Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) is an important pome with a long history as a fruit, an ornamental, and a source of medicine. Fruits of hawthorn are marked by hard stony endocarps, but a hawthorn germplasm with soft and thin endocarp was found in Liaoning province of China. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the soft endocarp of hawthorn, we conducted a de novo assembly of the fruit transcriptome of Crataegus pinnatifida and compared gene expression profiles between the soft-endocarp and the hard-endocarp hawthorn varieties. De novo assembly yielded 52,673 putative unigenes, 20.4% of which are longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 35,979 (68.3%) had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 1,218 genes, represented 2.31% total putative unigenes, were differentially expressed between the soft-endocarp hawthorn and the hard-endocarp hawthorn. Among these differentially expressed genes, a number of lignin biosynthetic pathway genes were down-regulated while almost all the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes were strongly up-regulated, concomitant with the formation of soft endocarp. In addition, we have identified some MYB and NAC transcription factors that could potentially control lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis. The altered expression levels of the genes encoding lignin biosynthetic enzymes, MYB and NAC transcription factors were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This is the first transcriptome analysis of Crataegus genus. The high quality ESTs generated in this study will aid future gene cloning from hawthorn. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying soft endocarp formation in hawthorn.
The DEK protein is related to chromatin reconstruction and gene transcription, and plays an important role in cell apoptosis. High expression levels of the human DEK gene have been correlated with numerous human malignancies. This study explores the roles of DEK in tumor progression and as a prognostic determinant of colorectal cancer.
Colorectal cancer specimens from 109 patients with strict follow-up, and colorectal adenomas from 52 patients were selected for analysis of DEK protein by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between DEK over expression and the clinicopathological features of colorectal cancers were evaluated by Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact tests. The survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the relationship between prognostic factors and patient survival was also analyzed by the Cox proportional hazard models.
DEK protein showed a nuclear immunohistochemical staining pattern in colorectal cancers. The strongly positive rate of DEK protein was 48.62% (53/109) in colorectal cancers, which was significantly higher than that in either adjacent normal colon mucosa (9.17%, 10/109) or colorectal adenomas (13.46%, 7/52). DEK over expression in colorectal cancers was positively correlated with tumor size, grade, lymph node metastasis, serosal invasion, late stage, and disease-free survival- and 5-year survival rates. Further analysis showed that patients with late stage colorectal cancer and high DEK expression had worse survival rates than those with low DEK expression. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed high DEK expression, serosal invasion, and late stage are significant independent risk factors for mortality in colorectal cancer.
DEK plays an important role in the progression of colorectal cancers and it is an independent poor prognostic factor of colorectal cancers.
Colorectal cancer; DEK; Immunohistochemistry; Survival analysis
In Chinese medicine, Xiexin decoction (XXD) has been used for the clinical treatment of diabetes for at least 1700 years. The present study was conducted to investigate the effective ingredients of XXD and their molecular mechanisms of antidiabetic nephropathy in rats. Rats with diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin were treated with XXD extract for 12 weeks. XXD significantly improved the glucolipid metabolism disorder, attenuated albuminuria and renal pathological changes, reduced renal advanced glycation end-products, inhibited receptor for advanced glycation end-product and inflammation factors expression, suppressed renal nuclear factor-κB pathway activity, and downregulated renal transforming growth factor-β1. The concentrations of multiple components in plasma from XXD were determined by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis using partial least square regression revealed that 8 ingredients of XXD were responsible for renal protective effects via actions on multiple molecular targets. Our study suggests that the renal protective role of XXD with multiple effective ingredients involves inhibition of inflammation through downregulation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway, reducing renal advanced glycation end-products and receptor for advanced glycation end-product in diabetic rats.
