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author:("Wang, yunzhi")
1.  Empty Virions In AAV8 Vector Preparations Reduce Transduction Efficiency And May Cause Total Viral Particle Dose-Limiting Side-Effects 
Empty virions are inadvertent by-products of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) packaging process, resulting in vector lots with mixtures of full and empty virions at variable ratios. Impact of empty virions on the efficiency and side-effects of rAAV transduction has not been well characterized. Here, we generated partially and completely empty AAV8 virions, fully packaged rAAV8 lots as well as mixtures of empty and fully packaged virions with variable ratios of empty virions (REVs). The aforementioned dosing formulations of rAAV8 expressing either cellular (EGFP or nuclear-targeted (n) LacZ) or secreted (human α1-antitrypsin, hA1AT) reporter genes were intravenously injected into two different mouse strains, followed by analyses of transgene expressions and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at different time points. We found that addition of empty particles to the fixed doses of rAAV8 preparations repressed liver transduction up to 64% (serum hA1AT) and 44% (nLacZ) in C57BL/6 mice, respectively. The similar trend in inhibiting EGFP expression together with concurrent elevations of serum ATL levels were observed in the BALB/c mice, indicating that empty particles may also exacerbate side-effects of rAAV8EGFP transduction. Our results suggest that removal of empty particles from rAAV preparations may improve efficacy and safety of AAV in clinical applications.
doi:10.1038/mtm.2013.9
PMCID: PMC4255953  PMID: 25485285
rAAV; empty virions; liver gene transfer; side-effect
2.  SiO and CH3OH mega-masers in NGC 1068 
Nature Communications  2014;5:5449.
Maser is an acronym for microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; in astronomy mega-masers are masers in galaxies that are ≥106 times more luminous than typical galactic maser sources. Observational studies of mega-masers can help us to understand their origins and characteristics. More importantly, mega-masers can be used as diagnostic tracers to probe the physical properties of their parent galaxies. Since the late 1970s, only three types of molecules have been found to form mega-masers: H2O, OH and H2CO. Here we report the detection of both SiO and CH3OH mega-masers near the centre of Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 at millimetre wavelengths, obtained using the IRAM 30-m telescope. We argue that the SiO mega-maser originated from the nuclear disk and the CH3OH mega-maser originated from shock fronts. High-resolution observations in the future will enable us to investigate AGN feedback and determine the masses of central supermassive black holes in such galaxies.
Astrophysical masers are interstellar sources of stimulated spectral line emission, with most SiO masers in the Milky Way existing around evolved stars. Here, Wang et al. report detections of millimetre SiO and Class I CH3OH mega-masers in NGC 1068.
doi:10.1038/ncomms6449
PMCID: PMC4241987  PMID: 25386834
3.  EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children 
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in Taiwan and in Singapore. Results from those clinical trials have indicated high safety and immunogenicity of EV71 vaccine. Protective efficacies were over 90% on EV71-associated HFMD and over 80% on other EV71-associated diseases. In this paper, we summarize the results from three EV71 vaccine Phase III clinical trials and discuss the challenges of incorporating EV71 vaccine into Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in countries with EV71 epidemics.
doi:10.1038/cti.2014.24
PMCID: PMC4237031  PMID: 25505956
4.  Regulatory science accelerates the development of biotechnology drugs and vaccines by NIFDC 
The Chinese National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC) is the national laboratory responsible for the quality control of pharmaceutical products. In recent years, to ensure the quality of biological products and improve the research and development (R&D) of new biological drugs and vaccines, NIFDC conducted a series of regulatory science studies on key technologies for quality control and evaluation, and established a quality control and evaluation platform for biological drugs and vaccines. These studies accelerated the R&D of the biological drugs and vaccines in China and assured their safety and efficacy. In this paper, NIFDC's duties and achievements in the biological drug and vaccine field are summarized.
doi:10.1038/emi.2014.66
PMCID: PMC4185363
biotechnology drug; quality control; vaccine
5.  Molecular mechanism of SCARB2-mediated attachment and uncoating of EV71 
Protein & Cell  2014;5(9):692-703.
