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1.  Prevalence and Characterization of Human Shigella Infections in Henan Province, China, in 2006 ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;49(1):232-242.
In 2006, 3,531 fecal samples were collected from patients with diarrhea in Henan Province, China. A total of 467 (13.2%) Shigella strains were isolated and serotyped. Seventy-one Shigella flexneri strains were characterized by MIC determination, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and detection of genes encoding cephalosporin resistance. Most infections were caused by S. flexneri variant X [IV:(7),8] (27.6%), S. sonnei (24.2%), and S. flexneri 2a (20.8%). However, large regional differences were observed. Significantly higher odds (2.0) of females compared to males were infected with S. flexneri 2a. Untypeable S. flexneri (−:6) isolates were absent among males, as were untypeable S. flexneri [I:(7),8] isolates among females. Patient ages ranged from 2 months to 82 years, with 231 subjects (49.7%) <5 years of age. Most of the patients were male (62.1% [n = 290]). Infections peaked in July; week 27 with 38 cases (8.1%). All of the 71 S. flexneri conferred resistance to nalidixic acid; in addition, 21% (n = 15) and 79% (n = 56) were high- and low-level resistant to ciprofloxacin, respectively. Six S. flexneri isolates {serotype 2b [II:7,(8)] and 2b [II:(3),4;7,(8)]} harbored the blaCTX-M-14 or blaCTX-M-15 gene. A total of 52 unique XbaI PFGE patterns were observed among the 71 S. flexneri isolates with 11 distinct PFGE clusters. This study revealed a high prevalence of shigellosis with geographical differences in the distribution of serotypes in the distribution of serotypes and also differences in comparisons by gender. A high frequency of resistance, including 100% resistance to ciprofloxacin and resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, was observed. We detected several isolates exhibiting the same PFGE type and MIC profile, indicating multiple undetected outbreaks.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01508-10
PMCID: PMC3020427  PMID: 21068291
2.  Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella Isolates from Infections in Humans in Henan Province, China▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;47(2):401-409.
We characterized 208 human Salmonella isolates from 2006 to 2007 and 27 human Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from 1987 to 1993 from Henan Province, China, by serotyping, by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and, for the most common serovars, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The most common serovars among the 2006-2007 isolates were S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (27%), S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (17%), S. enterica serovar Derby (10%), S. enterica serovar Indiana (6%), and S. enterica serovar Litchfield (6%). A high percentage of the isolates were multiple-drug resistant, and 54% were resistant to both nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Of these, 42% were resistant to a high level of ciprofloxacin (MIC > 4 μg/ml), whereas for the remaining isolates, the MICs ranged from 0.125 to 2 μg/ml. Five isolates (2%) were ceftiofur resistant and harbored blaCTX-M14 or blaCTX-M15. With the possible exception of the quinolones and cephalosporins, the 1987-1993 S. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates were almost as resistant as the recent isolates. PFGE typing of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium showed that the most common cluster predominated over time. Two other clusters have emerged, and another cluster has disappeared.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01099-08
PMCID: PMC2643658  PMID: 19073874
3.  Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium, China 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2008;14(3):493-495.
We characterized 44 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from Tongji Hospital outpatients in Wuhan, China, May 2002–October 2005. All 31 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates were also resistant to >8 other antimicrobial drugs and carried >2 mutations in GyrA and 1 mutation in ParC. Class 1 integrons were identified in 37 isolates.
doi:10.3201/eid1403.070857
PMCID: PMC2570801  PMID: 18325271
Salmonella Typhimurium; outpatients; ciprofloxacin; resistance; dispatch

Results 1-3 (3)