PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-5 (5)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Persistence of pulmonary tertiary lymphoid tissues and anti-nuclear antibodies following cessation of cigarette smoke exposure 
Respiratory Research  2014;15(1):49.
Formation of pulmonary tertiary immune structures is a characteristic feature of advanced COPD. In the current study, we investigated the mechanisms of tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT) formation in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. We found that cigarette smoke exposure led to TLT formation that persisted following smoking cessation. TLTs consisted predominantly of IgM positive B cells, while plasma cells in close proximity to TLTs expressed IgM, IgG, and IgA. The presence of TLT formation was associated with anti-nuclear autoantibody (ANA) production that also persisted following smoking cessation. ANAs were observed in the lungs, but not the circulation of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. Similarly, we observed ANA in the sputum of COPD patients where levels correlated with disease severity and were refractory to steroid treatment. Both ANA production and TLT formation were dependent on interleukin-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1) expression. Contrary to TLT and ANA, lung neutrophilia resolved following smoking cessation. These data suggest a differential regulation of innate and B cell-related immune inflammatory processes associated with cigarette smoke exposure. Moreover, our study further emphasizes the importance of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling pathways in cigarette smoke-related pulmonary pathogenesis.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-15-49
PMCID: PMC4021094  PMID: 24754996
Tertiary lymphoid tissue; Autoantibodies; Autoimmunity; COPD; Experimental model; Inflammation
2.  Alterations in Skeletal Muscle Cell Homeostasis in a Mouse Model of Cigarette Smoke Exposure 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66433.
Background
Skeletal muscle dysfunction is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease mainly caused by chronic cigarette use. An important proportion of patients with COPD have decreased muscle mass, suggesting that chronic cigarette smoke exposure may interfere with skeletal muscle cellular equilibrium. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the kinetic of the effects that cigarette smoke exposure has on skeletal muscle cell signaling involved in protein homeostasis and to assess the reversibility of these effects.
Methods
A mouse model of cigarette smoke exposure was used to assess skeletal muscle changes. BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or room air for 8 weeks, 24 weeks or 24 weeks followed by 60 days of cessation. The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were collected and the activation state of key mediators involved in protein synthesis and degradation was assessed.
Results
Gastrocnemius and soleus were smaller in mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 8 and 24 weeks compared to room air exposed animals. Pro-degradation proteins were induced at the mRNA level after 8 and 24 weeks. Twenty-four weeks of cigarette smoke exposure induced pro-degradation proteins and reduced Akt phosphorylation and glycogen synthase kinase-3β quantity. A 60-day smoking cessation period reversed the cell signaling alterations induced by cigarette smoke exposure.
Conclusions
Repeated cigarette smoke exposure induces reversible muscle signaling alterations that are dependent on the duration of the cigarette smoke exposure. These results highlights a beneficial aspect associated with smoking cessation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066433
PMCID: PMC3682961  PMID: 23799102
3.  Cigarette smoke-induced accumulation of lung dendritic cells is interleukin-1α-dependent in mice 
Respiratory Research  2012;13(1):81.
Background
Evidence suggests that dendritic cells accumulate in the lungs of COPD patients and correlate with disease severity. We investigated the importance of IL-1R1 and its ligands IL-1α and β to dendritic cell accumulation and maturation in response to cigarette smoke exposure.
Methods
Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke using a whole body smoke exposure system. IL-1R1-, TLR4-, and IL-1α-deficient mice, as well as anti-IL-1α and anti-IL-1β blocking antibodies were used to study the importance of IL-1R1 and TLR4 to dendritic cell accumulation and activation.
Results
Acute and chronic cigarette smoke exposure led to increased frequency of lung dendritic cells. Accumulation and activation of dendritic cells was IL-1R1/IL-1α dependent, but TLR4- and IL-1β-independent. Corroborating the cellular data, expression of CCL20, a potent dendritic cells chemoattractant, was IL-1R1/IL-1α-dependent. Studies using IL-1R1 bone marrow-chimeric mice revealed the importance of IL-1R1 signaling on lung structural cells for CCL20 expression. Consistent with the importance of dendritic cells in T cell activation, we observed decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation in cigarette smoke-exposed IL-1R1-deficient mice.
