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1.  Loss of insulin signaling in vascular endothelial cells accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice 
Cell metabolism  2010;11(5):379-389.
Summary
To determine whether insulin action on endothelial cells promotes or protects against atherosclerosis, we generated apolipoprotein E null mice in which the insulin receptor gene was intact or conditionally deleted in vascular endothelial cells. Insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, and blood pressure were not different between the two groups, but atherosclerotic lesion size was more than 2-fold higher in mice lacking endothelial insulin signaling. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was impaired and endothelial cell VCAM-1 expression was increased in these animals. Adhesion of mononuclear cells to endothelium in vivo was increased 4-fold compared with controls, but reduced to below control values by a VCAM-1 blocking antibody. These results provide definitive evidence that loss of insulin signaling in endothelium, in the absence of competing systemic risk factors, accelerates atherosclerosis. Therefore, improving insulin sensitivity in the endothelium of patients with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes may prevent cardiovascular complications.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2010.03.013
PMCID: PMC3020149  PMID: 20444418
2.  Efficacy of postural techniques assessed by videofluoroscopy for myasthenia gravis with dysphagia as the presenting symptom: a case report 
Introduction
Oropharyngeal weakness leading to dysphagia is rarely the presenting symptom of myasthenia gravis, but it can be a significant source of morbidity and mortality. The earliest possible diagnosis of myasthenia gravis should be made for better management of this cause of treatable dysphagia. A detailed evaluation of swallowing by videofluoroscopy can assist in making an accurate diagnosis and in individualizing appropriate diet compensatory techniques.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 57-year-old Taiwanese man with dysphagia as the presenting symptom of myasthenia gravis, and evaluate the pathological findings of swallowing and effectiveness of compensatory postural techniques for dysphagia using videofluoroscopy.
Conclusions
Videofluoroscopy is a valuable technique for evaluating myasthenia gravis dysphagia, because it allows swallowing interventions to be precisely individualized in accordance with the results obtained.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-370
PMCID: PMC3009659  PMID: 21087522

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