Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes tremendous economic losses to the poultry industry. Here, we report the complete genome analysis results for a new natural recombination nephropathogenic IBV strain named SAIBK, which was isolated in the Sichuan province of China in 2005.
Vaginal microbiota form a mutually beneficial relationship with their host and have major impact on health and disease. In recent years our understanding of vaginal bacterial community composition and structure has significantly broadened as a result of investigators using cultivation-independent methods based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. In asymptomatic, otherwise healthy women, several kinds of vaginal microbiota exist, the majority often dominated by species of Lactobacillus, while others comprise a diverse array of anaerobic microorganisms. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal conditions and is vaguely characterized as the disruption of the equilibrium of the ‘normal’ vaginal microbiots. A better understanding of ‘normal’ and ‘healthy’ vaginal ecosystems that is based on its ‘true’ function and not simply on its composition would help better define health and further improve disease diagnostics as well as the development of more personalized regimens to promote health and treat diseases.
vaginal microbiota; vaginal ecosystem; bacterial vaginosis; health and disease
Host antibacterial responses include mechanisms that kill bacteria, but also those that protect or tolerize the host to potentially damaging antibacterial effects. We determined that Chitinase 3-like-1 (Chi3l1), a conserved prototypic chitinase-like protein, is induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae and plays central roles in promoting bacterial clearance and mediating host tolerance. S. pneumoniae-infected Chi3l1 null mice exhibit exaggerated lung injury, inflammation and hemorrhage, more frequent bacterial dissemination, decreased bacterial clearance, and enhanced mortality compared to controls. Chi3l1 augments macrophage bacterial killing by inhibiting caspase-1-dependent macrophage pyroptosis and augments host tolerance by controlling inflammasome activation, ATP accumulation, expression of ATP receptor P2×7R, and production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and type 1, type 2, and type 17 cytokines. These data demonstrate that Chi3l1 is induced during infection, where it promotes bacterial clearance while simultaneously augmenting host tolerance, and that these roles likely contributed to the retention of Chi3l1 over species and evolutionary time.
In Chinese medicine, Xiexin decoction (XXD) has been used for the clinical treatment of diabetes for at least 1700 years. The present study was conducted to investigate the effective ingredients of XXD and their molecular mechanisms of antidiabetic nephropathy in rats. Rats with diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin were treated with XXD extract for 12 weeks. XXD significantly improved the glucolipid metabolism disorder, attenuated albuminuria and renal pathological changes, reduced renal advanced glycation end-products, inhibited receptor for advanced glycation end-product and inflammation factors expression, suppressed renal nuclear factor-κB pathway activity, and downregulated renal transforming growth factor-β1. The concentrations of multiple components in plasma from XXD were determined by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis using partial least square regression revealed that 8 ingredients of XXD were responsible for renal protective effects via actions on multiple molecular targets. Our study suggests that the renal protective role of XXD with multiple effective ingredients involves inhibition of inflammation through downregulation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway, reducing renal advanced glycation end-products and receptor for advanced glycation end-product in diabetic rats.
Assuming that early tumor volume change is a biomarker for response to therapy, accurate quantification of early volume changes could aid in adapting an individual patient’s therapy and lead to shorter clinical trials. We investigated an image registration–based approach for tumor volume change quantification that may more reliably detect smaller changes that occur in shorter intervals than can be detected by existing algorithms.
Methods and Materials
Variance and bias of the registration-based approach were evaluated using retrospective, in vivo, very-short-interval diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scans where true zero tumor volume change is unequivocally known and synthetic data, respectively. The interval scans were nonlinearly registered using two similarity measures: mutual information (MI) and normalized cross-correlation (NCC).
The 95% confidence interval of the percentage volume change error was (−8.93% to 10.49%) for MI-based and (−7.69%, 8.83%) for NCC-based registrations. Linear mixed-effects models demonstrated that error in measuring volume change increased with increase in tumor volume and decreased with the increase in the tumor’s normalized mutual information, even when NCC was the similarity measure being optimized during registration. The 95% confidence interval of the relative volume change error for the synthetic examinations with known changes over ±80% of reference tumor volume was (−3.02% to 3.86%). Statistically significant bias was not demonstrated.
A low-noise, low-bias tumor volume change measurement algorithm using nonlinear registration is described. Errors in change measurement were a function of tumor volume and the normalized mutual information content of the tumor.
