Commit to Quit (CTQ), a program that utilized vigorous intensity exercise as an adjunct to a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program, was shown to be effective for female smokers (Marcus et al., Prev Med 26(4):586–597, 1997; Marcus et al., Arch Intern Med 159(11):1229–1234, 1999). Adapting effective programs, such as CTQ, to community settings could lead to a large public health impact as the program could substantially increase its reach. This case study chronicles the steps taken by researchers to translate CTQ from the medical to the community setting of YMCAs (CTQY). Use of aspects of Diffusion Theory  such as identifying a champion of the program and attending to the characteristics of an innovation to enhance program adoption are discussed. Details regarding attending to the tensions between internal and external validity as the program was adapted to the community setting are also outlined. The challenges of conducting community trials are discussed.
Translation; Smoking cessation; Physical activity; Community setting; Diffusion Theory
Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death among American women. Aerobic exercise has shown promise as an aid to smoking cessation because it improves affect and reduces nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Studies outside the realm of smoking cessation have shown that yoga practice also reduces perceived stress and negative affect.
This pilot study examines the feasibility and initial efficacy of yoga as a complementary therapy for smoking cessation. Fifty-five women were given 8-week group-based cognitive behavioral therapy for smoking cessation and were randomized to a twice-weekly program of Vinyasa yoga or a general health and wellness program (contact control). The primary outcome measure was 7-day point prevalence abstinence at the end of treatment validated by saliva cotinine testing. Longitudinal analyses were also conducted to examine the effect of intervention on smoking cessation at 3- and 6-month follow-up. We examined the effects of the intervention on potential mediating variables (e.g., confidence in quitting smoking, self-efficacy), as well as measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and perceived health (SF-36).
At end of treatment, women in the yoga group had a greater 7-day point-prevalence abstinence rate than controls (odds ratio [OR], 4.56; 95% CI, 1.1–18.6). Abstinence remained higher among yoga participants through the six month assessment (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.34–6.92), although differences were no longer statistically significant. Women participating in the yoga program also showed reduced anxiety and improvements in perceived health and well-being when compared with controls.
Yoga may be an efficacious complementary therapy for smoking cessation among women.
Purpose: Young adults who have been treated for cancer face several health and psychosocial risks. To minimize these risks, is it imperative that they address any modifiable risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle. Unfortunately, more than half of young adult cancer survivors remain sedentary. To facilitate the adoption of physical activity (PA) in this population—potentially reducing health and psychosocial risks—we developed and pilot tested an internet-based PA intervention for young survivors. Patients and methods: Eighteen young adults, aged 18 to 39, who had been diagnosed with cancer in the past 10 years were recruited. Participants were randomized to receive access to the PA website for 12 weeks or information about other cancer-related websites. Intervention feasibility and acceptability was assessed only among those in the PA website group; PA and psychosocial outcomes (mood, fatigue) were assessed in both groups. Results: Findings revealed that 86% of participants in the PA website group would recommend the intervention to others and most (71%) were “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with it. Further, 100% rated getting onto the website as “very easy” and 86% rated the information on the site as “very easy” to understand. The logging feature, followed by the goal-setting feature, were most often accessed by participants. Participants also rated the graphing and stage-matched manual features as helpful. Estimates of effect sizes for between-group differences at 12 weeks were medium for PA outcomes and large for psychosocial outcomes. Conclusions: This internet-based PA intervention targeting young adult cancer survivors is feasible and acceptable and may benefit this population.
survivorship; physical activity; exercise; internet
Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US), over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal), negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse) group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety), and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures,
and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP).
STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST) for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX) or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL). Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization) per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after the baseline visit, and smoking cessation outcomes as well as putative mediator variables will be measured up to 6 months following the quit date.
The primary objective of STEP is to evaluate whether vigorous-intensity exercise can aid smoking cessation in anxiety vulnerable adults. If effective, the use of vigorous-intensity exercise as a component of smoking cessation interventions would have a significant public health impact. Specifically, in addition to improving smoking cessation treatment outcome, exercise is expected to offer benefits to overall health, which may be particularly important for smokers. The study is also designed to test putative mediators of the intervention effects and therefore has the potential to advance the understanding of exercise-anxiety-smoking relations and guide future research on this topic.