Unlike the well-established picture for the entry of enveloped viruses, the mechanism of cellular entry of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses remains largely mysterious. Picornaviruses are representative models for such viruses, and initiate this entry process by their functional receptors. Here we present the structural and functional studies of SCARB2, a functional receptor of the important human enterovirus 71 (EV71). SCARB2 is responsible for attachment as well as uncoating of EV71. Differences in the structures of SCARB2 under neutral and acidic conditions reveal that SCARB2 undergoes a pivotal pH-dependent conformational change which opens a lipid-transfer tunnel to mediate the expulsion of a hydrophobic pocket factor from the virion, a pre-requisite for uncoating. We have also identified the key residues essential for attachment to SCARB2, identifying the canyon region of EV71 as mediating the receptor interaction. Together these results provide a clear understanding of cellular attachment and initiation of uncoating for enteroviruses.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13238-014-0087-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s13238-014-0087-3
PMCID: PMC4145081  PMID: 24986489
viral entry; uncoating; picornaviruses; receptor binding; SCARB2; EV71; lipid transfer tunnel
6.  Molecular mechanism of SCARB2-mediated attachment and uncoating of EV71 
Protein & Cell  2014;5(9):692-703.
Unlike the well-established picture for the entry of enveloped viruses, the mechanism of cellular entry of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses remains largely mysterious. Picornaviruses are representative models for such viruses, and initiate this entry process by their functional receptors. Here we present the structural and functional studies of SCARB2, a functional receptor of the important human enterovirus 71 (EV71). SCARB2 is responsible for attachment as well as uncoating of EV71. Differences in the structures of SCARB2 under neutral and acidic conditions reveal that SCARB2 undergoes a pivotal pH-dependent conformational change which opens a lipid-transfer tunnel to mediate the expulsion of a hydrophobic pocket factor from the virion, a pre-requisite for uncoating. We have also identified the key residues essential for attachment to SCARB2, identifying the canyon region of EV71 as mediating the receptor interaction. Together these results provide a clear understanding of cellular attachment and initiation of uncoating for enteroviruses.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13238-014-0087-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s13238-014-0087-3
PMCID: PMC4145081  PMID: 24986489
viral entry; uncoating; picornaviruses; receptor binding; SCARB2; EV71; lipid transfer tunnel
8.  Confocal microscopy study of pertussis toxin and toxoids on CHO-cells 
Pertussis toxin in its detoxified form is a major component of all current acellular pertussis vaccines. Here we report the membrane translocation and internalization activities of pertussis toxin and various pertussis toxoids using Chinese hamster ovary cells and confocal microscopy based on indirect immunofluorescence labeling. Chemically detoxified pertussis toxoids were able to translocate/internalize into cells at the concentration about 1,000 times higher than the native toxin. Pertussis toxoids detoxified with different procedures (glutaraldehyde, glutaraldehyde plus formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide or genetic mutation) showed differences in fluorescence intensity under the same condition, indicating toxoids from different detoxification methods may have different translocation/internalization activities on cells.
doi:10.4161/hv.22795
PMCID: PMC3859756  PMID: 23291938
CHO cells; confocal microscopy; detoxification; pertussis toxin; toxoid; translocation
9.  Development of a Vero cell DNA reference standard for residual DNA measurement in China 
This collaborative study developed a Vero cell DNA reference for standardizing dot blot hybridization, an assay widely employed to measure residual DNA contents of viral vaccines prepared with Vero cells. High purity of Vero cell DNA was extracted and characterized by Hind III enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. Then, with a cooperative calibration, the concentration of Vero cell DNA reference bulk solution was determined (64.0 ± 1.9 μg/mL, OD260/OD280 = 1.87) and diluted (40 ng/mL) with Tris-EDTA buffer containing bovine serum albumin as freeze-dried excipients. With industrial filling apparatus, the diluted bulk was loaded into ampoules (0.5 mL each) which were heat sealed after nitrogen filling. Finally, a collaborative study showed that the Vero cell DNA reference could reach a sensitivity of 1 to 5 pg/dot and maintained good stability after accelerated destruction test. The successful establishment of the Vero cell DNA quantitative reference will facilitate the standardization of dot blot hybridization for testing residual host cell DNA.
doi:10.4161/hv.22699
PMCID: PMC3859766  PMID: 23291952
Vero cell genomic DNA; quantitative reference standard; dot blot; standardization
10.  Novaferon, a novel recombinant protein produced by DNA-shuffling of IFN-α, shows antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo 
Objective
A recombinant antitumor/antiviral protein (Novaferon, Nova) is a new type of interferon, which is produced by artificial design technology combining DNA-shuffling and High Throughput Screening (HTS).