The external application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in photodynamic therapy (PDT) results in a shallow penetration depth in thick or extensive condylomata acuminata (CA) lesions, thus demonstrating a poor therapeutic effect for those patients. To compare the efficacy of needle-free injection with external application of ALA in PDT for the treatment of CA, 160 CA patients with thick or extensive warts received ALA-PDT by means of external application or needle-free injection of ALA, respectively. The complete response (CR) rate and recurrence rate in the two groups were analyzed. The CR rate after the first treatment in the needle-free injection group (68.8%) was significantly higher compared with that in the external application group (52.5%; P=0.035). The recurrence rates in the needle-free injection group and external application group were 4.1 and 15.4%, respectively (P=0.022). The needle-free injection of ALA increases the therapeutic effect of PDT for CA patients with thick or extensive lesions. It shortens the treatment time and reduces the recurrence rate, and has great potential in the treatment of CA.
condylomata acuminata; 5-aminolevulinic acid; photodynamic therapy; needle-free injection
The Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) plays essential roles in transmitting signals from multiple cytokine receptors, and constitutive activation of JAK2 results in hematopoietic disorders and oncogenesis. JAK2 kinase activity is negatively regulated by its pseudokinase domain (JH2), where the gain-of-function mutation V617F that causes myeloproliferative neoplasms resides. In the absence of a crystal structure of full-length JAK2, how JH2 inhibits the kinase domain (JH1), and how V617F hyperactivates JAK2 remain elusive. We modeled the JAK2 JH1–JH2 complex structure using a novel informatics-guided protein-protein docking strategy. A detailed JAK2 JH2-mediated auto-inhibition mechanism is proposed, where JH2 traps the activation loop of JH1 in an inactive conformation and blocks the movement of kinase αC helix through critical hydrophobic contacts and extensive electrostatic interactions. These stabilizing interactions are less favorable in JAK2-V617F. Notably, several predicted binding interfacial residues in JH2 were confirmed to hyperactivate JAK2 kinase activity in site-directed mutagenesis and BaF3/EpoR cell transformation studies. Although there may exist other JH2-mediated mechanisms to control JH1, our JH1–JH2 structural model represents a verifiable working hypothesis for further experimental studies to elucidate the role of JH2 in regulating JAK2 in both normal and pathological settings.
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential to cellular signal transduction, and structural information about PPIs is crucial for understanding of how cellular machinery functions at the atomistic level. However, both experimental structural determination and computational prediction of PPI are challenging. In the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase JAK2, a pseudokinase domain (JH2) negatively regulates kinase activity of its adjacent catalytic kinase domain (JH1). A gain-of-function mutation within JH2 is found in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, and is sufficient to cause similar diseases in murine models. Here we combined an informatics-guided protein-protein docking method with molecular dynamics simulation to construct and refine the JAK2 JH1–JH2 complex, and validated our model with mutational studies. Our modeled structure suggests that JH2 auto-inhibits JAK2 kinase activities by blocking the movements of the activation loop and the αC helix of JH1, but awaits further validation by a detailed structure of the full-length JAK2 protein.
The inverse F-BAR (IF-BAR) domain proteins srGAP1, srGAP2 and srGAP3 are implicated in neuronal development and may be linked to mental retardation, schizophrenia and seizure. A partially overlapping expression pattern and highly similar protein structures indicate a functional redundancy of srGAPs in neuronal development. Our previous study suggests that srGAP3 negatively regulates neuronal differentiation in a Rac1-dependent manner in mouse Neuro2a cells. Here we show that exogenously expressed srGAP1 and srGAP2 are sufficient to inhibit valporic acid (VPA)-induced neurite initiation and growth in the mouse Neuro2a cells. While ectopic- or over-expression of RhoGAP-defective mutants, srGAP1R542A and srGAP2R527A exert a visible inhibitory effect on neuronal differentiation. Unexpectedly, knockdown of endogenous srGAP2 fails to facilitate the neuronal differentiation induced by VPA, but promotes neurite outgrowth of differentiated cells. All three IF-BAR domains from srGAP1-3 can induce filopodia formation in Neuro2a, but the isolated IF-BAR domain from srGAP2, not from srGAP1 and srGAP3, can promote VPA-induced neurite initiation and neuronal differentiation. We identify biochemical and functional interactions of the three srGAPs family members. We propose that srGAP3-Rac1 signaling may be required for the effect of srGAP1 and srGAP2 on attenuating neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, inhibition of Slit-Robo interaction can phenocopy a loss-of-function of srGAP3, indicating that srGAP3 may be dedicated to the Slit-Robo pathway. Our results demonstrate the interplay between srGAP1, srGAP2 and srGAP3 regulates neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth. These findings may provide us new insights into the possible roles of srGAPs in neuronal development and a potential mechanism for neurodevelopmental diseases.