Clinical trials registry
ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01065506, http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01065506
Smoking; Smoking cessation; Intervention; Randomized controlled trial; Exercise; Aerobic exercise; Anxiety; Anxiety sensitivity
Many women try to stop smoking in pregnancy but fail. One difficulty is that there is insufficient evidence that medications for smoking cessation are effective and safe in pregnancy and thus many women prefer to avoid these. Physical activity (PA) interventions may assist cessation; however, trials examining these interventions have been too small to detect or exclude plausible beneficial effects. The London Exercise And Pregnant smokers (LEAP) trial is investigating whether a PA intervention is effective and cost-effective when used for smoking cessation by pregnant women, and will be the largest study of its kind to date.
The LEAP study is a pragmatic, multi-center, two-arm, randomized, controlled trial that will target pregnant women who smoke at least one cigarette a day (and at least five cigarettes a day before pregnancy), and are between 10 and 24 weeks pregnant. Eligible patients are individually randomized to either usual care (that is, behavioral support for smoking cessation) or usual care plus a intervention (entailing supervised exercise on a treadmill plus PA consultations). The primary outcome of the trial is self-reported and biochemically validated continuous abstinence from smoking between a specified quit date and the end of pregnancy. The secondary outcomes, measured at 1 and 4 weeks after the quit date, and at the end of pregnancy and 6 months after childbirth, are PA levels, depression, self-confidence, and cigarette withdrawal symptoms. Smoking status will also be self-reported at 6 months after childbirth. In addition, perinatal measures will be collected, including antenatal complications, duration of labor, mode of delivery, and birth and placental weight. Outcomes will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, and logistic regression models used to compare treatment effects on the primary outcome.
This trial will assess whether a PA intervention is effective when used for smoking cessation during pregnancy.
Smoking cessation; Pregnancy; Physical activity; Intervention; Randomized controlled trial
Patients who have completed Phase II cardiac rehabilitation have low rates of maintenance of exercise after program completion, despite the importance of sustaining regular exercise to prevent future cardiac events.
The efficacy of a home-based intervention to support exercise maintenance among patients who had completed Phase II cardiac rehabilitation versus contact control was evaluated.
An RCT was used to evaluate the intervention. Data were collected in 2005–2010 and analyzed in 2010.
One hundred and thirty patients (mean age = 63.6 years [SD=9.7], 20.8% female) were randomized to exercise counseling (Maintenance Counseling group, n=64) or contact control (Contact Control group, n=66).
Maintenance Counseling group participants received a 6-month program of exercise counseling (based on the Transtheoretical Model and Social–Cognitive Theory) delivered via telephone, as well as print materials and feedback reports.
Main outcome measures
Assessments of physical activity (7-Day PAR), motivational readiness for exercise, lipids and physical functioning were conducted at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Objective accelerometer data were collected at the same time-points. Fitness was assessed via maximal exercise stress tests at baseline and 6 months.
The Maintenance Counseling group reported significantly higher exercise participation than the Contact Control group at 12 months (difference of 80 minutes, 95% CI 22,137). Group differences in exercise at 6 months were nonsignificant. The intervention significantly increased the probability of participants’ exercising at or above physical activity guidelines and attenuated regression in motivational readiness versus the Contact Control Group at 6 and 12 months. Self-reported physical functioning was significantly higher in the Maintenance Counseling group at 12 months. No group differences were seen in fitness at 6 months or lipid measures at 6 and 12 months.
A telephone-based intervention can help maintain exercise, prevent regression in motivational readiness for exercise and improve physical functioning in this patient population.
Research indicates that exercise may be helpful for smoking cessation; however, the majority of studies have focused only on women and only on aerobic exercise. This pilot study explored the use of resistance training (RT) (i.e., weight lifting) as an adjunctive strategy for quitting smoking for both men and women.
A sample of 25 smokers received a brief smoking cessation counseling session and the nicotine patch prior to being randomized into a 12-week RT or contact control (CC) group. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 3-month, and at a 6-month follow-up.