Tumor volume change; Image registration; Dual baseline examination; Coffee-break examination; Linear mixed-effects model
Enterobacteriaceae diversified from an ancestral lineage ~300-500 million years ago (mya) into a wide variety of free-living and host-associated lifestyles. Nutrient availability varies across niches, and evolution of metabolic networks likely played a key role in adaptation.
Here we use a paleo systems biology approach to reconstruct and model metabolic networks of ancestral nodes of the enterobacteria phylogeny to investigate metabolism of ancient microorganisms and evolution of the networks. Specifically, we identified orthologous genes across genomes of 72 free-living enterobacteria (16 genera), and constructed core metabolic networks capturing conserved components for ancestral lineages leading to E. coli/Shigella (~10 mya), E. coli/Shigella/Salmonella (~100 mya), and all enterobacteria (~300-500 mya). Using these models we analyzed the capacity for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, sulfur, and iron utilization in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, identified conserved and differentiating catabolic phenotypes, and validated predictions by comparison to experimental data from extant organisms.
This is a novel approach using quantitative ancestral models to study metabolic network evolution and may be useful for identification of new targets to control infectious diseases caused by enterobacteria.
Constraint-based modeling; Enterobacteria; Metabolic network reconstruction; Ancient metabolism; Paleo systems biology; Ancestral core
This report explains how our studies of asthma and Th2 inflammation led us to investigate the roles of chitinase-like proteins (CLPs) in lung injury and repair and puts forth an overall hypothesis that can explain the roles that these moieties play in biology and a hypothesis regarding the ways that dysregulated CLP expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. We test this hypothesis by assessing the contributions of the CLP breast regression protein (BRP)-39 in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma metastasis to the lung.
BRP-39/YKL-40; inflammation; injury; repair; metastasis
A new and simple method for fabrication of nanofiber scaffolds with gradations in fiber organization is reported. The nanofiber organization, achieved by deposition of random fibers on the uniaxially-aligned nanofiber mat in a gradient manner, directed morphological changes of applied adipose-derived stem cells. These morphological changes and resultant biochemical changes can help mimic the structural orientation of complex biomechanical structures like the collagen fiber structure at the tendon-to-bone insertion site. In addition, chemical gradients can be established through nanoencapsulation in this novel scaffold allowing for enhanced biomedical applications.
Electrospinning; Gradient; Nanofibers; Organization; Tendon-to-Bone
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulator of vascular angiogenesis, permeability, and remodeling that also plays important roles in wound healing and tissue cytoprotection. To begin to define the roles of VEGF in diseases like asthma and COPD, we characterized the effects of lung-targeted transgenic VEGF165 and defined the innate immune pathways that regulate VEGF tissue responses. The former studies demonstrated that VEGF plays an important role in Th2 inflammation because, in addition to stimulating angiogenesis and edema, VEGF induced eosinophilic inflammation, mucus metaplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, myocyte hyperplasia, dendritic cell activation, and airways hyperresponsiveness via IL-13–dependent and -independent mechanisms. VEGF was also produced at sites of aeroallergen-induced Th2 inflammation, and VEGF receptor blockade ameliorated adaptive Th2 inflammation and Th2 cytokine elaboration. The latter studies demonstrated that activation of the RIG-like helicase (RLH) innate immune pathway using viral pathogen–associated molecular patterns such as Poly(I:C) or viruses ameliorated VEGF-induced tissue responses. In accord with these findings, Poly(I:C)-induced RLH activation also abrogated aeroallergen-induced Th2 inflammation. When viewed in combination, these studies suggest that VEGF excess can contribute to the pathogenesis of Th2 inflammatory disorders such as asthma and that abrogation of VEGF signaling via RLH activation can contribute to the pathogenesis of viral disorders such as virus-induced COPD exacerbations. They also suggest that RLH activation may be a useful therapeutic strategy in asthma and related disorders.
