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author:("Qiu, rubin")
1.  Lack of Involvement of CEP Adducts in TLR Activation and in Angiogenesis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e111472.
Proteins that are post-translationally adducted with 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) have been proposed to play a pathogenic role in age-related macular degeneration, by inducing angiogenesis in a Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent manner. We have investigated the involvement of CEP adducts in angiogenesis and TLR activation, to assess the therapeutic potential of inhibiting CEP adducts and TLR2 for ocular angiogenesis. As tool reagents, several CEP-adducted proteins and peptides were synthetically generated by published methodology and adduction was confirmed by NMR and LC-MS/MS analyses. Structural studies showed significant changes in secondary structure in CEP-adducted proteins but not the untreated proteins. Similar structural changes were also observed in the treated unadducted proteins, which were treated by the same adduction method except for one critical step required to form the CEP group. Thus some structural changes were unrelated to CEP groups and were artificially induced by the synthesis method. In biological studies, the CEP-adducted proteins and peptides failed to activate TLR2 in cell-based assays and in an in vivo TLR2-mediated retinal leukocyte infiltration model. Neither CEP adducts nor TLR agonists were able to induce angiogenesis in a tube formation assay. In vivo, treatment of animals with CEP-adducted protein had no effect on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Furthermore, in vivo inactivation of TLR2 by deficiency in Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) had no effect on abrasion-induced corneal neovascularization. Thus the CEP-TLR2 axis, which is implicated in other wound angiogenesis models, does not appear to play a pathological role in a corneal wound angiogenesis model. Collectively, our data do not support the mechanism of action of CEP adducts in TLR2-mediated angiogenesis proposed by others.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111472
PMCID: PMC4208838  PMID: 25343517
2.  Generation and Characterization of Neuregulin-2-Deficient Mice 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2004;24(18):8221-8226.
The neuregulins (NRGs) are a family of four structurally related growth factors that are expressed in the developing and adult brain. NRG-1 is essential for normal heart formation and has been implicated in the development and maintenance of both neurons and glia. NRG-2 was identified on the basis of its homology to NRG-1 and, like NRG-1, is expressed predominantly by neurons in the central nervous system. We have generated mice with the active domain of NRG-2 deleted in an effort to characterize the biological function of NRG-2 in vivo. In contrast to the NRG-1 knockout animals, NRG-2 knockouts have no apparent heart defects and survive embryogenesis. Mutant mice display early growth retardation and reduced reproductive capacity. No obvious histological differences were observed in the major sites of NRG-2 expression. Our results indicate that in vivo NRG-2 activity differs substantially from that of NRG-1 and that it is not essential for normal development in utero.
doi:10.1128/MCB.24.18.8221-8226.2004
PMCID: PMC515040  PMID: 15340081
3.  Modulation of LIGHT-HVEM Costimulation Prolongs Cardiac Allograft Survival 
LIGHT (TNFSF14), a tumor necrosis factor superfamily member expressed by activated T cells, binds to herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) which is constitutively expressed by T cells and costimulates T cell activation in a CD28-independent manner. Given interest in regulating the effector functions of T cells in vivo, we examined the role of LIGHT-HVEM costimulation in a murine cardiac allograft rejection model. Normal hearts lacked LIGHT or HVEM mRNA expression, but allografts showed strong expression of both genes from day 3 after transplant, and in situ hybridization and immunohistology-localized LIGHT and HVEM to infiltrating leukocytes. To test the importance of LIGHT expression on allograft survival, we generated LIGHT−/− mice by homologous recombination. The mean survival of fully major histocompatibility complex–mismatched vascularized cardiac allografts in LIGHT−/− mice (10 days, P < 0.05) or cyclosporine A (CsA)-treated LIGHT+/+ mice (10 days, P < 0.05) was only slightly prolonged compared with LIGHT+/+ mice (7 days). However, mean allograft survival in CsA-treated LIGHT−/− allograft recipients (30 days) was considerably enhanced (P < 0.001) compared with the 10 days of mean survival in either untreated LIGHT−/− mice or CsA-treated LIGHT+/+ controls. Molecular analyzes showed that the beneficial effects of targeting of LIGHT in CsA-treated recipients were accompanied by decreased intragraft expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, plus IFN-γ–induced chemokine, inducible protein-10, and its receptor, CXCR3. Treatment of LIGHT+/+ allograft recipients with HVEM-Ig plus CsA also enhanced mean allograft survival (21 days) versus wild-type controls receiving HVEM-Ig (mean of 7 days) or CsA alone (P < 0.001). Our data suggest that T cell to T cell–mediated LIGHT/HVEM-dependent costimulation is a significant component of the host response leading to cardiac allograft rejection.
doi:10.1084/jem.20012088
PMCID: PMC2193745  PMID: 11901205
transplantation; allograft rejection; T cell activation; costimulation; TNF superfamily

Results 1-3 (3)