Methods
The in vitro biological activities, such as anti-tumor activity and antiviral activity of Nova and recombinant human interferon alpha-2b (rhIFN-α2b) was performed; in vivo anti-tumor activity in nude mice was also tested. Flow cytometry, histo-pathological analysis including HE staining and immunohistochemistry, and surface plasmon resonance assay were performed to investigate the underlying mechanisms analysis.
Results
Nova exhibited stronger anti-cancer effects compared to rhIFN-α2b in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor mechanisms of Nova may be related to S phase arrest, pro-apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Moreover, Nova exhibited a higher binding affinity for IFN receptor 2 (IFNR2) than rhIFN-α2b, which is one of the possible reasons accounting for its stronger actions against tumor cells compared with rhIFN-α2b.
Conclusion
Nova has strong antitumor activity and could be a potentially effective therapeutic drug for cancer.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-14-8
PMCID: PMC3976097  PMID: 24467885
Novaferon; Recombinant interferon-α protein; Anti-cancer; in vivo; IFN receptor 2
11.  The Cross-Neutralizing Activity of Enterovirus 71 Subgenotype C4 Vaccines in Healthy Chinese Infants and Children 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79599.
Background
EV71 is one of major etiologic causes of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and leads to severe neurological complications in young children and infants. Recently inactivated EV71 vaccines have been developed by five manufactures and clinically show good safety and immunogenicity. However, the cross-neutralizing activity of these vaccines remains unclear, and is of particular interest because RNA recombination is seen more frequently in EV71 epidemics.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In this post-hoc study, sera from a subset of 119 infants and children in two clinical trials of EV71 subgenotype C4 vaccines (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01313715 and NCT01273246), were detected for neutralizing antibody (NTAb) titres with sera from infected patients as controls. Cytopathogenic effect method was employed to test NTAb against EV71 subgenotype B4, B5, C2, C4 and C5, which were prominent epidemic strains worldwide over the past decade. To validate the accuracy of the results, ELISpot assay was employed in parallel to detect NTAb in all the post-vaccine sera. After two-dose vaccination, 49 out of 53 participants in initially seronegative group and 52 out of 53 participants in initially seropositive group showed less than 4-fold differences in NTAb titers against five EV71 strains, whereas corresponding values among sera from pediatric patients recovering from EV71-induced HFMD and subclinically infected participants were 8/8 and 41/43, respectively. The geometric mean titers of participants against five subgenotypes EV71 all grew significantly after vaccinations, irrespective of the baseline NTAb titer. The relative fold increase in antibody titers (NTAb-FI) against B4, B5, C2, and C5 displayed a positive correlation to the NTAb-FI against C4.
Conclusions/Significance
The results demonstrated broad cross-neutralizing activity induced by two C4 EV71 vaccines in healthy Chinese infants and children. However, the degree of induced cross-protective immunity, and the potential escape evolution for EV71 still need to be monitored and researched in future for these new vaccines.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079599
PMCID: PMC3834186  PMID: 24260259
12.  Development of a Reference Standard of Escherichia coli DNA for Residual DNA Determination in China 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74166.
