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author:("Li, fenxiang")
1.  Comparative Analysis of the Immunogenicity and Protective Effects of Inactivated EV71 Vaccines in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e46043.
Background
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines of different strains developed by different manufacturers in mainland China have recently entered clinical trials. Although several studies on these vaccines have been published, a study directly comparing the immunogenicity and protective effects among them has not been carried out, which makes evaluating their relative effectiveness difficult. Thus, properly comparing newly developed vaccines has become a priority, especially in China.
Methods and Findings
This comparative immunogenicity study was carried out on vaccine strains (both live and inactivated), final container products (FCPs) without adjuvant, and corresponding FCPs containing adjuvant (FCP-As) produced by three manufacturers. These vaccines were evaluated by neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses induced by the same or different dosages at one or multiple time points post-immunization. The protective efficacy of the three vaccines was also determined in one-day-old ICR mice born to immunized female mice. Survival rates were observed in these suckling mice after challenge with 20 LD50 of EV71/048M3C2. Three FCP-As, in a dose of 200 U, generated nearly 100% NAb positivity rates and similar geometric mean titers (GMTs), especially at 14–21 days post-inoculation. However, the dynamic NAb responses were different among three vaccine strains or three FCPs. The FCP-As at the lowest dose used in clinical trials (162 U) showed good protective effects in suckling mice against lethal challenge (90–100% survival), while the ED50 of NAb responses and protective effects varied among three FCP-As.
Conclusions
These studies establish a standard method for measuring the immunogenicity of EV71 vaccines in mice. The data generated from our mouse model study indicated a clear dose-response relationship, which is important for vaccine quality control and assessment, especially for predicting protective efficacy in humans when combined with future clinical trial results.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046043
PMCID: PMC3460965  PMID: 23029378
2.  Measurement of Intra-Fraction Displacement of the Mediastinal Metastatic Lymph Nodes Using Four-Dimensional CT in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2012;13(4):417-424.
Objective
To measure the intra-fraction displacements of the mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes by using four-dimensional CT (4D-CT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Materials and Methods
Twenty-four patients with NSCLC, who were to be treated by using three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), underwent a 4D-CT simulation during free breathing. The mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes were delineated on the CT images of 10 phases of the breath cycle. The lymph nodes were grouped as the upper, middle and lower mediastinal groups depending on the mediastinal regions. The displacements of the center of the lymph node in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions were measured.
Results
The mean displacements of the center of the mediastinal lymph node in the LR, AP, and SI directions were 2.24 mm, 1.87 mm, and 3.28 mm, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between the displacements in the SI and LR, and the SI and AP directions (p < 0.05). For the middle and lower mediastinal lymph nodes, the displacement difference between the AP and SI was statistically significant (p = 0.005; p = 0.015), while there was no significant difference between the LR and AP directions (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
The metastatic mediastinal lymph node movements are different in the LR, AP, and SI directions in patients with NSCLC, particularly for the middle and lower mediastinal lymph nodes. The spatial non-uniform margins should be considered for the metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes in involved-field radiotherapy.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2012.13.4.417
PMCID: PMC3384823  PMID: 22778563
Non-small cell lung cancer; Four-dimensional computed tomography; Mediastinal lymph nodes; Displacement measurement
3.  Effect of Vaccination on Bordetella pertussis Strains, China 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2010;16(11):1695-1701.
Strains in China may differ from those in countries that have long histories of high vaccination coverage.
Whole-cell pertussis vaccine was introduced in China in the early 1960s. We used standard typing methods to compare 96 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected before and after introduction of vaccination, during 1953–2005. The following vaccine-type alleles of the pertussis toxin (ptx) gene were characteristic for all prevaccination strains: ptxA2, ptxA3, and ptxA4. The shift to ptxA1 occurred since 1963. All isolates collected since 1983 contained ptxA1. Pertactin (prn) allele 1, prn1, was predominant, although prn2 and prn3 have been detected since 2000. Serotypes fimbriae (Fim) 2 and Fim2,3 were found in all isolates collected before 1986. During 1997–2005, Fim3 became prevalent. Although changes in electrophoresis profiles over time were observed, the predominant profiles during 1997–2005 resembled those during the prevaccine era and those found in Europe before the 1990s. B. pertussis strains in China may differ from those in countries that have a long history of high vaccine coverage.
doi:10.3201/eid1611.100401
PMCID: PMC3294513  PMID: 21029526
China; Bordetella pertussis; whooping cough; pertussis; incidence; vaccination; genotyping; PFGE; bacteria; research

Results 1-3 (3)