Colorectal cancer is one of the most serious illnesses among diagnosed cancer. As a new type of anti-cancer composition from tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil, γ-tocotrienol is widely used in anti-cancer research. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of γ-tocotrienol on human colon cancer SW620 and HCT-8 cells. We showed that treatment with different concentrations of γ-tocotrienol resulted in a dose dependent inhibition of cell growth. Cell death induced by γ-tocotrienol was mediated by a paraptosis-like cell death in SW620 and HCT-8 cells. Real-time RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that γ-tocotrienol inhibited the expression level of β-catenin, cyclin D1 and c-jun. These data suggest that a paraptosis-like cell death induced by γ-tocotrienol in SW620 cells is associated with the suppression of the Wnt signaling pathway, which offers a novel tool for treating apoptosis-resistance colon cancer.
To evaluate the efficacy of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell therapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Materials and methods
Randomized phase II and III trials on CIK cell-based therapy were identified by electronic searches using a combination of "hepatocellular carcinoma" and "cytokine-induced killer cells".
The analysis showed significant survival benefit (one-year survival, p < 0.001; two-year survival, p < 0.001; median overall survival, p < 0.001) in favor of CIK-based therapy. Comparison of CIK group versus non-CIK group resulted in a significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) (p < 0.01). A favored disease control rate (DCR) and overall response rate (ORR) were also observed in patients receiving CIK cell therapy (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, patients in the CIK group showed better quality of life (QoL), diminished HBV-DNA content and AFP level (p < 0.01). Comparing T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood, the analysis showed the ratio of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells significantly increased in the CIK group, compared with the non-CIK group (p < 0.01).
CIK cell therapy demonstrated a significant superiority in prolonging the median overall survival, PFS, DCR, ORR and QoL of HCC patients. These results support further larger scale randomized controlled trials for HCC patients with or without the combination of other therapeutic methods.
Cytokine-induced killer cells; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Clinical trial; Meta-analysis; Therapy
Down syndrome (DS), a major cause of mental retardation, is caused by trisomy of some or all of human chromosome 21 and includes three basic karyotypes: trisomy 21, translocation, and mosaicism. The derivation of DS-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides us novel DS models that can be used to determine the DS mechanism and to devise therapeutic approaches for DS patients.
In the present study, fibroblasts from patients with DS of various karyotypes were reprogrammed into iPSCs via the overexpression of four factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC, by using lentiviral vectors. The abilities of the iPSC-DS in the self-renewal and pluripotency in vitro and in vivo were then examined.
The iPSC-DS showed characteristics similar to those of human embryonic stem cells, particularly the morphology, surface marker (SSEA4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81) expression, pluripotent-specific transcription-factor expression levels, and methylation status of the OCT4 promoter. The pluripotency of iPSC-DS was also tested in vitro and in vivo. Embryoid bodies were formed and showed the expression of differentiated markers for three germ layers. Furthermore, iPSC-DS formed classic teratomas when injected into nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice.
iPSCs were generated from patients with DS. The iPSCs derived from different types of DS may be used in DS modeling, patient-care optimization, drug discovery, and eventually, autologous cell-replacement therapies.