This collaborative study developed the first national Escherichia coli (E. coli) DNA reference standard for standardizing quantitative residual DNA assay methods, fluorescence dye (PicoGreen) and quantitative PCR (q-PCR), which were widely employed to measure residual DNA contents of prokaryotic-derived recombinant products. High purity of E. coli strain BL21 was extracted by the cetyl triethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)/phenol chloroform method, analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry and electrophoresis, diluted with tris-EDTA (TE) buffer and manually dispensed. Then, with a cooperative calibration among six laboratories, including five manufacturers and one national control laboratory, the concentration of E. coli DNA standard solution was determined as 96.2 μg/mL (95% C.I: 95.5–96.9 μg/mL, CV 3.4%). The candidate showed excellent stability both from accelerated degradation study and real time stability study. The applicability study showed that the E. coli DNA reference could reach the sensitivity of 0.781 ng/mL and 1 fg/μL, respectively, in fluorescent dye and q-PCR assay, and also had good linearity and precision. The consistency of the reference could meet the requirements of the national reference standard. As a conclusion, the candidate material was suitable to serve as a China national standard for E. coli residual DNA determination. The successful establishment of the E. coli DNA standard will facilitate the standardization of quantitative methods for testing residual host cell DNA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074166
PMCID: PMC3783418  PMID: 24086318
13.  Development and Evaluation of a Pseudovirus-Luciferase Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Neutralizing Antibodies against Enterovirus 71 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e64116.
The level of neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) induced by vaccine inoculation is an important endpoint to evaluate the efficacy of EV71 vaccine. In order to evaluate the efficacy of EV71 vaccine, here, we reported the development of a novel pseudovirus system expression firefly luciferase (PVLA) for the quantitative measurement of NtAb. We first evaluated and validated the sensitivity and specificity of the PVLA method. A total of 326 serum samples from an epidemiological survey and 144 serum specimens from 3 clinical trials of EV71 vaccines were used, and the level of each specimen's neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) was measured in parallel using both the conventional CPE-based and PVLA-based assay. Against the standard neutralization assay based on the inhibition of the cytopathic effect (CPE), the sensitivity and specificity of the PVLA method are 98% and 96%, respectively. Then, we tested the potential interference of NtAb against hepatitis A virus, Polio-I, Polio-II, and Polio-III standard antisera (WHO) and goat anti-G10/CA16 serum, the PVLA based assay showed no cross-reactivity with NtAb against other specific sera. Importantly, unlike CPE based method, no live replication-competent EV71 is used during the measurement. Taken together, PVLA is a rapid and specific assay with higher sensitivity and accuracy. It could serve as a valuable tool in assessing the efficacy of EV71 vaccines in clinical trials and disease surveillance in epidemiology studies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064116
PMCID: PMC3673970  PMID: 23755115
14.  TRAIL and proteasome inhibitors combination induces a robust apoptosis in human malignant pleural mesothelioma cells through Mcl-1 and Akt protein cleavages 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:140.
Background
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignancy closely associated with asbestos exposure and extremely resistant to current treatments. It exhibits a steady increase in incidence, thus necessitating an urgent development of effective new treatments.
Methods
Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) and TNFα-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL), have emerged as promising new anti-MPM agents. To develop effective new treatments, the proapoptotic effects of PIs, MG132 or Bortezomib, and TRAIL were investigated in MPM cell lines NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452 and NCI-H28, which represent three major histological types of human MPM.
Results
Treatment with 0.5-1 μM MG132 alone or 30 ng/mL Bortezomib alone induced a limited apoptosis in MPM cells associated with the elevated Mcl-1 protein level and hyperactive PI3K/Akt signaling. However, whereas 10–20 ng/ml TRAIL alone induced a limited apoptosis as well, TRAIL and PI combination triggered a robust apoptosis in all three MPM cell lines. The robust proapoptotic activity was found to be the consequence of a positive feedback mechanism-governed amplification of caspase activation and cleavage of both Mcl-1 and Akt proteins, and exhibited a relative selectivity in MPM cells than in non-tumorigenic Met-5A mesothelial cells.
Conclusion
The combinatorial treatment using TRAIL and PI may represent an effective new treatment for MPMs.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-140
PMCID: PMC3665596  PMID: 23517112
Malignant pleural mesothelioma; Apoptosis; Trail; Proteasome inhibitor; Mcl-1; Akt
15.  A Novel Synthetic Receptor-Based Immunoassay for Influenza Vaccine Quantification 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55428.