Participants (52% female) averaged 36.5 years (SD = 12.0) of age and 19.1 years (SD = 12.0) of smoking. At the 3-month assessment, objectively verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA) rates were 46% for the RT group and 17% for CC; prolonged abstinence rates were 16% and 8%, respectively. At the 6-month assessment, objectively verified 7-day PPA rates were 38% for the RT group and 17% for CC; prolonged abstinence rates were 15% and 8%, respectively. Mean body weight decreased 0.6 kg (SD = 1.7) in the RT group and increased 0.6 kg (SD = 2.8) in the CC group. Mean body fat decreased 0.5% (SD = 1.8) in the RT group and increased 0.6% (SD = 0.7) in the CC.
This is the first study reporting on the use of a RT program as an aid to smoking cessation treatment. The findings suggest that such a program is feasible as an adjunctive treatment for smoking cessation. An adequately powered trial is warranted.
The goal of this research is to utilize a transdisciplinary framework to guide the selection of putative moderators of the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity behavior adoption and maintenance in the context of a randomized controlled intervention trial. Effective interventions to increase physical activity are sorely needed, and one barrier to the identification and development of such interventions is the lack of research targeted at understanding both the mechanisms of intervention efficacy and for whom particular interventions are effective. The purpose of this paper is to outline our transdisciplinary approach to understanding individual differences in the effectiveness of a previously successful exercise promotion intervention. We explain the rationale for and operationalization of our framework, characteristics of the study to which we apply the framework, and planned analyses. By embracing a transdisciplinary orientation for individual differences important in the prediction of physical activity (spanning molecular approaches, animal models, human laboratory models, and social psychological models), we hope to have a better understanding of characteristics of individuals that are important in the adoption and maintenance of physical activity.
Physical Activity; Exercise; Transdisciplinary; Genetic; COSTRIDE; Affect; Motivation
High rates of obesity in Latinas highlight the need to determine if physical activity interventions are equally effective across the body mass index (BMI) range. Thus, this study assessed how BMI impacts success of Spanish-speaking Latinas in a culturally and linguistically adapted theory-based physical activity intervention (N = 45). Longitudinal regression models tested the relationship between baseline BMI and outcomes. Overall, a trend for a negative association was found between baseline BMI and self-reported physical activity and theoretical constructs targeted by the intervention over time. For example, someone with a 25 kg/m2 BMI would report, on average, 27.5 more minutes/week of activity compared to someone with a 30 kg/m2 BMI at followup. Furthermore, higher baseline BMI was significantly associated with lower self-efficacy, behavioral and cognitive processes of change, and family social support over time. These findings suggest that participants with higher BMI may need additional intervention to promote physical activity.
This paper describes the application of best practice recommendations for using accelerometers in a physical activity (PA) intervention trial, and the concordance of different methods for measuring PA. A subsample (n=63; 26%) of the 239 healthy, sedentary adults participating in a PA trial (mean age=47.5; 82% women) wore the ActiGraph monitor at all 3 assessment time points. ActiGraph data were compared with self-report (i.e., PA weekly recall and monthly log) and fitness variables. Correlations between the PA recall and ActiGraph for moderate intensity activity ranged from 0.16–0.48 and from 0.28–0.42 for vigorous intensity activity. ActiGraph and fitness [estimated VO2(ml/kg/min)] had correlations of 0.15–0.45. The ActiGraph and weekly self-report were significantly correlated at all time points (correlations ranged from 0.23–0.44). In terms of detecting intervention effects, intervention groups recorded more minutes of at least moderate-intensity PA on the ActiGraph than the control group at 6 months (min=46.47, 95% CI=14.36–78.58), but not at 12 months. Limitations of the study include a small sample size and only 3 days of ActiGraph monitoring. To obtain optimal results with accelerometers in clinical trials, the authors recommend following best practice recommendations: detailed protocols for monitor use, calibration of monitors and validation of data quality, and use of validated equations for analysis. The ActiGraph has modest concordance with other assessment tools and is sensitive to change over time. However, until more information validating the use of accelerometry in clinical trials becomes available, properly administered self-report measures of PA should remain part of the assessment battery.
exercise; objective monitoring; best practice recommendations; ActiGraph
There is a need for novel approaches to the treatment of stimulant abuse and dependence. Clinical data examining the use of exercise as a treatment for the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, and other substances suggest that exercise may be a beneficial treatment for stimulant abuse, with direct effects on decreased use and craving. In addition, exercise has the potential to improve other health domains that may be adversely affected by stimulant use or its treatment, such as sleep disturbance, cognitive function, mood, weight gain, quality of life, and anhedonia, since it has been shown to improve many of these domains in a number of other clinical disorders. Furthermore, neurobiological evidence provides plausible mechanisms by which exercise could positively affect treatment outcomes. The current manuscript presents the rationale, design considerations, and study design of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) CTN-0037 Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) study.