asthma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; virus; RIG-like helicase; mitochondrial antiviral signaling molecule
Testing P. aeruginosa efflux pump mutants showed that the LpxC inhibitor CHIR-090 is a substrate for MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, and MexEF-OprN. Utilizing P. aeruginosa PAO1 with a chromosomal mexC::luxCDABE fusion, luminescent mutants arose on medium containing 4 μg/ml CHIR-090, indicating upregulation of MexCD-OprJ. These mutants were less susceptible to CHIR-090 (MIC, 4 μg/ml) and had mutations in the mexCD-oprJ repressor gene nfxB. Nonluminescent mutants (MIC, 4 μg/ml) that had mutations in the mexAB-oprM regulator gene mexR were also observed. Plating the clinical isolate K2153 on 4 μg/ml CHIR-090 selected mutants with alterations in mexS (immediately upstream of mexT), which upregulates MexEF-OprN. A mutant altered in the putative1ribosomal binding site (RBS) upstream of lpxC and overexpressing LpxC was selected on a related LpxC inhibitor and exhibited reduced susceptibility to CHIR-090. Overexpression of LpxC from a plasmid reduced susceptibility to CHIR-090, and introduction of the altered RBS in this construct further increased expression of LpxC and decreased susceptibility to CHIR-090. Using a mutS (hypermutator) strain, a mutant with an altered lpxC target gene (LpxC L18V) was also selected. Purified LpxC L18V had activity similar to that of wild-type LpxC in an in vitro assay but had reduced inhibition by CHIR-090. Finally, an additional class of mutant, typified by an extreme growth defect, was identified. These mutants had mutations in fabG, indicating that alteration in fatty acid synthesis conferred resistance to LpxC inhibitors. Passaging experiments showed progressive decreases in susceptibility to CHIR-090. Therefore, P. aeruginosa can employ several strategies to reduce susceptibility to CHIR-090 in vitro.
The effect of storage conditions on the microbiome and metabolite composition of human biological samples has not been thoroughly investigated as a potential source of bias. We evaluated the effect of two common storage conditions used in clinical trials on the bacterial and metabolite composition of the vaginal microbiota using pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 1H-NMR analyses.
Eight women were enrolled and four mid-vaginal swabs were collected by a physician from each woman. The samples were either processed immediately, stored at −80°C for 4 weeks or at −20°C for 1 week followed by transfer to −80°C for another 4 weeks prior to analysis. Statistical methods, including Kolmogorovo-Smirnov and Wilcoxon tests, were performed to evaluate the differences in vaginal bacterial community composition and metabolites between samples stored under different conditions. The results showed that there were no significant differences between samples processed immediately after collection or stored for varying durations. 1H-NMR analysis of the small molecule metabolites in vaginal secretions indicated that high levels of lactic acid were associated with Lactobacillus-dominated communities. Relative abundance of lactic acid did not appear to correlate with relative abundance of individual Lactobacillus sp. in this limited sample, although lower levels of lactic acid were observed when L. gasseri was dominant, indicating differences in metabolic output of seemingly similar communities.
These findings benefit large-scale, field-based microbiome and metabolomic studies of the vaginal microbiota.
Rationale: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates vascular, inflammatory, remodeling, and cell death responses. It plays a critical role in normal pulmonary physiology, and VEGF excess and deficiency have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respectively. Although viruses are an important cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations and innate responses play an important role in these exacerbations, the effects of antiviral responses on VEGF homeostasis have not been evaluated.
Objectives: We hypothesized that antiviral innate immunity regulates VEGF tissue responses.
Methods: We compared the effects of transgenic VEGF165 in mice treated with viral pathogen–associated molecular pattern polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], mice treated with live virus, and control mice.
Measurements and Main Results: Transgenic VEGF stimulated angiogenesis, edema, inflammation, and mucin accumulation. Each of these was abrogated by poly(I:C). These inhibitory effects were dose dependent, noted when poly(I:C) was administered before and after transgene activation, and mediated by a Toll-like receptor-3–independent and RIG-like helicase (RLH)– and type I IFN receptor–dependent pathway. VEGF stimulated the expression of VEGF receptor-1 and poly(I:C) inhibited this stimulation. Poly(I:C) also inhibited the ability of VEGF to activate extracellular signal–regulated kinase-1, Akt, focal adhesion kinase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and aeroallergen-induced adaptive helper T-cell type 2 inflammation. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus also inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis.
Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that poly(I:C) and respiratory viruses inhibit VEGF-induced tissue responses and adaptive helper T-cell type 2 inflammation and highlight the importance of a RLH- and type I IFN receptor–dependent pathway(s) in these regulatory events. They define a novel link between VEGF and antiviral and RLH innate immune responses and a novel pathway that regulates pulmonary VEGF activity.