Vaccination is the most effective prophylactic method for preventing influenza. Quantification of influenza vaccine antigens is critically important before the vaccine is used for human immunization. Currently the vaccine antigen quantification relies on hemagglutinin content quantification, the key antigenic component, by single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay. Due to the inherent disadvantages associated with the traditional SRID; i.e. low sensitivity, low throughput and need for annual reagents, several approaches have been proposed and investigated as alternatives. Yet, most alternative methods cannot distinguish native hemagglutinin from denatured form, making them less relevant to antigenic analyses. Here, we developed a quantitative immunoassay based on the sialic acid binding property of influenza vaccine antigens. Specifically, we chemically synthesized human and avian influenza virus receptors analogues, N-acetylneuraminic acid-2,6-lactose and N-acetylneuraminic acid-2,3-lactose derivatives with an azidopropyl aglycon, using α-2,6- and α-2,3-sialyltransferases, respectively. The azido group of the two sialyllactose-derivatives was reduced and conjugated to mouse serum albumin through a squarate linkage. We showed that the synthetic α-2,6- and α-2,3-receptors selectively bound to human and avian-derived hemagglutinins, respectively, forming the basis of a new, and robust assay for hemagglutinin quantification. Hemagglutinin treated at high temperature or low pH was measured differentially to untreated samples suggesting native conformation is dependent for optimal binding. Importantly, this receptor-based immunoassay showed excellent specificity and reproducibility, high precision, less turnaround time and significantly higher sensitivity and throughput compared with SRID in analyzing multiple influenza vaccines.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055428
PMCID: PMC3570553  PMID: 23424631
16.  Correlation of Viral Loads with HCV Genotypes: Higher Levels of Virus Were Revealed among Blood Donors Infected with 6a Strains 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e52467.
Background
Both HCV genotypes and viral loads are predictors of therapeutic outcomes among patients treated with α-interferon plus ribavirin; however, such correlation has only been studied for genotypes 1, 2, and 3 but not for genotype 6.
Methodology/Findings
299 voluntary blood donors were recruited who were HCV viremic. Their mean age was 31.8; the male/female ratio was 3.82 (225/59). The viral loads of HCV were measured using the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan test (CAP/CTM) while HCV genotypes were determined by direct sequencing the partial NS5B region. HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 6 were determined in 48.9%, 8.7%, 12.3%, and 30.1% of the donors, respectively, and the levels of mean viral loads in genotype 1 and 6 significantly higher than that of 2 and 3 (P<0.001). As a whole, the viral loads in male donors were higher than in female (P = 0.006). Moreover, the donors' gender and HCV genotypes are independently correlated with the measured viral loads.
Conclusion
HCV genotype 1 and 6 had significantly higher viral loads than genotype 2 and 3.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052467
PMCID: PMC3524124  PMID: 23285053
17.  A Novel Bioassay for the Activity Determination of Therapeutic Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e49934.
Background
Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) is an important peptide-based therapeutic drug indicated for the treatment of acute heart failure. Accurate determination of the potency of therapeutic rhBNP is crucial for the safety and efficacy of the drug. The current bioassay involves use of rabbit aortic strips, with experiments being complicated and time-consuming and markedly variable in results. Animal-less methods with better precision and accuracy should be explored. We have therefore developed an alternative cell-based assay, which relies on the ability of BNP to induce cGMP production in HEK293 cells expressing BNP receptor guanylyl cyclase-A.
Methodology/Principal Findings
An alternative assay based on the measurement of BNP-induced cGMP production was developed. Specifically, the bioassay employs cells engineered to express BNP receptor guanylyl cyclase-A (GCA). Upon rhBNP stimulation, the levels of the second messager cGMP in these cells drastically increased and subsequently secreted into culture supernatants. The quantity of cGMP, which corresponds to the rhBNP activity, was determined using a competitive ELISA developed by us. Compared with the traditional assay, the novel cell-based assay demonstrated better reproducibility and precision.
Conclusion/Significance
The optimized cell-based assay is much simpler, more rapid and precise compared with the traditional assay using animal tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a novel and viable alternative assay for rhBNP potency analysis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049934
PMCID: PMC3501489  PMID: 23185490
18.  A Neonatal Mouse Model of Coxsackievirus A16 for Vaccine Evaluation 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(22):11967-11976.