STRIDE is a multisite randomized clinical trial that compares exercise to health education as potential treatments for stimulant abuse or dependence. This study will evaluate individuals diagnosed with stimulant abuse or dependence who are receiving treatment in a residential setting. Three hundred and thirty eligible and interested participants who provide informed consent will be randomized to one of two treatment arms: Vigorous Intensity High Dose Exercise Augmentation (DEI) or Health Education Intervention Augmentation (HEI). Both groups will receive TAU (i.e., usual care). The treatment arms are structured such that the quantity of visits is similar to allow for equivalent contact between groups. In both arms, participants will begin with supervised sessions 3 times per week during the 12-week acute phase of the study. Supervised sessions will be conducted as one-on-one (i.e., individual) sessions, although other participants may be exercising at the same time. Following the 12-week acute phase, participants will begin a 6-month continuation phase during which time they will attend one weekly supervised DEI or HEI session.
Clinical Trials Registry
stimulant abuse; stimulant dependence; exercise; health education; behavioral intervention
Computerized, tailored interventions have the potential to be a cost-effective means to assist a wide variety of individuals with behavior change. To examine the effect of computerized tailored physical activity reports on primary care patients' physical activity at six months.
Two-group randomized clinical trial with primary care physicians as the unit of randomization. Patients were placed in the intervention (n=187) or control group (n=207) based on their physician's assignment.
Primary care physicians (n=22) and their adult patients (n=394) from Philadelphia, PA. The study and analyses were conducted from 2004-2010.
The intervention group completed physical activity surveys at baseline, one, three, and six months. Based on their responses, participants received four feedback reports at each time point. The reports aimed to motivate participants to increase physical activity, personalized to the participant's needs; they also included an activity prescription. The control group received identical procedures except they received general reports on preventive screening based on their responses to preventive screening questions.
Main outcome measure
Minutes of physical activity measured by the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall interview at six months.
Participants were 69% female, 59% African American, and had diverse educational and income levels; the retention rate was 89.6%. After adjusting for baseline levels of activity and gender, the intervention group increased their total minutes of physical activity by a mean of 133 minutes, while the control group had a mean increase of 99 minutes (p=0.39).
Although we saw an increase in physical activity within both groups, computerized tailored physical activity reports did not significantly increase physical activity levels beyond control among ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adults in primary care.
primary care issues; physical activity; behavioral medicine; randomized clinical trial
Intervention to increase exercise in drug dependent patients represents a potentially useful yet unexplored strategy for preventing relapse. However, there are currently no established exercise interventions for use with this population. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility of aerobic exercise as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment among drug dependent patients. Participants included 16 (31% female, 38.3 years old) drug dependent patients who participated in a 12-week, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention. Participants attended a mean of 8.6 sessions (out of 12). Participants demonstrated a significant increase in percent days abstinent for both alcohol and drugs at the end of treatment, and those who attended at least 75% of the exercise sessions had significantly better substance use outcomes than those who did not. In addition, participants showed a significant increase in their cardiorespiratory fitness by the end of treatment. While preliminary, this study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating aerobic exercise during drug abuse treatment. Future randomized control trials are a necessary next step to test the efficacy of a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention as an adjunct to drug abuse treatment in this patient population.
Exercise; Drug Dependence; Substance Abuse Treatment; Physical Activity
The objective of this study was to compare the costs associated with Internet and print-based physical activity interventions.
The costs associated with delivering tailored print and Internet-based interventions were estimated from a randomized controlled physical activity trial (n=167). The estimates were based on research assistant time sampling surveys, web development invoices, and other tracking procedures.
