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1.  Role for Inducible Costimulator in Control of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection in Mice  
Infection and Immunity  2006;74(2):1050-1061.
Inducible costimulator (ICOS) is expressed on activated T cells and plays a key role in sustaining and enhancing the effector function of CD4 T cells. Given the function of this molecule in sustaining T-cell responses, we reasoned that ICOS might play an important role in a prolonged infection model, such as Salmonella infection of mice. To test this hypothesis, wild-type (WT) and ICOS-deficient (ICOS−/−) mice were infected systemically with a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain expressing the chicken ovalbumin gene (Salmonella-OVA). ICOS−/− mice exhibited greater splenomegaly than WT mice and showed delayed bacterial clearance. The acquired immune response in this model was slow to develop. Maximal T-cell responses to Salmonella-OVA were detected at 3 weeks postinfection in both WT and ICOS−/− mice. CD4 T-cell-dependent gamma interferon production and a class switch to immunoglobulin G2a were severely reduced in ICOS−/− mice. ICOS−/− mice also exhibited a substantial defect in antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses. In vitro, the effect of anti-ICOS on CD8 T-cell division was greater when CD8 T cells rather than CD4 T cells expressed ICOS, suggesting that the in vivo effects of ICOS on CD8 T cells could be direct. Taken together, these studies show that ICOS plays a critical role in control of Salmonella infection in mice, with effects on antibody, Th1, and CD8 T-cell responses.
doi:10.1128/IAI.74.2.1050-1061.2006
PMCID: PMC1360312  PMID: 16428752
2.  Generation of experimental allergic airways inflammation in the absence of draining lymph nodes 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2001;108(4):577-583.
The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of secondary lymphoid organs in the generation and maintenance of experimental allergic airway inflammation. We employed a previously reported murine model of respiratory mucosal allergic sensitization, induced by repeated aerosolizations of ovalbumin in the context of a GM-CSF airway environment. We executed this protocol in wild-type (WT) and lymphotoxin-α–deficient mice (LTα-KO) mice, which are devoid of lymph nodes (LNs) and possess rudimentary spleen structures. Despite the lack of pulmonary LNs draining the airway compartment, LTα-KO mice were fully capable of mounting a robust inflammatory response in the airways, consisting of Th2 polarized CD4+ T cells and eosinophils. This was accompanied by IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-γ production by splenocytes and generation of ovalbumin-specific serum IgE. Exposure to the same antigen 7 weeks after complete resolution of airway inflammation once again induced a Th2 polarized infiltrate, demonstrating intact immunological memory. To investigate inherent plasticity in establishing antigen-specific immunity, mice were splenectomized before sensitization. Allergic sensitization was completely abrogated in splenectomized LTα-KO mice, compared with eusplenic LTα-KO controls. These data demonstrate that secondary lymphoid organs, either LN or spleen, are essential for the generation of allergic airway responses.
PMCID: PMC209400  PMID: 11518731

Results 1-2 (2)