The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various community-based interventions in support of HPV vaccination implemented by cities and towns within Tochigi prefecture, Japan with a view to identifying useful indicators which might guide future interventions to improve HPV vaccination coverage in the prefecture. A postal questionnaire survey of all 27 local governments in Tochigi Prefecture was conducted in December 2010. All 27 responded, and 22 provided the exact numbers of the targeted and vaccinated populations of 13- to 15-year-old girls from April to December 2010. The local governments also answered questions on the type of interventions implemented including public subsidies, school-based programs, direct mail, free tickets and recalls. Local governments that conducted a school-based vaccination program reported 96.8% coverage for the 1st dose, 96.2% for the 2nd dose, and 91.2% for the 3rd dose. Those that provided subsidies without school-based programs reported a wide range of vaccination rates: 45.7%–95.0% for the 1st dose, 41.1%–93.7% for the 2nd dose and 3.1%–90.1% for the 3rd dose. Among this group, the combination of a free ticket, direct mail and recall was most effective, with 95.0% coverage for the 1st dose, 93.7% for the 2nd dose, and 90.1% for the 3rd dose. The governments that did not offer a subsidy had the lowest vaccination coverage, with 0.8%–1.4% for the 1st dose, 0.0%–0.8% for the 2nd dose, and 0.1%–0.1% for the 3rd dose. The results of this survey indicate that school-based vaccinations and public subsidies are the most effective method to improve HPV vaccination coverage; however, the combination of a free ticket, direct mail, and recalls with public subsidies are also important measures in increasing the vaccination rate. These data may afford important indicators for the successful implementation of future HPV vaccination programs.
Growing evidence demonstrates that various large DNA viruses could encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate host and viral genes to achieve immune evasion. In this study, we report that miR-homoHSV, an miRNA encoded by Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), can attenuate SGIV-induced cell death. Mechanistically, SGIV miR-homoHSV targets SGIV ORF136R, a viral gene that encodes the pro-apoptotic lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α (LITAF)-like factor. miR-homoHSV suppressed exogenous and endogenous SGIV LITAF expression, and thus inhibited SGIV LITAF-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, miR-homoHSV expression was able to attenuate cell death induced by viral infection, presumably facilitating viral replication through the down-regulation of the pro-apoptotic gene SGIV LITAF. Together, our data suggest miR-homoHSV may serve as a feedback regulator of cell death during viral infection. The findings of this study provide a better understanding of SGIV replication and pathogenesis.
We have previously reported that seventy percent ethanol extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIE) strongly reduces Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) survival by inhibiting virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-induced NF-κB activation. To identify an active compound(s) in CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation, activity-guided fractionation was employed. The CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE strongly reduced LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability with relatively low cytotoxic effects on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF), HeLa or Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL41) cells. Furthermore, lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, was identified in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE to attenuate LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability. This study demonstrates that lupeol is one of active compounds in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and reduces NF-κB-dependent LCL viability.
Knowledge of prevalence rates and distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes prior high HPV vaccine coverage is necessary to assess its expected impact on HPV ecology and on cervical lesions and cancers.
Residual specimens of cervical cytology (N = 6,538) were obtained from 16 sites participating in organised cervical cancer screening pilot programs throughout France, anonymised and tested for HPV DNA using the PapilloCheck® genotyping test. Samples were stratified according to age of women and cytological grades.
The age-standardised prevalence rates of HPV 16 and/or 18 (with or without other high-risk types) was 47.2% (95% Confidence Interval, CI: 42.4–52.1) in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), 20.2% in low-grade SIL (95% CI: 16.7–23.7) and 3.9% (95% CI: 2.8–5.1) in normal cytology. Overall HR HPV were detected in 13.7% (95%I CI: 11.7–15.6) of normal cytology. In women below 30 years of age, 64% of HSILs were associated with HPV16 and/or 18. In our study population, HPV16 was the most commonly detected type in all cervical grades with prevalence rates ranking from 3.0% in normal cytology to 50.9% in HSILs. HPV16 was also detected in 54% (27/50) of invasive cervical cancers including 5 adenocarcinomas.
HPV16 was strongly associated with cervical precancer and cancer. The high prevalence rates of HPV16/18 infection among women below 30 years of age with HSILs suggests that the impact of vaccination would be primarily observed among young women.