Web-development costs for the Internet intervention were $109,564. Taken together with the website hosting fees and staff costs, the cost per participant per month was $122.52 The cost of the print intervention was $35.81 per participant per month. However, in a break-even analysis, the Internet intervention became more cost-efficient, relative to the print intervention, when the total number of participants exceeded 352.
Relative to print-based interventions, Internet-based interventions may be a more cost efficient way to reach a large number of sedentary individuals.
Exercise; Web; Sedentary
Objective: Computer-tailored and Internet-based interventions to promote physical activity behavior have shown some promise, but only few have been tested among African Americans. We examined the feasibility and efficacy of three 1-year, multiple contact physical activity interventions (Tailored Internet, Tailored Print, Standard Internet) in a subsample of African American participants (n = 38) enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Participants randomly assigned to Tailored Internet and Print programs received individually tailored computer expert system feedback delivered via Internet or print. Participants in the Standard Internet program received access to six currently available physical activity Web sites. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline and 6 and 12 months with the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall. Results: Across all participants, physical activity changed from 17.24 min/week (standard deviation [SD] = 20.72) at baseline to 139.44 min/week (SD = 99.20) at 6 months, to 104.26 min/week (SD = 129.14) at 12 months. According to available consumer satisfaction data (n = 30), 70% reported reading most or all of the physical activity information received by Internet or mail. Most participants described the Internet- and print-based physical activity programs as “somewhat” or “very” helpful (80%) and enjoyable (87%). Conclusions: These findings suggest that computer-tailored and Internet-based interventions are able to produce long-term increases in physical activity and associated process variables among African American participants. Future studies with larger numbers of African American participants are needed to determine which of the programs (Tailored Print, Tailored Internet, Standard Internet) are more effective and what program modifications might be helpful in assisting this population in becoming more active.
e-health; cardiology/cardiovascular disease; technology
Sustaining weight loss long-term is difficult.
To examine if eating behaviors, physical activity levels, and program participation influence ones ability to achieve ≥5%, ≥7%, and ≥10% weight loss over a period of 24 months.
Data from 170 overweight and obese women (BMI = 32.7 ± 4.2 kg/m2) were analyzed in this study. All women followed a standard 24-month behavioral weight loss program in which they were instructed to decrease caloric intake and increase physical activity levels. Eating behaviors, body weight, and physical activity levels were assessed at baseline, 6 and 24 months. Program participation was evaluated by the percentage of group meetings attended and the percentage of telephone calls completed with an interventionist. Three separate step-wise linear regression analyses were performed to identify variables that were predictive of ≥5%, ≥7%, and ≥10% weight loss at 24 months.
The percentage of telephone calls completed and change in weight loss eating behaviors predicted ≥5% (r2 = 0.16), ≥7% (r2 = 0.14), and ≥10% weight loss (r2 =0.10) at 24 months. However, the change in physical activity levels from baseline to 24 months was only predictive of weight losses ≥10% (r2 =0.11).
Behavioral factors, such as adopting healthy eating behaviors and telephone contact time, are important components that assist individuals in achieving weight losses ≥5%. However, high levels of physical activity play a more prominent role in sustaining weight losses of ≥10%. Therefore, innovative strategies to enhance long-term exercise adherence should be developed.
Weight reduction; physical activity; eating behaviors; body weight; obesity
Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT) on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in both men and women who had high (or low for HDL-C) baseline levels of risk factors, whereas significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were seen only in those men with high baseline levels. There were no improvements in any risk factors among participants with normal baseline levels. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in a number of CVD risk factors. However, most relationships disappeared after controlling for changes in body weight. Improvements in lipids from the ACT interventions could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with already high levels of lipids by 16%–26% in men and 11%–16% in women. Interventions that can be implemented in health care settings nationwide and result in meaningful population-wide changes in CVD risk factors are needed. The ACT physical activity interventions produced substantial improvements among men and women with elevated CVD risk factors.
primary care counseling; cardiovascular disease risk factors; physical activity; fitness; behavioral intervention
To examine changes in environmental perceptions over time and associations between changes in perceptions and physical activity among participants in two physical activity interventions.
