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The Interaction of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibitors with an Anandamide Carrier Protein Using 19F-NMR
Nikas, Spyros P.
The AAPS Journal
It has been reported that the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) binds to a class of fatty acid-binding proteins and serum albumin which can serve as carrier proteins and potentiate the cellular uptake of AEA and its intracellular translocation. Here, we employed 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the interactions of serum albumin with two inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme involved in the deactivation of anandamide. We found that, for both inhibitors AM5206 and AM5207, the primary binding site on serum albumin is drug site 1 located at subdomain IIA. Neither inhibitor binds to drug site 2. While AM5207 binds exclusively to drug site 1, AM5206 also interacts with other fatty acid-binding sites on serum albumin. Additionally, AM5206 has an affinity for serum albumin approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of AM5207. The data suggest that interactions of FAAH inhibitors with albumin may provide added advantages for their ability to modulate endocannabinoid levels for a range of applications including analgesia, antiemesis, and neuroprotection.
anandamide carrier proteins; FAAH; 19F-NMR; serum albumin
Effect of Vaccination on Bordetella pertussis Strains, China
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Strains in China may differ from those in countries that have long histories of high vaccination coverage.
Whole-cell pertussis vaccine was introduced in China in the early 1960s. We used standard typing methods to compare 96 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected before and after introduction of vaccination, during 1953–2005. The following vaccine-type alleles of the pertussis toxin (ptx) gene were characteristic for all prevaccination strains: ptxA2, ptxA3, and ptxA4. The shift to ptxA1 occurred since 1963. All isolates collected since 1983 contained ptxA1. Pertactin (prn) allele 1, prn1, was predominant, although prn2 and prn3 have been detected since 2000. Serotypes fimbriae (Fim) 2 and Fim2,3 were found in all isolates collected before 1986. During 1997–2005, Fim3 became prevalent. Although changes in electrophoresis profiles over time were observed, the predominant profiles during 1997–2005 resembled those during the prevaccine era and those found in Europe before the 1990s. B. pertussis strains in China may differ from those in countries that have a long history of high vaccine coverage.
China; Bordetella pertussis; whooping cough; pertussis; incidence; vaccination; genotyping; PFGE; bacteria; research
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