Radiation myelitis is the most serious complication in clinical radiotherapy for spinal metastases. We previously showed that 125I brachytherapy induced apoptosis of spinal cord neurons accompanied by autophagy. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism by which 125I radiation triggered autophagy in neural cells. We found that autophagy induced by 125I radiation was involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mainly dependent on PERK-eIF2α pathway. The expressions of LC3II, ATG12 and PI3K were significantly suppressed in PERK knockout neural cells. Meanwhile, the expressions of phosphorylated-Akt s473 and caspase3/8 all significantly increased in neural cells transfected with a PERK siRNA and which enhanced apoptosis of neurons after 125I radiation. The results were consistent with that by MTT and Annexin-FITC/PT staining. In annimal model of banna pigs with radiation myelitis caused by 125I brachytherapy, we have successfully decreased PERK expression by intrathecal administration of the lentivirus vector. The apoptosis rate was significantly higher than that in control group and which deteriorated radiation myelitis of banna pigs. Thus, autophagy caused by 125I radiation was mainly as an attempt of cell survival at an early stage, but it would be a self-destructive process and promoted the process of apoptosis and necrosis radiated by 125I for more than 72 hours. The study would be useful and helpful to maximize efficiency of radiation therapy in clinical therapy.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They participate in a wide variety of biological processes, including apoptosis, proliferation and metastasis. The aberrant expression of miRNAs has been found to play an important role in many cancers.
To understand the roles of miRNAs in the bone metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma, we constructed two small RNA libraries from blood of lung adenocarcinoma patients with and without bone metastasis. High-throughput sequencing combined with differential expression analysis identified that 7 microRNAs were down-regulated and 21 microRNAs were up-regulated in lung adenocarcinoma with bone metastasis. A total of 797 target genes of the differentially expressed microRNAs were identified using a bioinformatics approach. Functional annotation analysis indicated that a number of pathways might be involved in bone metastasis, survival of the primary origin and metastatic angiogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. These include the MAPK, Wnt, and NF-kappaB signaling pathways, as well as pathways involving the matrix metalloproteinase, cytoskeletal protein and angiogenesis factors.
This study provides some insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie lung adenocarcinoma development, thereby aiding the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Previous studies have shown that wild-type human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein can functionally replace the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 protein, which cooperates with the viral E7 protein in the immortalization of primary keratinocytes. In the current study, we made the surprising finding that catalytically inactive hTERT (hTERT-D868A), elongation-defective hTERT (hTERT-HA), and telomere recruitment-defective hTERT (hTERT N+T) also cooperate with E7 in mediating bypass of the senescence blockade and effecting cell immortalization. This suggests that hTERT has activities independent of its telomere maintenance functions that mediate transit across this restriction point. Since hTERT has been shown to have a role in gene activation, we performed microarray studies and discovered that E6, hTERT and mutant hTERT proteins altered the expression of highly overlapping sets of cellular genes. Most important, the E6 and hTERT proteins induced mRNA and protein levels of Bmi1, the core subunit of the Polycomb Group (PcG) complex 1. We show further that Bmi1 substitutes for E6 or hTERT in cell immortalization. Finally, tissue array studies demonstrated that expression of Bmi1 increased with the severity of cervical dysplasia, suggesting a potential role in the progression of cervical cancer. Together, these data demonstrate that hTERT has extra-telomeric activities that facilitate cell immortalization and that its induction of Bmi1 is one potential mechanism for mediating this activity.
The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are critical elements in the etiology of cervical cancer, as well as several other human cancers. The E6 protein, in combination with the E7 protein of these viruses, immortalizes epithelial cells and increases the expression of the hTERT protein. In the current study we show that the enzymatic activity of hTERT is not required for cooperating in cell immortalization. We further demonstrate that hTERT proteins increase the expression of the Bmi1 protein, which is also capable of cooperating in cell immortalization. We anticipate that these findings will stimulate new studies of telomerase in HPV biology, cancer etiology, and stem cell reprogramming.