Two independent trials were examined. Project STRIDE (STRIDE) (N=239) was conducted from 2000–2004 in Rhode Island. Step into Motion (SIM) (N=249) was conducted from 2003–2006 in Rhode Island and Pennsylvania. Both trials tested various delivery channels for providing individually-tailored motivational materials to increase physical activity among sedentary adults. Neither intervention aimed to change perceptions of the environment. At baseline, 6, and 12 months, surveys assessed physical activity and perceived facility and home equipment availability.
In both trials, perceived facility availability increased from baseline to 6 months. Significant increases continued from 6 to 12 months in SIM only. Increases were not significantly different by treatment group. Perceived home equipment availability also increased from baseline to 6 months in both trials and from 6 to 12 months in SIM only. In STRIDE, greater increases were observed for intervention compared to control participants. Increased facility and home equipment availability were associated with increased minutes of physical activity in both trials.
Perceived facility and home equipment availability improved during participation in two individual-level physical activity interventions.
Physical activity; Intervention; Environment; Adults
In the U.S., Latinos report particularly high levels of inactivity and related chronic illnesses and are in need of intervention. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to culturally and linguistically adapt an empirically supported, individually tailored physical activity print intervention for Latinos and then conduct an RCT of the modified program.
The sample included 93 overweight/obese (80%) Latinas with low income and acculturation.
Data were collected in 2007–2008 and analyzed by intent-to-treat in 2009. Participants were randomly assigned to either: (1) a culturally and linguistically adapted physical activity intervention (Seamos Activas), or (2) a wellness contact control condition.
Main outcome measures
Self report physical activity, as measured pre- and post- intervention (6 months, 87% retention) by the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall.
Moderate-intensity (or greater) physical activity increased from an average of 16.56 minutes/week (SD=25.76) at baseline to 147.27 (SD=241.55) at 6 months in the intervention arm (n=45) and from 11.88 minutes/week (SD=21.99) to 96.79 (SD=118.49) in the wellness contact control arm (n=48). No between-group differences were seen in overall physical activity. Intervention participants reported significantly greater increases in cognitive [F(1,91)= 9.53, p = .003] and behavioral processes of change [F(1,91)= 8.37, p = .005] and available physical activity supplies and equipment at home [F(1,91)=4.17, p=.04] than control participants.
Results supported the hypothesized feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of individually tailored physical activity print interventions among Latinas. While more research is needed to corroborate these findings, such high-reach, low-cost approaches have great potential to positively affect public health.
Depressive symptoms negatively impact smoking abstinence. However, few interventions have been targeted to smokers with current depression. Exercise improves mood and may benefit depressed smokers. This pilot study investigated the feasibility of an exercise intervention for depressed female smokers (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ≥16).
Participants (M = 41 years, 98% White) were randomized to 10 weeks of individually delivered exercise counseling (n = 30) or a health education contact control condition (n = 30). All participants received nicotine patch therapy and behavioral counseling for smoking cessation.
The intervention was feasible as indicated by ability to recruit participants, exercise counseling session attendance (M = 7.6 of 10 sessions attended), and significant increase in exercise frequency and stage of change from baseline to end of treatment (EOT) (Week 10). Participant attrition rate was 35% by Week 10 but did not differ significantly between groups. Smoking abstinence rates at Week 10, using intention-to-treat analysis, were 17% for exercise counseling participants and 23% for health education participants (p = .75).
An exercise counseling intervention was found to be feasible for depressed women smokers. More intensive intervention may be needed to increase smoking abstinence rates, and methods should be refined to reduce participant burden and attrition.
Joint models for the association of a longitudinal binary and a longitudinal continuous process are proposed for situations in which their association is of direct interest. The models are parameterized such that the dependence between the two processes is characterized by unconstrained regression coefficients. Bayesian variable selection techniques are used to parsimoniously model these coefficients. A Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithm is developed for sampling from the posterior distribution, using data augmentation steps to handle missing data. Several technical issues are addressed to implement the MCMC algorithm efficiently. The models are motivated by, and are used for, the analysis of a smoking cessation clinical trial in which an important question of interest was the effect of the (exercise) treatment on the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain.
