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1.  Generation and Characterization of B7-H4/B7S1/B7x-Deficient Mice 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2006;26(17):6403-6411.
Members of the B7 family of cosignaling molecules regulate T-cell proliferation and effector functions by engaging cognate receptors on T cells. In vitro and in vivo blockade experiments indicated that B7-H4 (also known as B7S1 or B7x) inhibits proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity of T cells. B7-H4 binds to an unknown receptor(s) that is expressed on activated T cells. However, whether B7-H4 plays nonredundant immune regulatory roles in vivo has not been tested. We generated B7-H4-deficient mice to investigate the roles of B7-H4 during various immune reactions. Consistent with its inhibitory function in vitro, B7-H4-deficient mice mounted mildly augmented T-helper 1 (Th1) responses and displayed slightly lowered parasite burdens upon Leishmania major infection compared to the wild-type mice. However, the lack of B7-H4 did not affect hypersensitive inflammatory responses in the airway or skin that are induced by either Th1 or Th2 cells. Likewise, B7-H4-deficient mice developed normal cytotoxic T-lymphocyte reactions against viral infection. Thus, B7-H4 plays a negative regulatory role in vivo but the impact of B7-H4 deficiency is minimal. These results suggest that B7-H4 is one of multiple negative cosignaling molecules that collectively provide a fine-tuning mechanism for T-cell-mediated immune responses.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00755-06
PMCID: PMC1592821  PMID: 16914726
2.  Generation of experimental allergic airways inflammation in the absence of draining lymph nodes 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2001;108(4):577-583.
The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of secondary lymphoid organs in the generation and maintenance of experimental allergic airway inflammation. We employed a previously reported murine model of respiratory mucosal allergic sensitization, induced by repeated aerosolizations of ovalbumin in the context of a GM-CSF airway environment. We executed this protocol in wild-type (WT) and lymphotoxin-α–deficient mice (LTα-KO) mice, which are devoid of lymph nodes (LNs) and possess rudimentary spleen structures. Despite the lack of pulmonary LNs draining the airway compartment, LTα-KO mice were fully capable of mounting a robust inflammatory response in the airways, consisting of Th2 polarized CD4+ T cells and eosinophils. This was accompanied by IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-γ production by splenocytes and generation of ovalbumin-specific serum IgE. Exposure to the same antigen 7 weeks after complete resolution of airway inflammation once again induced a Th2 polarized infiltrate, demonstrating intact immunological memory. To investigate inherent plasticity in establishing antigen-specific immunity, mice were splenectomized before sensitization. Allergic sensitization was completely abrogated in splenectomized LTα-KO mice, compared with eusplenic LTα-KO controls. These data demonstrate that secondary lymphoid organs, either LN or spleen, are essential for the generation of allergic airway responses.
PMCID: PMC209400  PMID: 11518731

Results 1-2 (2)