The high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E5 protein (16E5) induces tumors in a transgenic mouse model and may contribute to early stages of cervical carcinogenesis. Although high-risk E5 expression is generally thought to be lost during the progression to cervical carcinoma following integration of HPV DNA into the host genome, episomal viral DNA has been documented in a subset of HPV-16-positive malignant lesions. Numerous studies have shown that transcripts that could potentially encode 16E5 are present in cervical biopsy specimens and cervical cancer cell lines, but the presence of E5 protein has been demonstrated in only two reports that have not been corroborated. In the present study, we show that trypsin cleavage of 16E5 generates a unique four-amino-acid C-terminal peptide (FLIT) that serves as a marker for E5 expression in transfected cells and epithelial cell lines containing integrated and episomal HPV-16 DNA. Following trypsin cleavage, reversed-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry (MS) were used to detect FLIT. Immunoprecipitation assays using a newly generated anti-16E5 antibody confirmed that 16E5 was solely responsible for the FLIT signal, and deuterated FLIT peptide provided an internal standard that enabled us to quantify the number of 16E5 molecules per cell. We show that 16E5 is expressed in the Caski but not in the SiHa cervical cancer cell line, suggesting that 16E5 may contribute to the malignant phenotype of some cervical cancers, even in cells exclusively containing an integrated HPV genome.
Although brachytherapy is one of the most effective ways to treat metastatic spinal tumor with little damage to surrounding healthy tissue, it may cause radiation myelopathy if an overdose occurs. Establishing a valuable animal model can help to find a method to overcome its complications. In the current study, we set up a banna mini-pig model to mimic percutaneous vertebroplasty with 125I seed implantation.
Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) combined with interstitial implantation of 125I seeds, 125I seeds were transplanted into the vertebral body at the T13 level of the spine in banna mini-pigs. After raising them for up to eight months, the spinal cord and vertebral body were collected for pathological analysis.
A potential animal model had been successfully established, no case of radiation myelopathy was found in any of the treated banna pigs, and no significant cellular impairment was noted by pathological analysis.
It proves that PVP with 125I brachytherapy is an effective method to treat metastasis spinal tumor, and that the banna mini-pig can be a suitable model to investigate the mechanism of brachytherapy complications.
Percutaneous vertebroplasty; Brachytherapy; 125I seeds; Radiation myelopathy
The Myc transcription factor is commonly dysregulated in many human cancers, including breast carcinomas. However, the precise role of Myc in the initiation and maintenance of malignancy is unclear. In this study we compared the ability of wild-type Myc (wt Myc) or Myc phosphorylation deficient mutants (T58A, S62A or T58A/S62A) to immortalize and transform human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). All Myc constructs promoted cellular immortalization. As previously reported in other cells, the Myc T58A mutant tempered apoptotic responses and increased Myc protein stability in HMEC cells. More importantly, we now show that HMECs overexpressing the Myc T58A mutant acquire a unique cellular phenotype characterized by cell aggregation, detachment from the substrate and growth in liquid suspension. Coincident with these changes, the cells become anchorage-independent for growth in agarose. Previous studies have shown that wt Myc can collaborate with hTERT in inducing HMEC anchorage-independent growth. We have verified this observation and further shown that Myc T58A was a stronger facilitator of such co-transformation. Thus, our findings indicate that differences in Myc protein phosphorylation modulate its biological activity in human breast epithelial cells and specifically that the T58A mutation can facilitate both cellular immortalization and transformation. Finally, we used the isogenic cell lines generated in this study to identify a subset of genes whose expression is greatly altered during the transition from the immortal to the anchorage-independent states.
Mammary cells; Myc; immortalization; anchorage-independent growth; phosphorylation
The contribution of the Wnt signaling pathway to HPV-induced carcinogenesis is poorly understood. In high-grade dysplastic lesions that are caused by high-risk human papilloma viruses (HR-HPVs), β-catenin is often located in the cell nucleus, which suggests that Wnt pathway may be involved in the development of HPV-related carcinomas. Most of the oncogenic potential of HR-HPVs resides on the E6 protein’s PDZ-binding domain. We hypothesized that the PDZ-binding domain of the HPV16-E6 oncoprotein induces the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin due to its capacity to degrade PDZ-containing cellular targets. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the staining pattern of β-catenin in the skin epidermis of transgenic mice expressing the full-length E6 oncoprotein (K14E6 mice) and measured LacZ gene expression in K14E6 mice that were crossed with a strain expressing LacZ that was knocked into the Axin2 locus (Axin2+/LacZ mice). Here, we show that the E6 oncoprotein enhances the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, the accumulation of cellularβ-catenin-responsive genes and the expression of LacZ. None of these effects were observed when a truncated E6 oncoprotein that lacks the PDZ-binding domain was expressed alone (K14E6ΔPDZ mice) or in combination with Axin2+/LacZ. Conversely, co-transfection with either E6 or E6ΔPDZ similarly enhanced canonical Wnt signaling in short-term in vitro assays that utilized a luciferase Wnt/β-catenin/TCF-dependent promoter. We propose that the activation of canonical Wnt signaling could be induced by the HPV16-E6 oncoprotein; however, the participation of the E6 PDZ-binding domain seems to be important in in vivo models only.
