Cylindrical blood vessels, ellipsoid platelets and biconcave-shaped deformable erythrocytes (RBCs) are important participants in hemostasis and thrombosis. However, due to the challenge of combining these components in simulation tools, few simulation studies have included all of them in realistic three-dimensional models. In the present study, we apply a recently developed simulation model to incorporate these components and analyze the flow in a thrombotic tubular arteriole, particularly the detailed hydrodynamic interactions between the thrombus shape, RBCs and platelets. It was found that at certain azimuth positions, the velocity drops in the proximity of both the upstream and downstream edge of the thrombus, which is accompanied by a rapid velocity increase in the narrowed region. The RBCs alter the flow profiles significantly from the typical low Reynolds (Re) number flow, and also enhance the deposition of free flowing platelets onto the thrombus. By evaluating the platelet-thrombus interaction and platelet-RBC interaction together, several mechanisms of platelet deposition augmentation are identified. With in vivo data comparison, our model illustrates the potential of future thrombosis studies that incorporate detailed receptor-ligand adhesion modules.
Resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is associated with improved outcomes after hemorrhagic shock (HS). Many trauma centers are using thawed plasma which has been stored for up to 5 days at 4°C (refrigeration), yet the effect of refrigeration on FFP is relatively unknown. Previously our group showed that refrigeration of FFP changed its coagulation factors and diminished its beneficial effects on endothelial cell (EC) function and resuscitation in an animal model of HS.We hypothesize that growth factor composition of FFP is altered during refrigeration, leading to a diminished beneficial effect on EC. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a potent inhibitor of EC migration and is released during refrigeration of platelets. We found increased TGF-β1 protein levels and greater activation of downstream mediators Smad2/3 during refrigeration of FFP. Both Day 0 FFP (used on the same day after being thawed) and Day 5 FFP (used after being thawed and refrigerated for 5 days) stimulated EC migration in vitro; however, the EC migration in Day 5 FFP was significantly reduced. Inhibition of TGF-β type I receptor blocked FFP-induced Smad3 signaling in EC cells and restored the effectiveness of Day 5 FFP on EC migration to a comparable level seen in Day 0 FFP. These data suggest that the increased TGF-β levels during FFP refrigeration contribute to the deterioration of refrigerated FFP's effects on EC migration. This study identifies a novel molecular mechanism contributing to the reduced efficacy of refrigerated FFP.
Hemorrhagic shock; resuscitation; Smad; TGF-β type I receptor
Endogenous mechanisms exist to limit inflammation. One such molecule is netrin. This study examined the impact of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) on netrin expression and the role of netrin in preventing renal inflammation and injury. All three isoforms of netrin (1, 3, and 4) are expressed in normal kidney. I/R significantly downregulated netrin-1 and -4 mRNA expression, whereas expression of netrin-3 was moderately upregulated at 24 h of reperfusion. The netrin receptor UNC5B mRNA increased at 3 h and but decreased at later time points. Expression of a second netrin receptor, DCC, was not altered significantly. I/R was associated with dramatic changes in netrin-1 protein abundance and localization. Netrin-1 protein levels increased between 3 and 24 h after reperfusion. Immunolocalization showed an interstitial distribution of netrin-1 in sham-operated kidneys which colocalized with Von Willebrand Factor suggesting the presence of netrin-1 in peritubular capillaries. After I/R, interstitial netrin-1 expression decreased and netrin-1 appeared in tubular epithelial cells. By 72 h after reperfusion, netrin-1 reappeared in the interstitium while tubular epithelial staining decreased significantly. Downregulation of netrin-1 in the interstitium corresponded with increased MCP-1 and IL-6 expression and infiltration of leukocytes into the reperfused kidney. Administration of recombinant netrin-1 significantly improved kidney function (blood urea nitrogen: 161 ± 7 vs. 104 ± 24 mg/dl, creatinine: 1.3 ± 0.07 vs. 0.75 ± 0.16 mg/dl, P < 0.05 at 24 h) and reduced tubular damage and leukocyte infiltration in the outer medulla. These results suggest that downregulation of netrin-1 in vascular endothelial cells may promote endothelial cell activation and infiltration of leukocytes into the kidney thereby enhancing tubular injury.