To evaluate vaccine efficacy in protecting against coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), which causes human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), we established the first neonatal mouse model. In this article, we report data concerning CA16-induced pathological changes, and we demonstrate that anti-CA16 antibody can protect mice against lethal challenge and that the neonatal mouse model could be used to evaluate vaccine efficacy. To establish a mouse model, a BJCA08/CA16 strain (at 260 50% lethal doses [LD50]) was isolated from a patient and used to intracerebrally (i.c.) inoculate neonatal mice. The infection resulted in wasting, hind-limb paralysis, and even death. Pathological examination and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining indicated that BJCA08 had a strong tropism to muscle and caused severe necrosis in skeletal and cardiac muscles. We then found that BJCA08 pretreated with goat anti-G10/CA16 serum could significantly lose its lethal effect in neonatal mice. When the anti-G10 serum was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected into the neonatal mice and, within 1 h, the same mice were intracerebrally inoculated with BJCA08, there was significant passive immunization protection. In a separate experiment, female mice were immunized with formaldehyde-inactivated G10/CA16 and BJCA08/CA16 and then allowed to mate 1 h after the first immunization. We found that there was significant protection against BJCA08 for neonatal mice born to the immunized dams. These data demonstrated that anti-CA16 antibody may block virus invasion and protect mice against lethal challenge, and that the neonatal mouse model was a viable tool for evaluating vaccine efficacy.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00902-12
PMCID: PMC3486452  PMID: 22951825
19.  Current status and considerations on biosimilar in China 
Journal of Translational Medicine  2012;10(Suppl 2):A38.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-10-S2-A38
PMCID: PMC3479963
20.  A sensor-adaptor mechanism for enterovirus uncoating from structures of EV71 
Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children, can cause severe central nervous system disease and mortality. At present no vaccine or antiviral therapy is available. We have determined high-resolution structures for the mature virus and natural empty particles. The structure of the mature virus is similar to that of other enteroviruses, whilst the empty particles are dramatically expanded, with notable fissures, resembling elusive enterovirus uncoating intermediates not previously characterized in atomic detail. Hydrophobic capsid pockets within the EV71 capsid are collapsed in this expanded particle, providing a detailed explanation of the mechanism for receptor-binding triggered virus uncoating. The results provide a paradigm for enterovirus uncoating, in which the VP1 GH loop acts as an adaptor-sensor for the attachment of cellular receptors, converting heterologous inputs to a generic uncoating mechanism, spotlighting novel points for therapeutic intervention.
doi:10.1038/nsmb.2255
PMCID: PMC3378640  PMID: 22388738
21.  Comparative Analysis of the Immunogenicity and Protective Effects of Inactivated EV71 Vaccines in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e46043.
Background
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines of different strains developed by different manufacturers in mainland China have recently entered clinical trials. Although several studies on these vaccines have been published, a study directly comparing the immunogenicity and protective effects among them has not been carried out, which makes evaluating their relative effectiveness difficult. Thus, properly comparing newly developed vaccines has become a priority, especially in China.
Methods and Findings
This comparative immunogenicity study was carried out on vaccine strains (both live and inactivated), final container products (FCPs) without adjuvant, and corresponding FCPs containing adjuvant (FCP-As) produced by three manufacturers. These vaccines were evaluated by neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses induced by the same or different dosages at one or multiple time points post-immunization. The protective efficacy of the three vaccines was also determined in one-day-old ICR mice born to immunized female mice. Survival rates were observed in these suckling mice after challenge with 20 LD50 of EV71/048M3C2. Three FCP-As, in a dose of 200 U, generated nearly 100% NAb positivity rates and similar geometric mean titers (GMTs), especially at 14–21 days post-inoculation. However, the dynamic NAb responses were different among three vaccine strains or three FCPs. The FCP-As at the lowest dose used in clinical trials (162 U) showed good protective effects in suckling mice against lethal challenge (90–100% survival), while the ED50 of NAb responses and protective effects varied among three FCP-As.