Calibrated posterior predictive p-value; Data augmentation; Dependence; Joint models; Markov chain Monte Carlo; Parameter expansion; Stochastic search variable selection
Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at substantially increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and obesity, currently at epidemic rates in the United States. GDM, therefore, identifies a population of women at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and provides an opportunity to intervene before the development of this disorder. It is well recognized that acute as well as chronic physical activity improves glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetes. To date, however, primary prevention trials have not been conducted to test whether an increase in physical activity reduces risk of developing GDM among women at high risk of this disorder.
The aims of this study are to investigate the effects of a motivationally targeted, individually tailored 12-week physical activity intervention on (1) development of GDM, (2) serum biomarkers associated with insulin resistance, and (3) the adoption and maintenance of exercise during pregnancy. Women at high risk of GDM are recruited in early pregnancy and randomized to either an individually tailored exercise intervention or a comparison health and wellness intervention.
The overall goal of the exercise intervention is to encourage pregnant women to achieve the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy through increasing walking and developing a more active lifestyle.
The intervention takes into account the specific social, cultural, economic, and physical environmental challenges faced by pregnant women of diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds.
Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death among American women. Exercise has shown promise as an aid to smoking cessation because it reduces weight gain and weight concerns, improves affect, and reduces nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cigarette craving. Studies have shown that the practice of yoga improves weight control, and reduces perceived stress and negative affect. Yoga practice also includes regulation of breathing and focused attention, both of which may enhance stress reduction and improve mood and well-being and may improve cessation outcomes.
This pilot efficacy study is designed to examine the rates of cessation among women randomized to either a novel, 8-week Yoga plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) smoking cessation intervention versus a Wellness program plus the same CBT smoking cessation intervention. Outcome measures include 7-day point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment, 3 and 6 months follow up and potential mediating variables (e.g., confidence in quitting smoking, self-efficacy). Other assessments include measures of mindfulness, spirituality, depressive symptoms, anxiety and perceived health (SF-36).
Innovative treatments are needed that address barriers to successful smoking cessation among men and women. The design chosen for this study will allow us to explore potential mediators of intervention efficacy so that we may better understand the mechanism(s) by which yoga may act as an effective complementary treatment for smoking cessation. If shown to be effective, yoga can offer an alternative to traditional exercise for reducing negative symptoms that often accompany smoking cessation and predict relapse to smoking among recent quitters.
Debate remains regarding the dose of physical activity that will facilitate weight loss maintenance.
To examine the dose and intensity of physical activity (PA) in the context of a 24-month behavioral intervention on weight loss, anthropometric measures, fitness, PA, and eating behaviors.
Data collection and intervention were conducted between December 1999 and January 2003. Participants were assigned to one of four behavioral weight loss intervention groups, with randomization based on PA energy expenditure and intensity.
A hospital-based weight loss research center.
201 overweight and obese women (BMI: 27 to 40 kg/m2; Age: 21 to 45 years) with no contraindications to weight loss or physical activity.
Recommended to reduce intake to 1,200 to 1,500 kcal/d and to increase PA based on dose (1,000 or 2,000 kcal/wk) and intensity (moderate or vigorous). Content was delivered in a combination of in-person and telephone contacts delivered across 24 months.
Main Outcome Measures:
The primary outcome was weight loss.
Weight loss did not differ between the randomized groups at 6 months (approximately 8-10% weight loss) or 24 months (approximately 5% weight loss). Post-hoc analysis showed that individuals sustaining ≥10% weight loss at 24 months reported more PA (1,835 kcal/wk or 275 min/wk) compared to those sustaining <10% weight loss (p<0.001).
The addition of 275 min/wk of PA, in combination with a reduction in energy intake, is important for sustaining ≥10% weight loss for overweight women. Interventions to facilitate this level of PA are needed.
physical activity; obesity; overweight; fitness; weight control
Alcohol use disorders are a major public health concern. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of a number of different treatments for alcohol dependence, relapse remains a major problem. Healthy lifestyle changes may contribute to long-term maintenance of recovery and interventions targeting physical activity, in particular, may be especially valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment. In this paper, we discuss the rationale and review potential mechanisms of action whereby exercise might benefit alcohol dependent patients in recovery. We then describe the development of a 12-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program as an adjunctive intervention for alcohol dependent patients in recovery. Preliminary data from a pilot study (n=19) are presented and the overall significance of this research effort is discussed.