RIG-like helicase; mitochondrial antiviral signaling molecule; influenza virus; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
An account of the total synthesis of celogentin C is presented. A right-to-left synthetic approach to this bicyclic octapeptide was unsuccessful due to an inability to elaborate derivatives of the right-hand ring. In the course of these efforts, it was discovered that the mild Braslau modification of the McFadyen–Stevens reaction offers a useful method of reducing recalcitrant esters to aldehydes. A left-to-right synthetic strategy was then examined. The unusual Leu–Trp side-chain cross-link present in the left-hand macrocycle was fashioned via a three-step sequence comprised of an intermolecular Knoevenagel condensation, a radical conjugate addition, and a SmI2-mediated nitro reduction. A subsequent macrolactamization provided the desired ring system. The high yield and concise nature of the left-hand ring synthesis offset the modest diastereoselectivity of the radical conjugate addition. Formation of the Trp–His side chain linkage characteristic of the right-hand ring was then accomplished by means of an indole–imidazole oxidative coupling. Notably, Pro-OBn was required as an additive in this reaction. Detailed mechanistic investigations indicated that Pro-OBn moderates the concentration of NCS in the reaction mixture, thereby minimizing the production of an undesired dichlorinated byproduct. The natural product was obtained after macrolactamization and deprotection. The chemical shifts of the imidazole hydrogen atoms exhibited significant dependence on temperature, concentration, and pH. Antitumor screening indicated that celogentin C inhibits the growth of some cancer cell lines.
The mechanisms of hypertrophic scar formation are not fully understood. We previously screened the differentially expressed genes of human hypertrophic scar tissue and identified P311 gene as upregulated. As the activities of P311 in human fibroblast function are unknown, we examined the distribution of it and the effects of forced expression or silencing of expression of P311. P311 expression was detected in fibroblast-like cells from the hypertrophic scar of burn injury patients but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, epidermal cells or normal skin dermal cells. Transfection of fibroblasts with P311 gene stimulated the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), TGF-β1 and α1(I) collagen (COL1A1), and enhanced the contraction of fibroblast populated collagen lattices (FPCL). In contrast, interference of fibroblast P311 gene expression decreased the TGF-β1 mRNA expression and reduced the contraction of fibroblasts in FPCL. These results suggest that P311 may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar via induction of a myofibroblastic phenotype and of functions such as TGF-β1 expression. P311 could be a novel target for the control of hypertrophic scar development.
Quantitative isotropic diffusion MRI and voxel-based analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes have been demonstrated to be able to accurately predict early response of brain tumors to therapy. The ADC value changes measured during pre- and post-therapy interval are closely correlated to treatment response. This work was demonstrated using a voxel-based analysis of ADC change during therapy in the brains of both rats and humans, following rigidly registering pre- and post-therapeutic ADC MRI exams. The primary goal of this paper is to extend this voxel-by-voxel analysis to assess therapeutic response in breast cancer. Nonlinear registration (with higher degrees of freedom) between the pre- and post-treatment exams is needed to ensure that the corresponding voxels actually contain similar cellular partial contributions due to soft tissue deformations in the breast and compartmental tumor changes during treatment as well. With limited data sets, we have observed the correlation between changes of ADC values and treatment response also exists in breast cancers. With diffusion scans acquired at three different timepoints (pre-treatment, early post-treatment and late post-treatment), we have also shown that ADC changes across responders within 5 weeks are a function of time interval after the initiation of treatment. Comparison of the experimental results with pathology shows that ADC changes can be used to evaluate early response of breast cancer treatment.
Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Previous epidemiological studies of Pectobacterium species have suffered from an inability to identify most isolates to the species or subspecies level. We used three previously described DNA-based methods, 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to examine isolates from diseased stems and tubers and found that MLSA provided the most reliable classification of isolates. We found that strains belonging to at least two Pectobacterium clades were present in each field examined, although representatives of only three of five Pectobacterium clades were isolated. Hypersensitive response and DNA hybridization assays revealed that strains of both Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium wasabiae lack a type III secretion system (T3SS). Two of the T3SS-deficient strains assayed lack genes adjacent to the T3SS gene cluster, suggesting that multiple deletions occurred in Pectobacterium strains in this locus, and all strains appear to have only six rRNA operons instead of the seven operons typically found in Pectobacterium strains. The virulence of most of the T3SS-deficient strains was similar to that of T3SS-encoding strains in stems and tubers.