Conclusion
Our findings convey the importance of IL-1R1/IL-1α to the recruitment and activation of dendritic cells in response to cigarette smoke exposure.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-13-81
PMCID: PMC3519608  PMID: 22992200
Cigarette smoke; Dendritic cells; T cells; CCL20;  Mice
4.  IL-1α/IL-1R1 Expression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Mechanistic Relevance to Smoke-Induced Neutrophilia in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(12):e28457.
Background
Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite this, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to COPD pathogenesis are still poorly understood.
Methodology and Principal Findings
The objective of this study was to assess IL-1 α and β expression in COPD patients and to investigate their respective roles in perpetuating cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. Functional studies were pursued in smoke-exposed mice using gene-deficient animals, as well as blocking antibodies for IL-1α and β. Here, we demonstrate an underappreciated role for IL-1α expression in COPD. While a strong correlation existed between IL-1α and β levels in patients during stable disease and periods of exacerbation, neutrophilic inflammation was shown to be IL-1α-dependent, and IL-1β- and caspase-1-independent in a murine model of cigarette smoke exposure. As IL-1α was predominantly expressed by hematopoietic cells in COPD patients and in mice exposed to cigarette smoke, studies pursued in bone marrow chimeric mice demonstrated that the crosstalk between IL-1α+ hematopoietic cells and the IL-1R1+ epithelial cells regulates smoke-induced inflammation. IL-1α/IL-1R1-dependent activation of the airway epithelium also led to exacerbated inflammatory responses in H1N1 influenza virus infected smoke-exposed mice, a previously reported model of COPD exacerbation.
Conclusions and Significance
This study provides compelling evidence that IL-1α is central to the initiation of smoke-induced neutrophilic inflammation and suggests that IL-1α/IL-1R1 targeted therapies may be relevant for limiting inflammation and exacerbations in COPD.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028457
PMCID: PMC3232226  PMID: 22163019
5.  Differential expression and function of breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39) in murine models of subacute cigarette smoke exposure and allergic airway inflammation 
Respiratory Research  2011;12(1):39.
Background
While the presence of the chitinase-like molecule YKL40 has been reported in COPD and asthma, its relevance to inflammatory processes elicited by cigarette smoke and common environmental allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), is not well understood. The objective of the current study was to assess expression and function of BRP-39, the murine equivalent of YKL40 in a murine model of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and contrast expression and function to a model of HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation.
Methods
CD1, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice were room air- or cigarette smoke-exposed for 4 days in a whole-body exposure system. In separate experiments, BALB/c mice were challenged with HDM extract once a day for 10 days. BRP-39 was assessed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. IL-13, IL-1R1, IL-18, and BRP-39 knock out (KO) mice were utilized to assess the mechanism and relevance of BRP-39 in cigarette smoke- and HDM-induced airway inflammation.
Results
Cigarette smoke exposure elicited a robust induction of BRP-39 but not the catalytically active chitinase, AMCase, in lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages of all mouse strains tested. Both BRP-39 and AMCase were increased in lung tissue after HDM exposure. Examining smoke-exposed IL-1R1, IL-18, and IL-13 deficient mice, BRP-39 induction was found to be IL-1 and not IL-18 or IL-13 dependent, while induction of BRP-39 by HDM was independent of IL-1 and IL-13. Despite the importance of BRP-39 in cellular inflammation in HDM-induced airway inflammation, BRP-39 was found to be redundant for cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation and the adjuvant properties of cigarette smoke.
Conclusions
These data highlight the contrast between the importance of BRP-39 in HDM- and cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. While functionally important in HDM-induced inflammation, BRP-39 is a biomarker of cigarette smoke induced inflammation which is the byproduct of an IL-1 inflammatory pathway.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-12-39
PMCID: PMC3079621  PMID: 21473774

Results 1-5 (5)