Although myocyte cell transplantation studies have suggested a promising therapeutic potential for myocardial infarction, a major obstacle to the development of clinical therapies for myocardial repair is the difficulties associated with obtaining relatively homogeneous ventricular myocytes for transplantation. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a promising source of cardiomyocytes. Here we report that retinoid signaling regulates the fate specification of atrial versus ventricular myocytes during cardiac differentiation of hESCs. We found that both Noggin and the pan-retinoic acid receptor antagonist BMS-189453 (RAi) significantly increased the cardiac differentiation efficiency of hESCs. To investigate retinoid functions, we compared Noggin+RAi-treated cultures with Noggin+RA-treated cultures. Our results showed that the expression levels of the ventricular-specific gene IRX-4 were radically elevated in Noggin+RAi-treated cultures. MLC-2V, another ventricular-specific marker, was expressed in the majority of the cardiomyocytes in Noggin+RAi-treated cultures, but not in the cardiomyocytes of Noggin+RA-treated cultures. Flow cytometry analysis and electrophysiological studies indicated that with 64.7 ± 0.88% (mean ±s.e.m) cardiac differentiation efficiency, 83% of the cardiomyocytes in Noggin+RAi-treated cultures had embryonic ventricular-like action potentials (APs). With 50.7 ± 1.76% cardiac differentiation efficiency, 94% of the cardiomyocytes in Noggin+RA-treated cultures had embryonic atrial-like APs. These results were further confirmed by imaging studies that assessed the patterns and properties of the Ca2+ sparks of the cardiomyocytes from the two cultures. These findings demonstrate that retinoid signaling specifies the atrial versus ventricular differentiation of hESCs. This study also shows that relatively homogeneous embryonic atrial- and ventricular-like myocyte populations can be efficiently derived from hESCs by specifically regulating Noggin and retinoid signals.
human embryonic stem cell; cardiac subtype specification; heart development
To evaluate efficacy of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) to prevent mental health problems of parentally-bereaved youth and their parents six years later.
Randomized controlled trial.
Arizona State University Prevention Research from 2002 to 2005.
218 bereaved youth (89.3% of 240 enrolled in the trial six years earlier) and 113 spousally-bereaved parents.
FBP includes 12 group sessions for caregivers and youth; literature control (LC) condition includes bereavement books for youth and caregivers. .
Main Outcome Measures
Compared youth in FBP and LC on a measure of mental disorder diagnosis, five measures of mental health problems and four measures of competent functioning; compared spousally-bereaved parents on two measures of mental health problems.
Youth in FBP had significantly lower externalizing problems as reported by caregiver/youth (adjusted mean, LC = .13, FBP = −.06; p = .02) and teacher reports of externalizing problems (adjusted mean, LC = 56.27, FBP = 52.69; p = .001) and internalizing problems (adjusted mean, LC = 56.27, FBP = 47.29; p = .002) and higher self-esteem (adjusted mean, LC = 31.91, FBP = 33.93; p = .005). Parents in FBP had lower depression scores than LC (adjusted mean, LC = 7.83, FBP = 5.48; p = .04). A significant moderated program effect indicated that for youth with lower baseline problems, rate of diagnosed mental disorder was lower for FBP than LC.
Study demonstrates efficacy of the FBP to reduce mental health problems of bereaved youth and their parents six-years later.
Mammalian oocyte maturation and early embryo development processes are Ca2+-dependent. In this study, we used confocal microscopy to investigate the distribution pattern of Ca2+ and its dynamic changes in the processes of bovine oocytes maturation, in vitro fertilization (IVF), parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryo development. During the germinal vesicle (GV) and GV breakdown stage, Ca2+ was distributed in the cortical ooplasm and throughout the oocytes from the MI to MII stage. In IVF embryos, Ca2+ was distributed in the cortical ooplasm before the formation of the pronucleus. In 4-8 cell embryos and morulas, Ca2+ was present throughout the blastomere. In PA embryos, Ca2+ was distributed throughout the blastomere at 48 h, similar to in the 4-cell and 8-cell phase and the morula. At 6 h after activation, there was almost no distribution of Ca2+ in the SCNT embryos. However, Ca2+ was distributed in the donor nucleus at 10 h and it was distributed throughout the blastomere in the 2-8 cell embryos. In this study, Ca2+ showed significant fluctuations with regularity of IVF and SCNT groups, but PA did not. Systematic investigation of the Ca2+ location and distribution changes during oocyte maturation and early embryo development processes should facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in oocyte maturation, reconstructed embryo activation and development, ultimately improving the reconstructed embryo development rate.
bovine; concentration of Ca2+; distribution of Ca2+; embryos; oocytes
This paper reports on results from a randomized experimental trial of the effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on multiple measures of grief experienced by parentally-bereaved children and adolescents over a six year period of time.