HPV; Wnt/β-catenin; K14E6; K14E6-ΔPDZ; Axin2+/LacZ
Noble metallic nanoparticles have prominent optical local-field enhancement and light trapping properties in the visible light region resulting from surface plasmon resonances.
We investigate the optical spectral properties and the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of two-dimensional distinctive continuous ultrathin gold nanofilms. Experimental results show that the one- or two-layer nanofilm obviously increases absorbance in PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM layers and the gold nanofilm acquires high Raman-enhancing capability.
The fabricated novel structure of the continuous ultrathin gold nanofilms possesses high surface plasmon resonance properties and boasts a high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factor, which can be a robust and cost-efficient SERS substrate. Interestingly, owing to the distinctive morphology and high light transmittance, the peculiar nanofilm can be used in multilayer photovoltaic devices to trap light without affecting the physical thickness of solar photovoltaic absorber layers and yielding new options for solar cell design.
Ultrathin gold film; Surface plasmon resonance; SERS
We report an electrophoretic deposition method for the fabrication of gold nanoparticle (GNP) thin films as sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. In this method, GNP sol, synthesized by a seed-mediated growth approach, and indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were utilized as an electrophoretic solution and electrodes, respectively. From the scanning electron microscopy analysis, we found that the density of GNPs deposited on ITO glass substrates increases with prolonged electrophoresis time. The films possess high mechanical adhesion strength and exhibit strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect by showing high SERS sensitivity to detect 1 × 10−7 M rhodamine 6 G in methanol solution. Finally, the relationship between Raman signal amplification capability and GNP deposition density has been further investigated. The results of our experiment indicate that the high-density GNP film shows relatively higher signal amplification capability due to the strong LSPR effect in narrow gap regions between the neighboring particles on the film.
Gold nanoparticle; Electrophoretic deposition; SERS
Wide wavelength ranges of light localization and scattering characteristics can be attributed to shape-dependent longitude surface plasmon resonance in complicated nanostructures. We have studied this phenomenon by spectroscopic measurement and a three-dimensional numerical simulation, for the first time, on the high-density branched silver nanowires and nanomeshworks at room temperature. These nanostructures were fabricated with simple light-induced colloidal method. In the range from the visible to the near-infrared wavelengths, light has been found effectively trapped in those trapping sites which were randomly distributed at the corners, the branches, and the junctions of the nanostructures in those nanostructures in three dimensions. The broadened bandwidth electromagnetic field enhancement property makes these branched nanostructures useful in optical processing and photovoltaic applications.
Silver Nanowires; Nanomeshworks; Branched nanostructures; Localized surface plasmon resonance; Hot spots; Bandwidth
HPV16 E6 and E7, two viral oncogenes, are expressed from a single bicistronic pre-mRNA. In this report, we provide the evidence that the bicistronic pre-mRNA intron 1 contains three 5′ splice sites (5′ ss) and three 3′ splice sites (3′ ss) normally used in HPV16+ cervical cancer and its derived cell lines. The choice of two novel alternative 5′ ss (nt 221 5′ ss and nt 191 5′ ss) produces two novel isoforms of E6E7 mRNAs (E6*V and E6*VI). The nt 226 5′ ss and nt 409 3′ ss is preferentially selected over the other splice sites crossing over the intron to excise a minimal length of the intron in RNA splicing. We identified AACAAAC as the preferred branch point sequence (BPS) and an adenosine at nt 385 (underlined) in the BPS as a branch site to dictate the selection of the nt 409 3′ ss for E6*I splicing and E7 expression. Introduction of point mutations into the mapped BPS led to reduced U2 binding to the BPS and thereby inhibition of the second step of E6E7 splicing at the nt 409 3′ ss. Importantly, the E6E7 bicistronic RNA with a mutant BPS and inefficient splicing makes little or no E7 and the resulted E6 with mutations of 91QYNK94 to 91PSFW94 displays attenuate activity on p53 degradation. Together, our data provide structural basis of the E6E7 intron 1 for better understanding of how viral E6 and E7 expression is regulated by alternative RNA splicing. This study elucidates for the first time a mapped branch point in HPV16 genome involved in viral oncogene expression.