Conclusions
These studies establish a standard method for measuring the immunogenicity of EV71 vaccines in mice. The data generated from our mouse model study indicated a clear dose-response relationship, which is important for vaccine quality control and assessment, especially for predicting protective efficacy in humans when combined with future clinical trial results.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046043
PMCID: PMC3460965  PMID: 23029378
22.  (2S*,3S*,3aS*,6S*,7aR*)-3-Hy­droxy-2-[(2R*,3S*)-3-isopropyl­oxiran-2-yl]-3,6-dimethyl-3,3a,5,6,7,7a-hexa­hydro-1-benzofuran-4(2H)-one 
In the title compound, C15H24O4, the six-membered ring shows a distorted chair conformation and the five-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation with the C atom bearing the methyl and OH groups as the flap. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into chains running along the a-axis direction.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812038470
PMCID: PMC3470321  PMID: 23125734
23.  Complete Genome Sequence of Bordetella pertussis CS, a Chinese Pertussis Vaccine Strain ▿  
Journal of Bacteriology  2011;193(15):4017-4018.
Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of pertussis. Here, we report the genome sequence of Bordetella pertussis strain CS, isolated from an infant patient in Beijing and widely used as a vaccine strain for production of an acellular pertussis vaccine in China.
doi:10.1128/JB.05184-11
PMCID: PMC3147532  PMID: 21622744
24.  Clinical implications and characteristics of factor forkhead box protein 3 in gastric cancer 
Transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) is a specific marker of naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs). Recently, various reports have suggested that FOXP3 may represent a tumor escape mechanism in cancer cells apart from its roles in Tregs. In the present study, the clinical and biological characteristics of FOXP3 were evaluated in human gastric cancer. The expression and localization of FOXP3 in gastric cancer cell lines was analyzed to evaluate its cellular biological features. Sections of human gastric cancer specimens were stained using immunohistochemistry (IHC) to assess the relationship between FOXP3 expression and tumor differentiation, in order to identify its clinical characteristics in gastric cancer. Expression of FOXP3 mRNA and protein was found in four gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, SGC-7901, MKN-28 and MKN-45). IHC of the gastric cancer sections revealed that more than 56% of gastric cancers displayed nuclear or cytoplasmic FOXP3 staining. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the differentiation of the gastric cancer tissues and FOXP3 expression intensity was shown. IHC and confocal analysis showed that the expression of FOXP3 was mainly present in the nucleus of tumor cells in the tissues and cell lines. Thus, FOXP3 nuclear staining may be associated with the risk of poor tumor differentiation. Apart from the lymphocytes, no FOXP3 staining was noted in the normal gastric tissues and para-tumor tissues. The high frequency of FOXP3 expression in gastric cancer tissue is a significant finding in the investigation of tumor differentiation and immune escape. This mechanism provides a further understanding of gastric cancer and a novel therapeutic strategy is presented.
doi:10.3892/etm.2011.264
PMCID: PMC3440724  PMID: 22977558
factor forkhead box protein 3; gastric cancer; tumor differentiation; immunohistochemistry
25.  Bioactivity Determination of Native and Variant Forms of Therapeutic Interferons 
The traditional antiviral assays for the determination of interferon potency are reported to have considerable variability between and within assays. Although several reporter gene assays based on interferon-inducible promoter activities have been reported, data from comprehensive validation studies are lacking and few studies have been conducted to analyze the variant forms of interferons, which could have undesirable clinical implications. Here, a reporter gene assay employing a HEK293 cell line stably transfected with luciferase gene under the control of interferon-stimulated response element promoter was developed and validated. The assay was found to be more sensitive, with a larger detection range than the antiviral assay. Several cytokines tested did not interfere with the test, suggesting the assay possesses a certain degree of selectivity. Moreover, the robustness of the assay was demonstrated by minimal variations in the results generated by different analysts and cell passage number (up to 52 passages). Finally, the method was employed to analyze several interferon variants (interferon-α 2a) and we found that the aggregated form has completely lost its potency; while a modest loss of bioactivity in oxidized interferon was observed (approx. 23%), the deamidated form essentially retained its activity.
doi:10.1155/2011/174615
PMCID: PMC3051158  PMID: 21403871

Results 1-25 (28)