Participants were 244 youth (ages 8–16, mean age = 11.4 years) from 156 families that had experienced the death of a parent. The sample consisted of 53% boys; ethnicity was 67% non-Hispanic white and 33% ethnic minority. Families were randomly assigned to the FBP (N=135) or a literature control condition (N=109). Two grief measures, the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG) and the Intrusive Grief Thoughts Scale (IGTS) were administered at four times over six years, pre-test, post-test, eleven-month and six-year follow-ups. A third measure, an adaptation of the Inventory of Traumatic Grief (ITG) was administered only at the six-year follow-up.
The FBP showed a greater reduction as compared to controls in their level of problematic grief (IGTS) at post-test and six-year follow-up and in the percent at clinical levels of problematic grief at the post-test. The FBP also reduced scores on a dimension of the ITG, Social Detachment/Insecurity, at six-year follow-up for three subgroups; those who experienced lower levels of grief at program entry, older youth, and boys.
These are the first findings from a randomized trial with long-term follow-up of the effects of a program to reduce problematic levels of grief of parentally-bereaved youth.
randomized trial parentally-bereaved youth; grief; parental bereavement; preventive interventions
The objectives of the present study are to investigate the efficacy and safety profile of gemcitabine-based combinations in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (LA/MPC).
We performed a computerized search using combinations of the following keywords: "chemotherapy", "gemcitabine", "trial", and "pancreatic cancer".
Thirty-five trials were included in the present analysis, with a total of 9,979 patients accrued. The analysis showed that the gemcitabine-based combination therapy was associated with significantly better overall survival (OS) (ORs, 1.15; p = 0.011), progression-free survival (PFS) (ORs, 1.27; p < 0.001), and overall response rate (ORR) (ORs, 1.58; p < 0.001) than gemcitabine monotherapy. Similar results were obtained when the gemcitabine-fluoropyrimidine combination was compared with gemcitabine, with the OS (ORs, 1.33; p = 0.007), PFS (ORs, 1.53; p < 0.001), and ORR (ORs 1.47, p = 0.03) being better in the case of the former. The OS (ORs, 1.33; p = 0.019), PFS (ORs, 1.38; p = 0.011), and one-year survival (ORs, 1.40; p = 0.04) achieved with the gemcitabine-oxaliplatin combination were significantly greater than those achieved with gemcitabine alone. However, no survival benefit (OS: ORs, 1.01, p = 0.93; PFS: ORs, 1.19, p = 0.17) was noted when the gemcitabine-cisplatin combination was compared to gemcitabine monotherapy. The combinations of gemcitabine and other cytotoxic agents also afforded disappointing results. Our analysis indicated that the ORR improved when patients were treated with the gemcitabine-camptothecin combination rather than gemcitabine alone (ORs, 2.03; p = 0.003); however, there were no differences in the OS (ORs, 1.03; p = 0.82) and PFS (ORs, 0.97; p = 0.78) in this case.
Gemcitabine in combination with capecitabine or oxaliplatin was associated with enhanced OS and ORR as compared with gemcitabine in monotherapy, which are likely to become the preferred standard first-line treatment of LA/MPC.
gemcitabine; chemotherapy; pancreatic adenocarcinoma
A Ujumqin sheep ear marginal tissue (USEM) fibroblast line, frozen in 147 cryovials with 4 × 106 cell each, was successfully established from 33 Ujumqin sheep ear marginal tissues using explant culture and cryopreservation techniques. The cells were morphologically consistent with fibroblasts. The growth curve was typical S-shape and the cell population passed through a lag phase, a logarithmic phase and a plateau phase. The population doubling time (PDT) was approximately 72 h. Tests for bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycoplasma were all negative. Isoenzyme polymorphism indicated that the genetic characteristics of the cell line were stable in vitro. Karyotyping analysis indicated that the chromosome number of a normal cell was of 2n = 54 and 95.4% of the entire population was diploid. The transfection efficiencies of six fluorescent proteins (pEGFP-N3, pEGFP-C1, pDsRed-N1, pEYFP-N1, pECFP-N1 and pECFP-mito) optimal at 48 h were from 18.5% to 30.1%. The cell line met all criteria from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Not only has the germline of this important sheep breed been preserved at the cell level, but also valuable material had been provided for genome, postgenome and somatic cloning research. Moreover, the establishment of this technical platform may provide both technical and theoretical support for storing the genetic resources of other animals and poultry at the cell level.
