PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-6 (6)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Neural Components Underlying Behavioral Flexibility in Human Reversal Learning 
Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY)  2009;20(8):1843-1852.
The ability to flexibly respond to changes in the environment is critical for adaptive behavior. Reversal learning (RL) procedures test adaptive response updating when contingencies are altered. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain areas that support specific RL components. We compared neural responses to RL and initial learning (acquisition) to isolate reversal-related brain activation independent of cognitive control processes invoked during initial feedback-based learning. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was more activated during reversal than acquisition, suggesting its relevance for reformation of established stimulus–response associations. In addition, the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) and right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) correlated with change in postreversal accuracy. Because optimal RL likely requires suppression of a prior learned response, we hypothesized that similar regions serve both response inhibition (RI) and inhibition of learned associations during reversal. However, reversal-specific responding and stopping (requiring RI and assessed via the stop-signal task) revealed distinct frontal regions. Although RI-related regions do not appear to support inhibition of prepotent learned associations, a subset of these regions, dACC and rIFG, guide actions consistent with current reward contingencies. These regions and lateral OFC represent distinct neural components that support behavioral flexibility important for adaptive learning.
doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp247
PMCID: PMC2901019  PMID: 19915091
cognitive control; fMRI; orbitofrontal cortex; response inhibition; reversal learning
2.  Differential development of high-level visual cortex correlates with category-specific recognition memory 
Nature neuroscience  2007;10(4):512-522.
High-level visual cortex in humans includes functionally defined regions that preferentially respond to objects, faces and places. It is unknown how these regions develop and whether their development relates to recognition memory. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the development of several functionally defined regions including object (lateral occipital complex, LOC)-, face (‘fusiform face area’, FFA; superior temporal sulcus, STS)- and place (‘parahippocampal place area’, PPA)-selective cortices in children (ages 7–11), adolescents (12–16) and adults. Right FFA and left PPA volumes were substantially larger in adults than in children. This development occurred by expansion of FFA and PPA into surrounding cortex and was correlated with improved recognition memory for faces and places, respectively. In contrast, LOC and STS volumes and object-recognition memory remained constant across ages. Thus, the ventral stream undergoes a prolonged maturation that varies temporally across functional regions, is determined by brain region rather than stimulus category, and is correlated with the development of category-specific recognition memory.
doi:10.1038/nn1865
PMCID: PMC3660101  PMID: 17351637
3.  Prefrontal hypoactivation during cognitive control in early abstinent methamphetamine-dependent subjects 
Psychiatry research  2011;194(3):287-295.
Individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) perform at levels below those of healthy controls on tests that require cognitive control. As cognitive control deficits may influence the success of treatment for addiction, we sought to help clarify the neural correlates of this deficit. MA-dependent (n=10, abstinent 4–7 days) and control subjects (n=18) performed a color-word Stroop task, which requires cognitive control, during functional MRI (fMRI). The task included a condition in which participants were required to respond to one stimulus dimension while ignoring another conflicting dimension, and another condition without conflict. We compared the groups on performance and neural activation in the two conditions. MA-dependent subjects made more errors and responded more slowly than controls. Controlling for response times in the incongruent condition, voxel-wise mixed effects analyses (whole-brain corrected) demonstrated that MA-dependent subjects had less activation than control subjects in the right inferior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor cortex/anterior cingulate gyrus and the anterior insular cortex during the incongruent condition only. MA-dependent subjects did not exhibit greater activation in any brain region in either of the Stroop conditions. These preliminary findings suggest that hypofunction in cortical areas that are important for executive function underlies cognitive control deficits associated with MA dependence.
doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.04.010
PMCID: PMC3225642  PMID: 22047731
Methamphetamine; Stroop; fMRI; cognitive control; prefrontal cortex; insula
4.  Striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors mediate response inhibition and related activity in frontostriatal neural circuitry in humans 
Impulsive behavior is thought to reflect a trait-like characteristic that can have broad consequences for an individual’s success and well-being, but its neurobiological basis remains elusive. Although striatal dopamine D2-like receptors have been linked with impulsive behavior and behavioral inhibition in rodents, a role for D2-like receptor function in frontostriatal circuits mediating inhibitory control in humans has not been shown. We investigated this role in a study of healthy research participants who underwent positron emission tomography with the D2/D3 dopamine-receptor ligand [18F]fallypride, and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) while they performed the Stop-signal Task, a test of response inhibition. Striatal dopamine D2/D3-receptor availability was negatively correlated with speed of response inhibition (stop-signal reaction time), and positively correlated with inhibition-related fMRI activation in frontostriatal neural circuitry. Correlations involving D2/D3 receptor availability were strongest in the dorsal regions (caudate and putamen) of the striatum, consistent with findings of animal studies relating dopamine receptors and response inhibition. The results suggest that striatal D2-like receptor function in humans plays a major role in the neural circuitry that mediates behavioral control, an ability that is essential for adaptive responding and is compromised in a variety of common neuropsychiatric disorders.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4284-11.2012
PMCID: PMC3517177  PMID: 22623677
Response Inhibition; fMRI; Stop-signal Task; Dopamine; PET
5.  Effect of Modafinil on Learning and Task-Related Brain Activity in Methamphetamine-Dependent and Healthy Individuals 
Neuropsychopharmacology  2011;36(5):950-959.
Methamphetamine (MA)-dependent individuals exhibit deficits in cognition and prefrontal cortical function. Therefore, medications that improve cognition in these subjects may improve the success of therapy for their addiction, especially when cognitive behavioral therapies are used. Modafinil has been shown to improve cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric patients and healthy volunteers. We therefore conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, to examine the effects of modafinil on learning and neural activity related to cognitive function in abstinent, MA-dependent, and healthy control participants. Modafinil (200 mg) and placebo were administered orally (one single dose each), in counterbalanced fashion, 2 h before each of two testing sessions. Under placebo conditions, MA-dependent participants showed worse learning performance than control participants. Modafinil boosted learning in MA-dependent participants, bringing them to the same performance level as control subjects; the control group did not show changes in performance with modafinil. After controlling for performance differences, MA-dependent participants showed a greater effect of modafinil on brain activation in bilateral insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortices than control participants. The findings suggest that modafinil improves learning in MA-dependent participants, possibly by enhancing neural function in regions important for learning and cognitive control. These results suggest that modafinil may be a suitable pharmacological adjunct for enhancing the efficiency of cognitive-based therapies for MA dependence.
doi:10.1038/npp.2010.233
PMCID: PMC3077264  PMID: 21289606
modafinil; fMRI; methamphetamine; anterior cingulate; learning; drug abuse; addiction & substance abuse; learning & memory; imaging, clinical or preclinical; psychopharmacology; modafinil; fMRI; methamphetamine; anterior cingulate; learning
6.  Reward Processing in Autism 
The social motivation hypothesis of autism posits that infants with autism do not experience social stimuli as rewarding, thereby leading to a cascade of potentially negative consequences for later development. While possible downstream effects of this hypothesis such as altered face and voice processing have been examined, there has not been a direct investigation of social reward processing in autism. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine social and monetary rewarded implicit learning in children with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Sixteen males with ASD and sixteen age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) males were scanned while performing two versions of a rewarded implicit learning task. In addition to examining responses to reward, we investigated the neural circuitry supporting rewarded learning and the relationship between these factors and social development. We found diminished neural responses to both social and monetary rewards in ASD, with a pronounced reduction in response to social rewards (SR). Children with ASD also demonstrated a further deficit in frontostriatal response during social, but not monetary, rewarded learning. Moreover, we show a relationship between ventral striatum activity and social reciprocity in TD children. Together, these data support the hypothesis that children with ASD have diminished neural responses to SR, and that this deficit relates to social learning impairments.
doi:10.1002/aur.122
PMCID: PMC3076289  PMID: 20437601
functional MRI (fMRI); social cognition; reward; learning

Results 1-6 (6)