Lung epithelium; SPLUNC1; TLR2; MAPK; AP-1; gene regulation
Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a transcriptional factor that controls the induction of heat shock proteins (e.g. HSP70) in response to stress. Bacterial infections contribute to the pathobiology of chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Whether HSF1 is critical to lung bacterial infection remains unknown. This study is aimed at investigating the impact of HSF1 deficiency on lung Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infection and elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms, such as Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling. HSF1−/− and HSF1+/+ mice were intranasally infected with Mp or saline and sacrificed 4, 24 and 72 h after treatment. HSF1−/− mice had a higher lung Mp load than HSF1+/+ mice. Mp-induced lung TLR2, nuclear factor-κB and associated inflammation [e.g. keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), neutrophils and histopathology] were delayed in HSF1−/− mice as compared to HSF1+/+ mice. HSP70 protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of HSF1−/− mice were decreased. Furthermore, in response to Mp infection, HSF1−/− alveolar macrophages had less TLR2 mRNA expression and KC production than HSF1+/+ counterparts. Nuclear factor-κB activity and KC production in HSF1−/− macrophages could be rescued by addition of exogenous HSP70 protein. These data suggest that HSF1 is necessary to initiate host defense against bacterial infection partly through promoting early TLR2 signaling activation.
Heat shock factor 1; Heat shock protein 70; Toll-like receptor 2; Macrophages
Over 40% of chronic stable asthma patients have evidence of respiratory Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infection as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), but not by serology and culture, suggesting a low-level Mp involved in chronic asthma. However, the role of such a low-level Mp infection in regulation of allergic inflammation remains unknown.
To determine the impact of a low-level Mp infection in mice with established airway allergic inflammation on allergic responses such as eosinophilia and chemokine eotaxin-2, and the underlying mechanisms (i.e., prostaglandin E2 [PGE2] pathway) since PGE2 inhalation before allergen challenge suppressed eosinophil infiltration in human airways.
BALB/c mouse models of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma with an ensuing low-dose or high-dose Mp were used to assess IL-4 expression, BAL eosinophil, eotaxin-2 and PGE2 levels, and lung mRNA levels of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). Primary alveolar macrophages (pAMs) from naïve BALB/c mice were cultured to determine if Mp-induced PGE2 or exogenous PGE2 down-regulates IL-4/IL-13-induced eotaxin-2.
Low-dose Mp in allergic mice significantly enhanced IL-4 and eotaxin-2, and moderately promoted lung eosinophilia, whereas high-dose Mp significantly reduced lung eosinophilia and tended to decrease IL-4 and eotaxin-2. Moreover, in both OVA-naïve and allergic mice, lung mPGES-1 mRNA and BAL PGE2 levels were elevated in mice infected with high-dose, but not low-dose Mp. In pAMs, IL-4/IL-13 significantly increased eotaxin-2, which was reduced by Mp infection accompanied by dose-dependent PGE2 induction. Exogenous PGE2 inhibited IL-4/IL-13-induced eotaxin-2 in a dose-dependent manner.
This study highlights a novel concept on how differing bacterial loads in the lung modify the established allergic airway inflammation, and thus interact with an allergen to further induce Th2 responses. That is: Unlike high-level Mp, low-level Mp fails to effectively induce PGE2 to down-regulate allergic responses (e.g., eotaxin-2), thus maintaining or even worsening allergic inflammation in asthmatic airways.
asthma; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; eotaxin-2; PGE2; alveolar macrophages
Caveolin-1 has emerged as a critical regulator of signaling pathways involved in lung fibrosis and inflammation. Therefore, we investigated whether caveolin-1 is deficient in asthmatic patients and in a murine model of asthma. Immunohistochemical analyses of endobronchial biopsies showed a remarkable loss of caveolin-1 in the lungs of asthmatic patients compared to controls. This loss was most evident in bronchial epithelial cells, and associated with an increase in the expression of extracellular matrix proteins collagen I, tenascin, and periostin. Cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells of asthmatics had lower caveolin-1 expression compared to control cells. In addition, caveolin-1 expression was significantly decreased in peripheral blood monocytes from asthma patients. The loss of caveolin-1 was also observed in a mouse model for asthma (mice sensitized and challenged with aspergillus fumigatus). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that the regulatory protein caveolin-1 is reduced in patients with asthma.
Asthma; allergen; epithelium
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection is involved in various lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, treatment of PA infection is not very effective in part due to antibiotic resistance. α1-antitrypsin (A1AT) has been shown to reduce PA infection in humans and animals, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of our study is to test whether a novel endogenous host defense protein, short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1), is involved in the therapeutic effect of A1AT during lung PA infection.
SPLUNC1 knockout (KO) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice on the C57BL/6 background were intranasally infected with PA to determine the therapeutic effects of A1AT. A1AT was aerosolized to mice 2 hrs after the PA infection, and mice were sacrificed 24 hrs later. PA load and inflammation were quantified in the lung, and SPLUNC1 protein in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was examined by Western blot.
In WT mice, PA infection significantly increased neutrophil elastase (NE) activity, but reduced SPLUNC1 protein in BAL fluid. Notably, PA-infected mice treated with A1AT versus bovine serum albumin (BSA) demonstrated higher levels of SPLUNC1 protein expression, which are accompanied by lower levels of NE activity, lung bacterial load, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. To determine whether A1AT therapeutic effects are dependent on SPLUNC1, lung PA load in A1AT- or BSA-treated SPLUNC1 KO mice was examined. Unlike the WT mice, A1AT treatment in SPLUNC1 KO mice had no significant impact on lung PA load and pro-inflammatory cytokine production.
A1AT reduces lung bacterial infection in mice in part by preventing NE-mediated SPLUNC1 degradation.