netrin-4; inflammation; endothelial cell; chemokine
Long-term follow-up studies in critical care have described survivors’ outcomes, but provided less insight into the patient/disease characteristics and intensive care therapies (“exposures”) associated with these outcomes. Such insights are essential for improving patients’ long-term outcomes. This report describes the development of a strategy for comprehensively measuring relevant exposures for long-term outcomes research, and presents empirical results from its implementation.
Materials and Methods
A multi-step, iterative process was used to develop the exposures strategy. First, a comprehensive list of potential exposures was generated and subsequently reduced based on feasibility, redundancy, and relevance criteria. Next, data abstraction methods were designed and tested. Finally, the strategy was implemented in 150 acute lung injury patients with iterative refinement.
The strategy resulted in development of >60 unique exposures requiring <45 minutes per patient-day for data collection. The vast majority of exposures had minimal missing data and adequate reliability. These data revealed that evidence-based practices including lower tidal volume ventilation, spontaneous breathing trials, sedation interruption, adequate nutrition, and blood glucose <6.1 mmol/L (110 mg/dl) occurred in only 23%-50% of assessments.
Using a multi-step, iterative process, a comprehensive and feasible exposure measurement strategy for long-term outcomes research was successfully developed and implemented.
Apoptosis is an essential cellular process in multiple diseases and a major pathway for neuronal death in neurodegeneration. The detailed signaling events/pathways leading to apoptosis, especially in neurons, require further elucidation. Here we identify a β-amyloid precursor protein (APP)-interacting protein, designated as appoptosin, whose levels are upregulated in brain samples from Alzheimer’s disease and infarct patients, and in rodent stroke models, as well as in neurons treated with β-amyloid (Aβ) and glutamate. We further demonstrate that appoptosin induces reactive oxygen species release and intrinsic caspase-dependent apoptosis. The physiological function of appoptosin is to transport/exchange glycine/5-amino-levulinic acid across the mitochondrial membrane for heme synthesis. Downregulation of appoptosin prevents cell death and caspase activation caused by glutamate or Aβ insults. APP modulates appoptosin-mediated apoptosis through interaction with appoptosin. Our study identifies appoptosin as a crucial player in apoptosis and a novel proapoptotic protein involved in neuronal cell death, providing a possible new therapeutic target for neurodegenerative disorders and cancers.
The rpoS mRNA, which encodes the master regulator σS of general stress response, requires Hfq-facilitated base pairing with DsrA small RNA for efficient translation at low temperatures. It has recently been proposed that one mechanism underlying Hfq action is to bridge a transient ternary complex by simultaneously binding to rpoS and DsrA. However, no structural evidence of Hfq simultaneously bound to different RNAs has been reported. We detected simultaneous binding of Hfq to rpoS and DsrA fragments. Crystal structures of AU6A•Hfq•A7 and Hfq•A7 complexes were resolved using 1.8- and 1.9-Å resolution, respectively. Ternary complex has been further verified in solution by NMR. In vivo, activation of rpoS translation requires intact Hfq, which is capable of bridging rpoS and DsrA simultaneously into ternary complex. This ternary complex possibly corresponds to a meta-stable transition state in Hfq-facilitated small RNA–mRNA annealing process.