Pixel compounding is a technique that synthesizes the information of an image sequence involving slow decorrelation of the speckle to form a detail-recovered and speckle reduced image. To avoid extra data acquisition time and patient exposure, reuse of the existing data is desirable. In the procedure of elasticity imaging, a set of B-mode images with slight changes due to deformation is produced, which provides an ideal input for the pixel compounding. The improvement in image quality is evaluated quantitatively using a figure-of-merit (FOM) that indicates the goodness of boundary information recovery and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) over the phantom images. The increase in average CNR is from 0.4 in the original images to 0.8 in the pixel compounded images. The improvement in average FOM is from 0.15 to over 0.5 on a scale of 0 to 1. In vivo results with a breast cyst, a fibroadenoma, and a breast cancer1 are also presented and the image quality improvement is subjectively evaluated. The results suggest that B-mode breast images from compression procedures are suitable data for pixel compounding, and that a speckle reduced and detail-recovered or detail-maintained image can be produced. The improved imaging may provide alternative or better information for detection and diagnosis. A similar approach could be extended to elasticity imaging with other modalities.
medical imaging; B-mode ultrasound; super resolution; detail recovery; speckle reduction
The purpose of this study was to achieve 3D registration of digital tomosynthesis mammographic volumes using mutual information.
Registration of digital breast digital tomosynthesis mammographic volumes was achieved with an average error of 1.8 +/- 1.4 mm.
Using the cinchonidine-derived phase-transfer catalyst de veloped by Park and Jew as a lead structure, we have prepared novel chiral ammonium salts and investigated their efficacy for the preparation of β-hydroxy α-amino acids via asymmetric aldol reactions. The modifications were performed at C3 of the cinchonidine nucleus and include dimers as well as catalysts possessing electron-deficient alkyne and alkene moieties. Some of the new catalysts yielded improvements relative to the Park–Jew catalyst in the aldol reaction.
Cinchona alkaloids; β-hydroxy α-amino acids; Sonogashira coupling; Heck reaction; asymmetric aldol reaction
This study was made to explore the effects of acetazolamide on tumor growth, metastasis and the possible mechanisms. The mice bearing with Lewis lung carcinomas were taken as the animal model. The effects of acetazolamide were compared with the combination treatment of NaHCO3 on tumor growth, metastasis and carbonic anhydrase activity in lung and tumor tissues using imidazole-Tris technique. And also the possible role of AQP1 in tumor tissues was investigated by Western blot and immuno-histochemical analysis. Results showed that acetazolamide alone could sharply reduce the number of lung metastasis and primary tumor growth, and appeared in a dose-dependent manner. Acetazolamide significantly inhibited carbonic anhydrase activity in tumor tissue. After the addition of NaHCO3, the suppression of acetazolamide on tumor growth, number of metastasis and carbonic anhydrase activity in primary tumor tissue could not be altered significantly, but the inhibitory rate of metastasis in lung and carbonic anhydrase activity in lung tissue appeared to show a reversal trend in the dose dependency from the acetazolamide treatment alone. The exactly mechanisms need to be clarified in future. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that AQP1 expression in the tumor tissue was higher than both tissue of normal and treated with acetazolamide treatment alone. Combination with NaHCO3 could not synergistically inhibit the expression of AQP1 with acetazolamide. The results suggested that the mechanism of acetazolamide on anti-tumor especially on its anti-metastasis actions might partly involve either inhibiting the carbonic anhydrase activity or reducing AQP1 water channel protein expression, whatever if treated with or without NaHCO3.
acetazolamide; aquaporin; carbonic anhydrase; tumor; metastasis
To define the factors that control the tissue effects of IL-4, we compared the effects of Tg IL-4 in Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice. In the former, IL-4 caused modest eosinophilic inflammation and mild airway fibrosis and did not shorten survival. In C57BL/6 mice, IL-4 caused profound eosinophilic inflammation, airway fibrosis, emphysematous alveolar destruction, and premature death. These differences could not be accounted for by changes in Th2 or Th1 cytokines, receptor components, STAT6 activation, MMPs, or cathepsins. In contrast, in C57BL/6 mice, alveolar remodeling was associated with decreased levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 2, -3, and -4 and α1-antitrypsin, and fibrosis was associated with increased levels of total and bioactive TGF-β1. Impressive differences in adenosine metabolism were also appreciated, with increased tissue adenosine levels and A1, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptor expression and decreased adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in C57BL/6 animals. Treatment with ADA also reduced the inflammation, fibrosis, and emphysematous destruction and improved the survival of C57BL/6 Tg animals. These studies demonstrate that genetic influences control IL-4 effector pathways in the murine lung. They also demonstrate that IL-4 has different effects on adenosine metabolism in Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice and that these differences contribute to the different responses that IL-4 induces in these inbred animals.