Ujumqin sheep; Fibroblast line; Biological characteristics; Cryopreservation
The prevalence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) among 1,012 vancomycin-susceptible methicillin (meticillin)-resistant S. aureus isolates collected from 14 cities in China from 2005 to 2007 was 13 to 16%, as determined by a combination of (i) measurement by the modified population analysis profile-area under the curve method (PAP-AUC) and (ii) estimation from the measured sensitivity and specificity of a screening method. Two hundred isolates from blood were chosen as a subset for measurement of the sensitivities and the specificities of several previously described screening methods by using the results of PAP-AUC as the reference. During this testing, one isolate was found to be a vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain so was not used in the evaluation of the screening tests. Of the other 199 isolates, 26 (13.1%) were hVISA, as assessed by PAP-AUC. A screening cascade of culturing the isolates on brain heart infusion agar containing teicoplanin (5 mg/liter) and then subjecting the positive isolates to a macro-Etest method was applied to the 812 non-blood isolates, yielding 149 positive results. From these results and by adjusting for sensitivity (0.423) and specificity (0.861), the prevalence was estimated to be 15.7%. The precision of that estimate was assessed by reapplying the screening cascade to 120 randomly selected isolates from the 812 non-blood isolates and simultaneously determining their heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate susceptibility status by PAP-AUC. Because PAP-AUC is impractical for use with large numbers of isolates, the screening-based estimation method is useful as a first approximation of the prevalence of hVISA. Of the 27 VISA or hVISA isolates from blood, 22.2% and 74.1% were staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec types II and III, respectively, while 77.8% and 22.2% were agr type 1 and agr type 2, respectively; the MIC ranges were 0.5 to 4 mg/liter for vancomycin and 0.25 to 1 mg/liter for daptomycin.
In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Siberian tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, the most well-known wild Animal. Total RNA was extracted from cultured Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. The titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.30×106 pfu/ml and 1.62×109 pfu/ml respectively. The proportion of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.5% and average length of exogenous inserts was 1.13 kb. A total of 282 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 328 to 1,142bps were then analyzed the BLASTX score revealed that 53.9% of the sequences were classified as strong match, 38.6% as nominal and 7.4% as weak match. 28.0% of them were found to be related to enzyme/catalytic protein, 20.9% ESTs to metabolism, 13.1% ESTs to transport, 12.1% ESTs to signal transducer/cell communication, 9.9% ESTs to structure protein, 3.9% ESTs to immunity protein/defense metabolism, 3.2% ESTs to cell cycle, and 8.9 ESTs classified as novel genes. These results demonstrated that the reliability and representativeness of the cDNA library attained to the requirements of a standard cDNA library. This library provided a useful platform for the functional genomic research of Siberian tigers.
Siberian tiger; Panthera tigris altaica; Fibroblast cell line; SMART cDNA library; Expressed sequence tags.
We investigated whether three self-system beliefs -- fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem -- mediated the relations between stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality and parentally bereaved youths’ general grief and intrusive grief thoughts. Cross-sectional (n=340 youth) and longitudinal (n=100 youth) models were tested. In the cross-sectional model, fear of abandonment mediated the effects of stressors and relationship quality on both measures of grief and coping efficacy mediated the path from relationship quality to general grief. Fear of abandonment showed a marginal prospective mediational relation between stressors and intrusive grief thoughts. After excluding the mediators, relationship quality showed a direct prospective relation to intrusive grief thoughts.
grief of parentally bereaved children; negative life events; self-system beliefs; fear of abandonment; self-esteem; coping efficacy
The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders’ effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children’s EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children’s internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children’s externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children’s ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems.