We conducted an unbiased metagenomics survey using plasma from patients with chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and patients without liver disease (control). RNA and DNA libraries were sequenced from plasma filtrates enriched in viral particles to catalog virus populations. Hepatitis viruses were readily detected at high coverage in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and C, but only a limited number of sequences resembling other viruses were found. The exception was a library from a patient diagnosed with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection that contained multiple sequences matching GB virus C (GBV-C). Abundant GBV-C reads were also found in plasma from patients with AIH, whereas Torque teno virus (TTV) was found at high frequency in samples from patients with AIH and NASH. After taxonomic classification of sequences by BLASTn, a substantial fraction in each library, ranging from 35% to 76%, remained unclassified. These unknown sequences were assembled into scaffolds along with virus, phage and endogenous retrovirus sequences and then analyzed by BLASTx against the non-redundant protein database. Nearly the full genome of a heretofore-unknown circovirus was assembled and many scaffolds that encoded proteins with similarity to plant, insect and mammalian viruses. The presence of this novel circovirus was confirmed by PCR. BLASTx also identified many polypeptides resembling nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) proteins. We re-evaluated these alignments with a profile hidden Markov method, HHblits, and observed inconsistencies in the target proteins reported by the different algorithms. This suggests that sequence alignments are insufficient to identify NCLDV proteins, especially when these alignments are only to small portions of the target protein. Nevertheless, we have now established a reliable protocol for the identification of viruses in plasma that can also be adapted to other patient samples such as urine, bile, saliva and other body fluids.
Protein is quantitatively the most expensive nutrient in swine diets. Hence it is imperative to understand the physiological roles played by amino acids in growth, development, lactation, reproduction, and health of pigs to improve their protein nutrition and reduce the costs of pork production. Due to incomplete knowledge of amino acid biochemistry and nutrition, it was traditionally assumed that neonatal, post-weaning, growing-finishing, and gestating pigs could synthesize sufficient amounts of all "nutritionally nonessential amino acids" (NEAA) to support maximum production performance. Therefore, over the past 50 years, much emphasis has been placed on dietary requirements of nutritionally essential amino acids as building blocks for tissue proteins. However, a large body of literature shows that NEAA, particularly glutamine, glutamate, arginine and proline regulate physiological functions via cell signaling pathways, such as mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase, Jun kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NEAA-derived gaseous molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide). Available evidence shows that under current feeding programs, only 70% and 55% of dietary amino acids are deposited as tissue proteins in 14-day-old sow-reared piglets and in 30-day-old pigs weaned at 21 days of age, respectively. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the roles and dietary requirements of NEAA in swine nutrition. This review highlights the basic biochemistry and physiology of absorption and utilization of amino acids in young pigs to enhance the efficacy of utilization of dietary protein and to minimize excretion of nitrogenous wastes from the body.
Amino acids; Metabolism; Nutrition; Pigs
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been previously applied to estimate transgene copy number in transgenic plants. However, the results can be erroneous owing to inaccurate estimation of PCR efficiency. Here, a novel qPCR approach, named standard addition qPCR (SAQPCR), was devised to accurately determine transgene copy number without the necessity of obtaining PCR efficiency data. The procedures and the mathematical basis for the approach are described. A recombinant plasmid harboring both the internal reference gene and the integrated target gene was constructed to serve as the standard DNA. It was found that addition of suitable amounts of standard DNA to test samples did not affect PCR efficiency, and the guidance for selection of suitable cycle numbers for analysis was established. Samples from six individual T0 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were analyzed by SAQPCR, and the results confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The approach produced accurate results and required only small amounts of plant tissue. It can be generally applied to analysis of different plants and transgenes. In addition, it can also be applied to zygosity analysis.
Recent data has associated improved survival after hemorrhagic shock with the early use of plasma based resuscitation. Our lab has shown that FFP5 has decreased hemostatic potential compared to freshly thawed plasma (FFP0). We hypothesized that FFP5 would increase bleeding and mortality compared to FFP0 in a rodent bioassay model of uncontrolled liver hemorrhage.
Hemostatic potential of plasma was assessed with the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT) assay. Rats underwent isovolemic hemodilution by 15% of blood volume with the two human plasma groups (FFP0 and FFP5) and two controls (sham and lactated Ringers). A liver injury was created by excising a portion of liver resulting in uncontrolled hemorrhage. Rats that lived for 30 minutes after liver injury were resuscitated to their baseline blood pressure and followed for 6 hours. Hemostasis was assessed by thromboelastography.
