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1.  HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance-associated mutations and mutation co-variation in HIV-1 treatment-naïve MSM from 2011 to 2013 in Beijing, China 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14(1):689.
Background
Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is an important public health issue, because TDR-associated mutation may affect the outcome of antiretroviral treatment potentially or directly. Men who have sex with men (MSM) constitute a major risk group for HIV transmission. However, current reports are scarce on HIV TDR-associated mutations and their co-variation among MSM.
Methods
Blood samples from 262 newly diagnosed HIV-positive, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve MSM, were collected from January 2011 and December 2013 in Beijing. The polymerase viral genes were sequenced to explore TDR-associated mutations and mutation co-variation.
Results
A total of 223 samples were sequenced and analyzed. Among them, HIV-1 CRF01_AE are accounted for 60.5%, followed by CRF07_BC (27.8%), subtype B (9.9%), and others. Fifty-seven samples had at least one TDR-associated mutation, mainly including L10I/V (6.3%), A71L/T/V (6.3%), V179D/E (5.4%), and V106I (2.7%), with different distributions of TDR-associated mutations by different HIV-1 subtypes and by each year. Moreover, eight significant co-variation pairs were found between TDR-associated mutations (V179D/E) and seven overlapping polymorphisms in subtype CRF01_AE.
Conclusions
To date, this work consists the most comprehensive genetic characterization of HIV-1 TDR-associated mutations prevalent among MSM. It provides important information for understanding TDR and viral evolution among Chinese MSM, a population currently at particularly high risk of HIV transmission.
doi:10.1186/s12879-014-0689-7
PMCID: PMC4271504  PMID: 25510523
HIV-1; MSM; Subtypes; Transmitted drug resistance-associated mutations; Co-variation
2.  A New Generation Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor Protects Against Kainate-Induced Excitotoxicity 
Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (AEA), have been implicated in neuroprotective on-demand responses. Related to such a response to injury, an excitotoxic kainic acid (KA) injection (i.p.) was found to increase AEA levels in the brain. To modulate the endocannabinoid response during events of excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, we utilized a new generation compound (AM5206) that selectively inhibits the AEA deactivating enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). KA caused calpain-mediated spectrin breakdown, declines in synaptic markers, and disruption of neuronal integrity in cultured hippocampal slices. FAAH inhibition with AM5206 protected against the neurodegenerative cascade assessed in the slice model 24 h postinsult. In vivo, KA administration induced seizures and the same neurodegenerative events exhibited in vitro. When AM5206 was injected immediately after KA in rats, the seizure scores were markedly reduced as were levels of cytoskeletal damage and synaptic protein decline. The pre- and postsynaptic proteins were protected by the FAAH inhibitor to levels comparable to those found in healthy control brains. These data support the idea that endocannabinoids are released and converge on pro-survival pathways that prevent excitotoxic progression.
doi:10.1007/s12031-010-9472-4
PMCID: PMC4124033  PMID: 21069475
AM5206; Excitotoxicity; Endocannabinoid system; Hippocampus; Neuroprotection
3.  The Interaction of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibitors with an Anandamide Carrier Protein Using 19F-NMR 
The AAPS Journal  2013;15(2):477-482.
It has been reported that the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) binds to a class of fatty acid-binding proteins and serum albumin which can serve as carrier proteins and potentiate the cellular uptake of AEA and its intracellular translocation. Here, we employed 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the interactions of serum albumin with two inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme involved in the deactivation of anandamide. We found that, for both inhibitors AM5206 and AM5207, the primary binding site on serum albumin is drug site 1 located at subdomain IIA. Neither inhibitor binds to drug site 2. While AM5207 binds exclusively to drug site 1, AM5206 also interacts with other fatty acid-binding sites on serum albumin. Additionally, AM5206 has an affinity for serum albumin approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of AM5207. The data suggest that interactions of FAAH inhibitors with albumin may provide added advantages for their ability to modulate endocannabinoid levels for a range of applications including analgesia, antiemesis, and neuroprotection.
doi:10.1208/s12248-013-9455-9
PMCID: PMC3675727  PMID: 23344792
anandamide carrier proteins; FAAH; 19F-NMR; serum albumin
4.  Effect of Vaccination on Bordetella pertussis Strains, China 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2010;16(11):1695-1701.
Strains in China may differ from those in countries that have long histories of high vaccination coverage.
Whole-cell pertussis vaccine was introduced in China in the early 1960s. We used standard typing methods to compare 96 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected before and after introduction of vaccination, during 1953–2005. The following vaccine-type alleles of the pertussis toxin (ptx) gene were characteristic for all prevaccination strains: ptxA2, ptxA3, and ptxA4. The shift to ptxA1 occurred since 1963. All isolates collected since 1983 contained ptxA1. Pertactin (prn) allele 1, prn1, was predominant, although prn2 and prn3 have been detected since 2000. Serotypes fimbriae (Fim) 2 and Fim2,3 were found in all isolates collected before 1986. During 1997–2005, Fim3 became prevalent. Although changes in electrophoresis profiles over time were observed, the predominant profiles during 1997–2005 resembled those during the prevaccine era and those found in Europe before the 1990s. B. pertussis strains in China may differ from those in countries that have a long history of high vaccine coverage.
doi:10.3201/eid1611.100401
PMCID: PMC3294513  PMID: 21029526
China; Bordetella pertussis; whooping cough; pertussis; incidence; vaccination; genotyping; PFGE; bacteria; research

Results 1-4 (4)