Aberrant promoter region hypermethylation of upstream transcription factors may be responsible for silencing entire anti-neoplastic gene networks. In this study, we explored whether transcription factor coding gene, caudal-related homeobox 2 (CDX2), is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in lung cancer, and examined its potential tumor-suppressive functions. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that four of six lung cancer cell lines exhibited no or weak CDX2 expression. Expression of CDX2 was correlated to CDX2 promoter region methylation status, as determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite sequencing. Restoration of CDX2 expression was induced by treatment with demethylating drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) in lung cancer cell lines. Methylation of CDX2 was common in human primary lung cancer (61 of 110 tumors, 55.45%), but no methylation was found in normal lung tissues. Re-expression of CDX2 suppressed lung cancer cell proliferation and blocked cells in G1 phase. β-catenin/TCF activity and downstream genes expression were inhibited by re-expression of CDX2, and increased by depletion of CDX2. In conclusion, CDX2 is frequently methylated in lung cancer, and expression of CDX2 is regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. CDX2 may serve as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer and inhibits lung cancer cell proliferation by suppressing Wnt signaling.
5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine; CDX2; DNA methylation; Wnt signaling pathway; epigenetics; lung cancer
Previous studies have suggested that there may be a parent-of-origin effect for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) candidate genes. The objective of the present study was to investigate parent-of-origin effects using a genome-wide association analysis of the International Multicentre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study sample.
Family-based association analysis for ADHD using 846 ADHD probands and their parents was performed using the PLINK program, and parent-of-origin effects were studied using a Z score for the difference in paternal versus maternal odds ratios.
We identified 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing parent-of-origin effects at a significance level of p < 0.001. The most significant SNP, rs7614907, is at position 3q13.33 in the CDGAP gene (p = 0.000064 for parent-of-origin effect). Furthermore, 2 genes (FAS and PDLIM1) showed moderate parent-of-origin effects (p = 0.00086 for rs9658691 and p = 0.00077 for rs11188249) and strong maternal transmission (p = 0.000059 for rs9658691 and p = 0.0000068 for rs11188249). In addition, ZNF775 showed a moderate parent-of-origin effect (p = 0.00036 for rs7790549) and strong paternal transmission (p = 0.000041 for rs7790549).
We only had 1 sample available for analysis.
These results suggest several genes or regions with moderate parent-of-origin effects, and these findings will serve as a resource for replication in other populations to elucidate the potential role of these genetic variants in ADHD.
The HPV-16 E5 protein resides in membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and modulates cell growth and viral replication. In order to help define its biological activities, we analyzed E5-induced changes in human keratinocyte gene expression. Our studies identified the downregulation of spliced XBP-1 transcripts, a key player in the ER stress response, as a biochemical marker of E5 expression. IRE1α, the endoribonuclease responsible for XBP-1 RNA splicing, was also downregulated. Furthermore, cDNA microarray analysis revealed the repression of COX-2, another member of the ER stress pathway. In contrast, these genes were not altered either by the low-risk HPV-6b E5, or a C-terminal HPV-16 E5 mutant, in which the histidine and alanine residues (conserved in high-risk HPVs) were replaced with tyrosine and isoleucine (conserved in low-risk HPVs). HPV-16 E5 was also able to lower COX-2 mRNA levels in cells co-expressing E6/E7, suggesting that it might exert similar activity during viral replication. Interestingly, the E6/E7 genes were independently able to lower COX-2 transcripts compared to vector cells, indicating that multiple pathways of COX-2 repression exist. COX-2 downregulation by E5 could be overcome by thapsigargin or tunicamycin treatments, which initiate ER stress via calcium fluxes and abnormal protein glycosylation respectively, making it unlikely that E5 specifically tempers these pathways. Overall, our data indicate that E5 represses the cellular ER stress response and suggest a potential role for E5 during productive HPV infection.