Hemostatic potential of FFP5 decreased significantly in all areas measured in the CAT assay as compared to FFP0 (p<0.01). In the FFP5 group overall survival was 54%, compared to 100% in the FFP0 and sham group (p=0.03). For animals that survived 30 minutes and were resuscitated, there was no difference in bleeding and/or coagulopathy between groups. Irrespective of treatment, animals that died following resuscitation demonstrated increased intraperitoneal fluid volume (14.85 ± 1.9 mL vs. 7.02 ± 0.3 mL, p<0.001).
In this model of mild pre-injury hemodilution with plasma, rats that received FFP5 had decreased survival after uncontrolled hemorrhage from hepatic injury. There were no differences in coagulation function or intraperitoneal fluid volume between the two plasma groups.
thawed plasma; resuscitation; blood storage; endothelial permeability
Growing evidence supports BH3-interacting domain death agonist (Bid) playing a dual role in DNA damage response. However, the effects of Bid on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation in response to etoposide-induced DNA damage have not been sufficiently investigated.
Using a stable Bid-overexpression HCC cell line, Bid/PLC/PRF/5, overexpression of Bid promoted loss of viability in response to etoposide-induced DNA damage. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]- and BrdU (5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine)-labeling assays revealed that etoposide-inhibited HCC cells grew in concentration-and time-dependent manners. The phosphorylations of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to etoposide-induced DNA damage were analyzed by Western blotting.
The survival rates of 100 μM etoposide on the cells with control vector and Bid/PLC/PRF/5 at 48 hours amounted to 71% ± 0.75% and 59% ± 0.60% with MTT assay, and similar results of 85% ± 0.08% and 63% ± 0.14% with BrdU-labeling assay respectively. Moreover, overexpression of Bid sensitized the cells to apoptosis at a high dose of etoposide (causing irreparable damage). However, it had little effect on the proliferation at a low dose of etoposide (repairable damage). Furthermore, the phosphorylation status of Akt and MAPKs were investigated. Overexpression of Bid suppressed the activation of Akt with respect to etoposide-induced DNA damage. Similar to Akt, the levels of phosphorylated p38 and phosphorylated c-Jun were attenuated by Bid-overexpression. On the contrary, the level of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was sustained at a high level, especially in Bid/PLC/PRF/5 cells.
Taken together, these results suggest that overexpression of Bid suppressed the activation of Akt, p38, and c-Jun, and promoted the activation of ERK1/2 induced by etoposide, suggesting that the promotion of ERK1/2 activation may have a negative effect on Bid-mediated HCC DNA damage induced by etoposide.
HCC; mitogen-activated protein kinases; BH3-interacting domain death agonist
The mammalian circadian system controls various physiology processes and behavior responses by regulating thousands of circadian genes with rhythmic expressions. In this study, we redefined circadian-regulated genes based on published results in the mouse liver and compared them with other gene groups defined relative to circadian regulations, especially the non-circadian-regulated genes expressed in liver at multiple molecular levels from gene position to protein expression based on integrative analyses of different datasets from the literature. Based on the intra-tissue analysis, the liver circadian genes or LCGs show unique features when compared to other gene groups. First, LCGs in general have less neighboring genes and larger in both genomic and 3′-UTR lengths but shorter in CDS (coding sequence) lengths. Second, LCGs have higher mRNA and protein abundance, higher temporal expression variations, and shorter mRNA half-life. Third, more than 60% of LCGs form major co-expression clusters centered in four temporal windows: dawn, day, dusk, and night. In addition, larger and smaller LCGs are found mainly expressed in the day and night temporal windows, respectively, and we believe that LCGs are well-partitioned into the gene expression regulatory network that takes advantage of gene size, expression constraint, and chromosomal architecture. Based on inter-tissue analysis, more than half of LCGs are ubiquitously expressed in multiple tissues but only show rhythmical expression in one or limited number of tissues. LCGs show at least three-fold lower expression variations across the temporal windows than those among different tissues, and this observation suggests that temporal expression variations regulated by the circadian system is relatively subtle as compared with the tissue expression variations formed during development. Taken together, we suggest that the circadian system selects gene parameters in a cost effective way to improve tissue-specific functions by adapting temporal variations from the environment over evolutionary time scales.