IL-13 dysregulation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory and remodeling diseases. In these settings, STAT6 is believed to be the canonical signaling molecule mediating the tissue effects of IL-13. Signaling cascades involving MAPKs have been linked to inflammation and remodeling. We hypothesized that MAPKs play critical roles in effector responses induced by IL-13 in the lung. We found that Tg IL-13 expression in the lung led to potent activation of ERK1/2 but not JNK1/2 or p38. ERK1/2 activation also occurred in mice with null mutations of STAT6. Systemic administration of the MAPK/ERK kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor PD98059 or use of Tg mice in which a dominant-negative MEK1 construct was expressed inhibited IL-13–induced inflammation and alveolar remodeling. There were associated decreases in IL-13–induced chemokines (MIP-1α/CCL-3, MIP-1β/CCL-4, MIP-2/CXCL-1, RANTES/CCL-5), MMP-2, -9, -12, and -14, and cathepsin B and increased levels of α1-antitrypsin. IL-13–induced tissue and molecular responses were noted that were equally and differentially dependent on ERK1/2 and STAT6 signaling. Thus, ERK1/2 is activated by IL-13 in the lung in a STAT6-independent manner where it contributes to IL-13–induced inflammation and remodeling and is required for optimal IL-13 stimulation of specific chemokines and proteases as well as the inhibition of specific antiproteases. ERK1/2 regulators may be useful in the treatment of IL-13–induced diseases and disorders.
Th1 inflammation and remodeling characterized by tissue destruction frequently coexist in human diseases. To further understand the mechanisms of these responses, we defined the role(s) of CCR5 in the pathogenesis of IFN-γ–induced inflammation and remodeling in a murine emphysema model. IFN-γ was a potent stimulator of the CCR5 ligands macrophage inflammatory protein–1α/CCL-3 (MIP-1α/CCL-3), MIP-1β/CCL-4, and RANTES/CCL-5, among others. Antibody neutralization or null mutation of CCR5 decreased IFN-γ–induced inflammation, DNA injury, apoptosis, and alveolar remodeling. These interventions decreased the expression of select chemokines, including CCR5 ligands and MMP-9, and increased levels of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. They also decreased the expression and/or activation of Fas, FasL, TNF, caspase-3, -8, and -9, Bid, and Bax. In accordance with these findings, cigarette smoke induced pulmonary inflammation, DNA injury, apoptosis, and emphysema via an IFN-γ–dependent pathway(s), and a null mutation of CCR5 decreased these responses. These studies demonstrate that IFN-γ is a potent stimulator of CC and CXC chemokines and highlight the importance of CCR5 in the pathogenesis of IFN-γ–induced and cigarette smoke–induced inflammation, tissue remodeling, and emphysema. They also demonstrate that CCR5 is required for optimal IFN-γ stimulation of its own ligands, other chemokines, MMPs, caspases, and cell death regulators and the inhibition of antiproteases.
Hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) is characterized by a cell death response with features of apoptosis and necrosis that is inhibited by IL-11 and other interventions. We hypothesized that Bfl-1/A1, an antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein, is a critical regulator of HALI and a mediator of IL-11–induced cytoprotection. To test this, we characterized the expression of A1 and the oxygen susceptibility of WT and IL-11 Tg(+) mice with normal and null A1 loci. In WT mice, 100% O2 caused TUNEL+ cell death, induction and activation of intrinsic and mitochondrial-death pathways, and alveolar protein leak. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl were also induced as an apparent protective response. A1 was induced in hyperoxia, and in A1-null mice, the toxic effects of hyperoxia were exaggerated, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl were not induced, and premature death was seen. In contrast, IL-11 stimulated A1, diminished the toxic effects of hyperoxia, stimulated Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, and enhanced murine survival in 100% O2. In A1-null mice, IL-11–induced protection, survival advantage, and Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl induction were significantly decreased. VEGF also conferred protection via an A1-dependent mechanism. In vitro hyperoxia also stimulated A1, and A1 overexpression inhibited oxidant-induced epithelial cell apoptosis and necrosis. A1 is an important regulator of oxidant-induced lung injury, apoptosis, necrosis, and Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl gene expression and a critical mediator of IL-11– and VEGF-induced cytoprotection.