Human papillomavirus type 16; E5 oncoprotein; COX-2; IRE1α; XBP-1; ER stress response; unfolded protein response
Joint models for the association of a longitudinal binary and a longitudinal continuous process are proposed for situations in which their association is of direct interest. The models are parameterized such that the dependence between the two processes is characterized by unconstrained regression coefficients. Bayesian variable selection techniques are used to parsimoniously model these coefficients. A Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithm is developed for sampling from the posterior distribution, using data augmentation steps to handle missing data. Several technical issues are addressed to implement the MCMC algorithm efficiently. The models are motivated by, and are used for, the analysis of a smoking cessation clinical trial in which an important question of interest was the effect of the (exercise) treatment on the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain.
Calibrated posterior predictive p-value; Data augmentation; Dependence; Joint models; Markov chain Monte Carlo; Parameter expansion; Stochastic search variable selection
The recently discovered Canis familiaris papillomavirus (PV) type 2 (CfPV2) provides a unique opportunity to study PV gene functions in vitro and in vivo. Unlike the previously characterized canine oral PV, CfPV2 contains an E5 open reading frame and is associated with progression to squamous cell carcinoma. In the current study, we have expressed and characterized the CfPV2-encoded E5 protein, a small, hydrophobic, 41-amino-acid polypeptide. We demonstrate that, similar to the E5 protein from high-risk human PV type 16, the CfPV2 E5 protein is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that its expression decreases keratinocyte proliferation and cell life span. E5 expression also increases the percentage of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, with a concomitant decrease in the percentage of cells in S phase. To identify a potential mechanism for E5-mediated growth inhibition from the ER, we developed a real-time PCR method to quantify the splicing of XBP1 mRNA as a measure of ER stress. We found that the CfPV2 E5 protein induced ER stress and that this, as well as the observed growth inhibition, is tempered significantly by coexpression of the CfPV2 E6 and E7 genes. It is possible that the spatial/temporal regulation of E6/E7 gene expression during keratinocyte differentiation might therefore modulate E5 activity and ER stress.
Primary human keratinocytes are useful for studying the pathogenesis of many different diseases of the cutaneous and mucosal epithelia. In addition, they can form organotypic tissue equivalents in culture that can be used as epidermal autografts for wound repair as well as for the delivery of gene therapy. However, primary keratinocytes have a finite lifespan in culture that limits their proliferative capacity and clinical use. Here, we report that treatment of primary keratinocytes (originating from 3 different anatomical sites) with Y-27632, a Rho kinase inhibitor, greatly increased their proliferative capacity and resulted in efficient immortalization without detectable cell crisis. More importantly, the immortalized cells displayed characteristics typical of primary keratinocytes; they had a normal karyotype and an intact DNA damage response and were able to differentiate into a stratified epithelium. This is the first example to our knowledge of a defined chemical compound mediating efficient cell immortalization, and this finding could have wide-ranging and profound investigational and medical applications.
This study was to explore the relationships between personal exposure to ten volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biochemical liver tests with the application of canonical correlation analysis. Data from a subsample of the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Serum albumin, total bilirubin (TB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) served as the outcome variables. Personal exposures to benzene, chloroform, ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethene, toluene, trichloroethene, o-xylene, m-, p-xylene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) were assessed through the use of passive exposure monitors worn by study participants. The first two canonical correlations were 0.3218 and 0.2575, suggesting a positive correlation mainly between the six VOCs (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-, p-xylene, and MTBE) and the three biochemical liver tests (albumin, ALP, and GGT) and a positive correlation mainly between the two VOCs (1,4-dichlorobenzene and tetrachloroethene) and the two biochemical liver tests (LDH and TB). Subsequent multiple linear regressions show that exposure to benzene, toluene, or MTBE was associated with serum albumin, while exposure to tetrachloroethene was associated with LDH and total bilirubin. In conclusion, exposure to certain VOCs as a group or individually may influence certain biochemical liver test results in the general population.