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a condition characterized by acute onset of severe hypoxemia and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. ALI patients typically require mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit. Low tidal volume ventilation (LTVV), a time-varying dynamic treatment regime, has been recommended as an effective ventilation strategy. This recommendation was based on the results of the ARMA study, a randomized clinical trial designed to compare low vs. high tidal volume strategies (The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network, 2000) . After publication of the trial, some critics focused on the high non-adherence rates in the LTVV arm suggesting that non-adherence occurred because treating physicians felt that deviating from the prescribed regime would improve patient outcomes. In this paper, we seek to address this controversy by estimating the survival distribution in the counterfactual setting where all patients assigned to LTVV followed the regime. Inference is based on a fully Bayesian implementation of Robins’ (1986) G-computation formula. In addition to re-analyzing data from the ARMA trial, we also apply our methodology to data from a subsequent trial (ALVEOLI), which implemented the LTVV regime in both of its study arms and also suffered from non-adherence.
Bayesian inference; Causal inference; Dynamic treatment regime; G-computation formula
In high-dimensional model selection problems, penalized least-square approaches have been extensively used. This paper addresses the question of both robustness and efficiency of penalized model selection methods, and proposes a data-driven weighted linear combination of convex loss functions, together with weighted L1-penalty. It is completely data-adaptive and does not require prior knowledge of the error distribution. The weighted L1-penalty is used both to ensure the convexity of the penalty term and to ameliorate the bias caused by the L1-penalty. In the setting with dimensionality much larger than the sample size, we establish a strong oracle property of the proposed method that possesses both the model selection consistency and estimation efficiency for the true non-zero coefficients. As specific examples, we introduce a robust method of composite L1-L2, and optimal composite quantile method and evaluate their performance in both simulated and real data examples.
Composite QMLE; LASSO; Model Selection; NP Dimensionality; Oracle Property; Robust statistics; SCAD
The role of naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Treg) in the control of the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has not been well defined. Therefore, we dissect the phenotypically heterogeneous CD4+FoxP3+ T cells into subpopulations during the dynamic SLE development.
To evaluate the proliferative and suppressive capacities of different CD4+ T cell subgroups between active SLE patients and healthy donors, we employed CD45RA and CD25 as surface markers and carboxyfluorescein diacetatesuccinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution assay. In addition, multiplex cytokines expression in active SLE patients was assessed using Luminex assay. Here, we showed a significant increase in the frequency of CD45RA+FoxP3low naive Treg cells (nTreg cells) and CD45RA−FoxP3low (non-Treg) cells in patients with active SLE. In active SLE patients, the increased proportions of CD45RA+FoxP3low nTreg cells were positively correlated with the disease based on SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and the status of serum anti-dsDNA antibodies. We found that the surface marker combination of CD25+CD45RA+ can be used to defined CD45RA+FoxP3low nTreg cells for functional assays, wherein nTreg cells from active SLE patients demonstrated defective suppression function. A significant correlation was observed between inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-12 and TNFα, and the frequency of nTreg cells. Furthermore, the CD45RA+FoxP3low nTreg cell subset increased when cultured with SLE serum compared to healthy donor serum, suggesting that the elevated inflammatory cytokines of SLE serum may promote nTreg cell proliferation/expansion.
Our results indicate that impaired numbers of functional CD45RA+FoxP3low naive Treg cell and CD45RA−FoxP3low non-suppressive T cell subsets in inflammatory conditions may contribute to SLE development. Therefore, analysis of subsets of FoxP3+ T cells, using a combination of FoxP3, CD25 and CD45RA, rather than whole FoxP3+ T cells, will help us to better understand the pathogenesis of SLE and may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies.
Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota.
An antibody-directed nonviral vector, polyethylene glycol-grafted polyethylenimine functionalized with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and a gastric cancer-associated CD44v6 single-chain variable fragment (scFvCD44v6,-PEG-g-PEI-SPION), was constructed as a gastric cancer-targeting and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible nanocarrier for small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery. Biophysical characterization of PEG-g-PEI-SPION and scFvCD44v6-PEG-g-PEI-SPION was carried out, including siRNA condensation capacity, cell viability, and transfection efficiency. Both the targeting and nontargeting nanocarriers were effective for transferring siRNA in vitro. The cellular uptake and distribution of nanoparticles complexed with siRNA was analyzed by fluorescence imaging and immunofluorescent staining. Moreover, the gastric cancer-targeting effect was verified in vivo by MRI and histology analysis. These results indicate that scFvCD44v6-PEG-g-PEI-SPION is a promising nonviral vector for gastric cancer gene therapy and diagnosis.
tumor targeting; CD44 variant 6; nonviral vector; small interfering RNA; magnetic resonance imaging
A group of amphiphilic cationic polymers, methoxy polyethylene glycol-block-(polycaprolactone-graft-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)) (PECD), were synthesized by combining ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) methods to form nanoparticles (NPs). The structures of these amphiphilic cationic polymers were characterized by 1H NMR measurement. The PECD NPs have hydrophobic cores covered with hydrophilic PEG and cationic PDMAEMA chains. These self-assembly nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. PECD NPs can effectively condense DNA to form compact complexes of the size 65–160 nm suitable for gene delivery. The in vitro gene transfection studies of HeLa and HepG2 cells show that PECD NPs have better transfection efficiency compared to polyethylenimine (PEI) and Lipofectamine 2000 at low dose (N/P = 5). The cytotoxicity result shows that PECD NPs/DNA complexes at the optimal N/P ratio for transfection have comparable toxicity with PEI and Lipofectamine. These results indicate that PECD NPs have a great potential to be used as efficient polymeric carriers for gene transfection.
Poly(ε-caprolactone); Gene therapy; Degradable polymers; Poly(2-(dimethylamino ethyl)methacrylate); Amphiphilic copolymers
Severe bleeding after injury requires transfusion of blood products, including fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Many centers are keeping thawed plasma (TP) ready for massively transfused patients. According to the American Association of Blood Banks Standards, TP is approved for transfusion up to 5 days after thawing, when stored at 1°C to 6°C. However, there are no clinical data analyzing the effects of the approved 5-day storage on plasma. We hypothesize that the hemostatic potential (HP) of freshly thawed (FFP-0) was superior to plasma stored for 5 days (FFP-5).
FFP from 30 single donors were thawed at 37°C and kept at 1°C to 6°C for 5 days. HP was evaluated at day 0 and 5 by measuring kinetics of thrombin generation (TG), kinetics of clot formation by thromboelastography, clotting factors and inhibitors, and cell-derived microparticles (MPs) by flow cytometry.
When comparing FFP-5 to FFP-0, FFP-5 exhibited only 40% of the potential of FFP-0 for TG (6.2 nM/min vs. 14.3 nM/min, p < 0.0001), a slower clotting response via thromboelastography (reaction time: 4.3 minutes vs. 3.2 minutes, p < 0.0001) and a longer delay in reaching maximum thrombus generation (5.7 minutes vs. 4.6 minutes, p < 0.01). Diminished HP was accompanied by a significant decline in multiple coagulation proteins, including FV, VII, VIII, von Willebrand factor, and free Protein S, by up to 30%, and a decrease of 50% in MP counts.
The HP and clot forming ability of TP significantly declined with storage. Hence, freshly TP may have a greater ability to restore hemostasis and correct coagulopathy compared with FFP-5. The clinical consequences for transfused patients deserve further exploration.
