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1.  Characterization of Circulating and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients With Extreme-Duration Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2193-2201.
OBJECTIVE
We characterized and correlated endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) with lack of vascular complications in the Joslin Medalist Study in patients with type 1 diabetes for 50 years or longer.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
EPC and CPC levels were ascertained by flow cytometry and compared among Medalists (n = 172) with or without diabetic retinopathy (DR; n = 84 of 162), neuropathy (n = 94 of 165), diabetic nephropathy (DN; n = 18 of 172), cardiovascular disease (CVD; n = 63 of 168), age-matched controls (n = 83), type 2 diabetic patients (n = 36), and younger type 1 diabetic patients (n = 31). Mitogens, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative markers were measured in blood or urine. Migration of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Medalists and age-matched controls were compared.
RESULTS
Medalists’ EPC and CPC levels equaled those of their nondiabetic age-matched controls, were 10% higher than those in younger type 1 diabetic patients, and were 20% higher than those in age-matched type 2 diabetic patients. CPC levels were 15% higher in Medalists without CVD and nephropathy than in those affected, whereas EPC levels were significantly higher in those without peripheral vascular disease (PVD) than those with PVD. Stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) levels were higher in Medalists with CVD, DN, and DR than in those not affected and their controls. IGF-I levels were lower in Medalists and correlated inversely with CPC levels. Additionally, cultured PBMCs from Medalists migrated more than those from nondiabetic controls.
CONCLUSIONS
Normal levels of EPC and CPC in the Medalists, unlike other groups with diabetes, especially those without CVD, support the idea that endogenous factors exist to neutralize the adverse effects of metabolic abnormalities of diabetes on vascular tissues.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2547
PMCID: PMC4113171  PMID: 24780357
2.  Loss of insulin signaling in vascular endothelial cells accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice 
Cell metabolism  2010;11(5):379-389.
Summary
To determine whether insulin action on endothelial cells promotes or protects against atherosclerosis, we generated apolipoprotein E null mice in which the insulin receptor gene was intact or conditionally deleted in vascular endothelial cells. Insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, and blood pressure were not different between the two groups, but atherosclerotic lesion size was more than 2-fold higher in mice lacking endothelial insulin signaling. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was impaired and endothelial cell VCAM-1 expression was increased in these animals. Adhesion of mononuclear cells to endothelium in vivo was increased 4-fold compared with controls, but reduced to below control values by a VCAM-1 blocking antibody. These results provide definitive evidence that loss of insulin signaling in endothelium, in the absence of competing systemic risk factors, accelerates atherosclerosis. Therefore, improving insulin sensitivity in the endothelium of patients with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes may prevent cardiovascular complications.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2010.03.013
PMCID: PMC3020149  PMID: 20444418
3.  Efficacy of postural techniques assessed by videofluoroscopy for myasthenia gravis with dysphagia as the presenting symptom: a case report 
Introduction
Oropharyngeal weakness leading to dysphagia is rarely the presenting symptom of myasthenia gravis, but it can be a significant source of morbidity and mortality. The earliest possible diagnosis of myasthenia gravis should be made for better management of this cause of treatable dysphagia. A detailed evaluation of swallowing by videofluoroscopy can assist in making an accurate diagnosis and in individualizing appropriate diet compensatory techniques.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 57-year-old Taiwanese man with dysphagia as the presenting symptom of myasthenia gravis, and evaluate the pathological findings of swallowing and effectiveness of compensatory postural techniques for dysphagia using videofluoroscopy.
Conclusions
Videofluoroscopy is a valuable technique for evaluating myasthenia gravis dysphagia, because it allows swallowing interventions to be precisely individualized in accordance with the results obtained.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-370
PMCID: PMC3009659  PMID: 21087522

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