of these 30 HPV types by examining two genes, E6 and L1, using MassARRAY matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (PCR-MS). Two hundred samples from homosexual males (HM) were screened by PCR-MS and MY09/MY11 primer set-mediated PCR (MY-PCR) followed by sequencing. One hundred thirty-five formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cervical cancer samples were also analyzed by PCR-MS, and results were compared to those of the commercially available GenoArray (GA) assay. One or more HPV types were identified in 64.5% (129/200) of the samples from HM. Comprising all 30 HPV types, PCR-MS detected 51.9% (67/129) of samples with multiple HPV types, whereas MY-PCR detected only one single HPV type in these samples. All PCR-MS results were confirmed by MY-PCR. In the cervical cancer samples, PCR-MS and GA detected 97% (131/135) and 90.4% (122/135) of HPV-positive samples, respectively. PCR-MS and GA results were fully concordant for 122 positive and 4 negative samples. The sequencing results for the 9 samples that tested negative by GA were completely concordant with the positive PCR-MS results. Multiple HPV types were identified in 25.2% (34/135) and 55.6% (75/135) of the cervical cancer samples by GA and PCR-MS, respectively, and results were confirmed by sequencing. The new assay allows the genotyping of >1,000 samples per day. It provides a good alternative to current methods, especially for large-scale investigations of multiple HPV infections and degraded FFPE samples.