FFP storage; Thrombin generation; TEG; Microparticles; Trauma
Ezrin is highly expressed in skin cancer and promotes tumor metastasis. Ezrin serves as a promising target for anti-metastasis therapy. The aim of this study is to determine if the flavonoid bacailein inhibits the metastasis of skin cancer cells through Ezrin.
Cells from a cutaneous squamous carcinoma cell line, A431, were treated with baicalein at 0-60 μM to establish the non-cytotoxic concentration (NCC) range for baicalein. Following treatment with baicalein within this range, total Ezrin protein (both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms) and phosphorylated-Ezrin (phos-Ezrin) were detected by western blotting, and Ezrin RNA was detected in A431 cells using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thereafter, the motility and invasiveness of A431 cells following baicalein treatment were determined using wound-healing and Boyden chamber invasion assays. Short-interfering RNA (si-RNA) specifically targeting Ezrin was transfected into A431 cells, and a si-RNA Ezrin-A431 cell line was established by G418 selection. This stable cell line was transiently transfected with Ezrin and mutant Ezrin plasmids, and its motilityand invasiveness was subsequently determined to clarify whether bacailein inhibits these processes through Ezrin.
We determined the range of NCCs for baicalein to be 2.5-40 μM in A431 cells. Baicalein displayed a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of expressions of total Ezrin and phos-Ezrin within this range NCCs. In addition, it exerted this inhibitory effect through the reduction of Ezrin RNA transcript. Baicalein also inhibited the motility and invasiveness of A431 skin carcinoma cells within the range of NCCs, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A431 cell motility and invasiveness were inhibited by 73% and 80% respectively when cells were treated with 20 μM baicalein. However, the motility and invasiveness of A431 cells containing the Ezrin mutant were not effectively inhibited by baicalein.
Baicalein reduces the migration and invasiveness of A431 cells through the inhibition of Ezrin expression, which leads to the suppression of tumor metastasis.
To describe implementation and first-year screening results of the first Chinese telehealth system for diabetic retinopathy (DR) - the Beixinjing Community Diabetic Retinopathy Telehealth system (BCDRT).
BCDRT implementation was based on the acquisition of adequate digital retinographs, secure digital transmission, storage and retrieval of participants' data and reader-generated medical reports. Local diabetic residents meeting inclusion criteria were enrolled into the BCDRT system beginning in 2009. Participants recommended for further in-person examination with ophthalmologists were followed, and the consistencies in diagnoses between BCDRT and ophthalmologists for DR or macular edema were calculated.
A total of 471 diabetic residents participated in BCDRT screening in 2009. The proportions of total DR, proliferative DR, and diabetic macular edema were 24.42% (115 patients), 2.12% (10 patients) and 6.47% (24 patients), respectively: 56 patients consulted ophthalmologists for further in-person retinal examination with funduscopy after pupil dilation. High rates of consistency between BCDRT screening and ophthalmologists were observed for macular edema (Kappa = 0.81), moderate or severe non-proliferative DR grade (Kappa = 0.92), and other DR grades (Kappa = 1). A total of 456 (96.82%) patients were willing to participate in the next BCDRT screening.
BCDRT was a reliable and valid system for DR screening, and offers the potential to increase DR annual screening rates in local residents.
The early use of fresh frozen plasma as a resuscitative agent after hemorrhagic shock has been associated with improved survival, but the mechanism of protection is unknown. Hemorrhagic shock causes endothelial cell dysfunction and we hypothesized that fresh frozen plasma would restore endothelial integrity and reduce syndecan-1 shedding after hemorrhagic shock. A prospective, observational study in severely injured patients in hemorrhagic shock demonstrated significantly elevated levels of syndecan-1 (554±93 ng/ml) after injury, which decreased with resuscitation (187±36 ng/ml) but was elevated compared to normal donors (27±1 ng/ml). Three pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon-γ, fractalkine, and interleukin-1β, negatively correlated while one anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, positively correlated with shed syndecan-1. These cytokines all play an important role in maintaining endothelial integrity. An in vitro model of endothelial injury then specifically examined endothelial permeability after treatment with fresh frozen plasma orlactated Ringers. Shock or endothelial injury disrupted junctional integrity and increased permeability, which was improved with fresh frozen plasma, but not lactated Ringers. Changes in endothelial cell permeability correlated with syndecan-1 shedding. These data suggest that plasma based resuscitation preserved endothelial syndecan-1 and maintained endothelial integrity, and may help to explain the protective effects of fresh frozen plasma after hemorrhagic shock.