Recent data have redefined the concept of inflammation as a critical component of tumor progression. However, there has been little development on cases where inflammation on or near a wound and a tumor exist simultaneously. Therefore, this pilot study aims to observe the impact of a wound on a tumor, to build a new mouse tumor model with a manufactured surgical wound representing acute inflammation, and to evaluate the relationship between acute inflammation or wound healing and the process of tumor growth. We focus on the two phases that are present when acute inflammation influences tumor. In the early phase, inhibitory effects are present. The process that produces these effects is the functional reaction of IFN-γ secretions from a wound inflammation. In the latter phase, the inhibited tumor is made resistant to IFN-γ through the release of TGF-β to balance the inflammatory factor effect on the tumor cells. A pair of cytokines IFN-γ/TGF-β established a new balance to protect the tumor from the interference effect of the inflammation. The tumor was made resistant to IFN-γ through the release of TGF-β to balance the inflammatory effect on the tumor cells. This balance mechanism that occurred in the tumor cells increased proliferation and invasion. In vitro and in vivo experiments have confirmed a new view of clinical surgery that will provide more detailed information on the evaluation of tumors after surgery. This study also provides a better understanding of the relationship between tumor and inflammation, as well as tumor cell attacks on inflammatory factors.
We characterized 44 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from Tongji Hospital outpatients in Wuhan, China, May 2002–October 2005. All 31 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates were also resistant to >8 other antimicrobial drugs and carried >2 mutations in GyrA and 1 mutation in ParC. Class 1 integrons were identified in 37 isolates.
Salmonella Typhimurium; outpatients; ciprofloxacin; resistance; dispatch
The purpose of the study was to examine the zero-order and unique relations of effortful attentional and behavioral regulation, reactive impulsivity, and anger/frustration to Chinese first and second graders’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms, as well as the prediction of adjustment from the interaction of anger/frustration and effortful control or impulsivity. A parent and teacher reported on children’s anger/frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity; parents reported on children’s internalizing symptoms; and teachers and peers reported on children’s externalizing symptoms. Children were classified as relatively high on externalizing (or comorbid), internalizing, or nondisordered. High impulsivity and teacher-reported anger/frustration, and low effortful control, were associated with externalizing problems whereas low effortful control and high parent-reported anger were predictive of internalizing problems. Unique prediction from effortful and reactive control was obtained and these predictors (especially when reported by teachers) often interacted with anger/frustration when predicting problem behavior classification.
The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on brain injury following global ischemia reperfusion and its mechanisms. Brain injury following global ischemia was induced by four vessels occlusion and systemic hypotension. Twenty-four rabbits were randomized into three groups: group A, only dissection of vessels; group B, intravenous infusion of normal saline after reperfusion for 6 h; group C, 30 μg/kg bFGF injected intravenously at the onset of reperfusion, then infused with 10 μg/(kg·h) for 6 h. Serum neuron specific enolase (NSE), S-100B, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured before ischemia, 30 min after ischemia, 0.5, 1, 3, 6 h after reperfusion. Brain water content was determined and cerebral histopathological damages were compared. NSE and S-100B were increased 1 h after reperfusion and reached their peaks 6 h after reperfusion, but were much higher in group B than those in group C 3, 6 h after reperfusion. In groups B and C, TNF-α was increased after ischemia and IL-1 and IL-8 were increased significantly 0.5 h after reperfusion, then reached their peaks 6 h, 3 h, 6 h after reperfusion respectively. TNF-α and IL-8 at the time points of 1 h and 3 h and IL-1 at 3 h and 6 h in group C were correspondingly lower than those in group B. These indices in group A were nearly unchanged. There were less severe cerebral histopathological damages in group C compared with group B, but no difference in brain water content. It could be concluded that bFGF alleviates brain injury following global ischemia and reperfusion by down-regulating expression of inflammatory factors and inhibiting their activities.
Basic fibroblast growth factor; Brain injury; Global ischemia; Neuron specific enolase; S-100B protein; Tumor necrosis factor-α; Interleukin