Canonical correlation; environmental exposure; liver function; volatile organic compound
The E6 and E7 proteins of high-risk HPVs are both required for the immortalization of primary human keratinocytes and the maintenance of the malignant phenotype of HPV-positive cancer cell lines. Our previous studies have shown that E6 protein binds Myc protein and that both E6 and Myc associate with and cooperatively activate the hTERT promoter, thereby increasing cellular telomerase activity. In this study, we evaluated the role of E7 in the maintenance and activation of telomerase in immortalized and tumorigenic cells. siRNA knockdown of either E6 or E7 (or both) in HPV-immortalized cells or an HPV-positive cancer cell line reduced hTERT transcription and telomerase activity. Since telomerase was inhibited by E7 siRNA in cells that independently expressed the E6 and E7 genes, our results reveal an independent role for E7 in the maintenance of telomerase activity. However, E7 alone was insufficient to increase endogenous hTERT mRNA or telomerase activity, although it significantly augmented E6-induced hTERT transcription and telomerase activity. To further explore this apparent E7-induced promoter augmentation, we analyzed an exogenous hTERT core promoter in transduced keratinocytes. E7 alone induced the wt hTERT promoter and augmented E6-induced hTERT promoter activity. Mutation of the E2F site in the hTERT promoter abrogated the ability of E7 to induce the hTERT promoter or to enhance the ability of E6 to induce the promoter. Correspondingly, keratinocytes expressing E6 and a mutant E7 (defective for binding pRb pocket proteins) showed lower telomerase activity than cells expressing wt E6 and wt E7. Thus, HPV E7 plays a role in the maintenance of telomerase activity in stable cell lines and augments acute, E6-induced hTERT promoter activity.
telomerase; papillomaviruses; oncoprotein
The viral early-to-late switch of papillomavirus infection is tightly linked to keratinocyte differentiation and is mediated in part by alternative mRNA splicing. Here, we report that SRp20, a cellular splicing factor, controls the early-to-late switch via interactions with A/C-rich RNA elements. An A/C-rich SE4 element regulates the selection of a bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) late-specific splice site, and binding of SRp20 to SE4 suppresses this selection. Expression of late BPV-1 L1 or human papillomavirus (HPV) L1, the major capsid protein, inversely correlates with SRp20 levels in the terminally differentiated keratinocytes. In HPV type 16, a similar SRp20-interacting element also controls the viral early-to-late switch. Keratinocytes in raft cultures, which support L1 expression, make considerably less SRp20 than keratinocytes in monolayer cultures, which do not support L1 expression. Conversely, abundant SRp20 in cancer cells or undifferentiated keratinocytes is important for the expression of the viral early E6 and E7 by promoting the expression of cellular transcription factor SP1 for transactivation of viral early promoters.
The high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of nearly all cervical cancers and are etiologically linked to additional human cancers, including those of anal, oral, and laryngeal origin. The main transforming genes of the high-risk HPVs are E6 and E7. E6, in addition to its role in p53 degradation, induces hTERT mRNA transcription in genital keratinocytes via interactions with Myc protein, thereby increasing cellular telomerase activity. While the HPV type 16 E6 and E7 genes efficiently immortalize human keratinocytes, they appear to only prolong the life span of human fibroblasts. To examine the molecular basis for this cell-type dependency, we examined the correlation between the ability of E6 to transactivate endogenous and exogenous hTERT promoters and to immortalize genital keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Confirming earlier studies, the E6 and E7 genes were incapable of immortalizing human fibroblasts but did delay senescence. Despite the lack of immortalization, E6 was functional in the fibroblasts, mediating p53 degradation and strongly transactivating an exogenous hTERT promoter. However, E6 failed to transactivate the endogenous hTERT promoter. Coordinately with this failure, we observed that Myc protein was not associated with the endogenous hTERT promoter, most likely due to the extremely low level of Myc expression in these cells and/or to differences in chromatin structure, in contrast with hTERT promoters that we found to be activated by E6 (i.e., the endogenous hTERT promoter in primary keratinoctyes and the exogenous hTERT core promoter in fibroblasts), where Myc is associated with the promoter in either a quiescent or an E6-induced state. These findings are consistent with those of our previous studies on mutagenesis and the knockdown of small interfering RNA, which demonstrated a requirement for Myc in the induction of the hTERT promoter by E6 and suggested that occupancy of the promoter by Myc determines the responsiveness of E6 and the downstream induction of telomerase and cell immortalization.