The possible different therapeutic efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) derived from umbilical cord blood (CB), adipose tissue (AT) or bone marrow (BM) for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) remains unexplored. This study was to assess the regenerative potential of hMSC from different origins and to evaluate the role of CD105 in cardiac regeneration. Male SCID mice underwent LAD-ligation and received the respective cell type (400.000/per animal) intramyocardially. Six weeks post infarction, cardiac catheterization showed significant preservation of left ventricular functions in BM and CD105+-CB treated groups compared to CB and nontreated MI group (MI-C). Cell survival analyzed by quantitative real time PCR for human GAPDH and capillary density measured by immunostaining showed consistent results. Furthermore, cardiac remodeling can be significantly attenuated by BM-hMSC compared to MI-C. Under hypoxic conditions in vitro, remarkably increased extracellular acidification and apoptosis has been detected from CB-hMSC compared to BM and CD105 purified CB-derived hMSC. Our findings suggests that hMSC originating from different sources showed a different healing performance in cardiac regeneration and CD105+ hMSC exhibited a favorable survival pattern in infarcted hearts, which translates into a more robust preservation of cardiac function.
Abscisic acid (ABA) and Gibberellic acid (GA) play key roles in regulating seed dormancy and germination. First, when examining germination of different rice cultivars, we found that their germination timing and dormancy status are rather distinct, coupled with different GA/ABA ratio. Second, we studied genomic sequences of ABA and GA dormancy- and germination-associated genes in rice and discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions (Indels) in both coding and regulatory sequences. We aligned all these variations to the genome assemblies of 9311 and PA64s and demonstrated their relevance to seed dormancy both quantitatively and qualitatively based on gene expression data. Third, we surveyed and compared differentially expressed genes in dry seeds between 9311 and PA64s to show that these differentially expressed genes may play roles in seed dormancy and germination.
dormancy and germination; ABA; GA
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules have significant therapeutic promise for the genetic treatment of cancer. To overcome instability and low transfection efficiency, polyethylene glycol-polyethyleneimine (PEG-PEI) was synthesized and investigated as a non-viral carrier of siRNA targeting CD44v6 in gastric carcinoma cells. The size, surface charge using zeta potential, and morphology via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of PEG-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles was characterized, and their cytotoxicity, transfection efficiency, and interaction with SGC7901 human gastric carcinoma cells was evaluated. The transfection efficiency of PEG-PEI/siRNA nanocomplexes was dependant on the charge ratio between amino groups of PEG-PEI and phosphate groups of siRNA (N/P) values, which reflected the molar ratio of PEG-PEI to siRNA during complex formation. The transfection efficiency of PEG-PEI/siRNA at N/P 15 was 72.53% ± 2.38%, which was higher than that observed using Lipofectamine 2000 and PEI as delivery carriers. Cytotoxicity of PEG-PEI was determined by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and was obviously lower than that of PEI. Moreover, when N/P was below 15, PEG-PEI/siRNA was less toxic than Lipofectamine 2000/siRNA. RT-PCR (real time polymerase chain reaction) and Western blot analyses of CD44v6 expression demonstrated the gene silencing effect of PEG-PEI/siRNA at N/P 15. These data indicate that PEG-PEI may be a promising non-viral carrier for altering gene expression in the treatment of gastric cancer with many advantages, such as relatively high gene transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity.
siRNA; PEG-PEI; nanoparticles; CD44v6 gene; gastric carcinoma cells