SPLUNC1; α1-antitrypsin; Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection; Human neutrophil elastase
IL-23 induces IL-17 production in activated CD4+ T cells and participates in host defense against many encapsulated bacteria. However, whether IL-23/IL-17 axis contributes to a Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp)-induced lung inflammation (e.g., neutrophils) has not been addressed. Using an acute respiratory Mp infection murine model, we found significantly up-regulated lung IL-23p19 mRNA in the early phase of infection (4 h), and alveolar macrophages were an important cell source of Mp-induced IL-23. We further showed that Mp significantly increased IL-17 protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Lung gene expression of IL-17, IL-17C and IL-17F was also markedly up-regulated by Mp in vivo. IL-17 and IL-17F were found to be derived mainly from lung CD4+ T cells, and were increased upon IL-23 stimulation in vitro. In vivo blocking of IL-23p19 alone or in combination with IL-23/IL-12p40 resulted in a significant reduction of Mp-induced IL-17 protein and IL-17/IL-17F mRNA expression, which was accompanied by a trend toward reduced lung neutrophil recruitment, BAL neutrophil activity, and Mp clearance. However, IL-23 neutralization had no effect on Mp-induced lung IL-17C mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that IL-17/IL-17F production is IL-23-dependent in an acute Mp infection, and contributes to neutrophil recruitment and activity in lung defense against the infection.
M. pneumoniae; IL-23; IL-17; IL-17F; neutrophil
Short palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) is enriched in normal airway lining fluid, but is significantly reduced in airway epithelium exposed to a Th2 cytokine milieu. The role of SPLUNC1 in modulating airway allergic inflammation (e.g., eosinophils) remains unknown. We used SPLUNC1 knockout (KO) and littermate wild-type (C57BL/6 background) mice and recombinant SPLUNC1 protein to determine the impact of SPLUNC1 on airway allergic/eosinophilic inflammation, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. An acute ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge protocol was used to induce murine airway allergic inflammation (e.g., eosinophils, eotaxin-2, and Th2 cytokines). Our results showed that SPLUNC1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of OVA-challenged wild-type mice was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), which was negatively correlated with levels of lung eosinophilic inflammation. Moreover, SPLUNC1 KO mice demonstrated significantly higher numbers of eosinophils in the lung after OVA challenges than did wild-type mice. Alveolar macrophages isolated from OVA-challenged SPLUNC1 KO versus wild-type mice had higher concentrations of baseline eotaxin-2 that was amplified by LPS (a known risk factor for exacerbating asthma). Human recombinant SPLUNC1 protein was applied to alveolar macrophages to study the regulation of eotaxin-2 in the context of Th2 cytokine and LPS stimulation. Recombinant SPLUNC1 protein attenuated LPS-induced eotaxin-2 production in Th2 cytokine–pretreated murine macrophages. These findings demonstrate that SPLUNC1 inhibits airway eosinophilic inflammation in allergic mice, in part by reducing eotaxin-2 production in alveolar macrophages.
SPLUNC1; asthma; alveolar macrophage; Th2 cytokines; eotaxin-2
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a disease characterized by inflammation of the nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses. This inflammation may result in part from decreased epithelial barrier and innate immune responses, leading to frequent bacterial and fungal colonization. The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression of innate immune proteins of the Palate Lung and Nasal epithelium Clone (PLUNC) family in patients with CRS.
Nasal tissue samples were collected from control subjects and CRS patients with and without nasal polyps. Expression of the members of the PLUNC family was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of SPLUNC1 and LPLUNC2 proteins was analyzed by ELISA, immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis.
Levels of mRNA for most of the members of the PLUNC family were profoundly reduced in nasal polyps (NPs) compared to uncinate tissue from control subjects or CRS patients. LPLUNC2 and SPLUNC1 proteins were decreased in NPs of CRS patients compared to uncinate tissue from control subjects. Immunohistochemical data revealed that within submucosal glands of sinonasal tissues, SPLUNC1 and LPLUNC2 were differentially expressed, in serous and mucous cells, respectively. The decrease in expression of these molecules is probably explained by a decrease in the number of glands in NPs as revealed by correlations with levels of the glandular marker lactoferrin.
Decreased SPLUNC1 and LPLUNC2 in NPs reflects a profound decrease in the number of submucosal glands. Decreased glands may lead to a localized defect in the production and release of glandular innate defense molecules.
Chronic rhinosinusitis; innate immunity; LPLUNC2; nasal polyps; SPLUNC1
The lung is constantly challenged during normal breathing by a myriad of environmental irritants and infectious insults. Pulmonary host defense mechanisms maintain homeostasis between inhibition/clearance of pathogens and regulation of inflammatory responses that could injure the airway epithelium. One component of this defense mechanism, surfactant protein-A (SP-A), exerts multifunctional roles in mediating host responses to inflammatory and infectious agents. SP-A has a bacteriostatic effect on Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp), which occurs by binding surface disaturated phosphatidylglycerols. SP-A can also bind the Mp membrane protein, MPN372. In this study we investigated the role of SP-A during acute phase pulmonary infection with Mp using mice deficient in SP-A. Biologic responses, inflammation and cellular infiltration, were much greater in Mp infected SP-A−/− mice than wild type mice. Likewise, physiologic responses (airway hyperresponsiveness and lung compliance) to Mp infection were more severely affected in SP-A−/− mice. Both Mp-induced biologic and physiologic changes were attenuated by pharmacologic inhibition of TNF-α. Our findings demonstrate that SP-A is vital to preserving lung homeostasis and host defense to this clinically relevant strain of Mp by curtailing inflammatory cell recruitment and limiting an overzealous TNF-α response.
lung; inflammation; bacterial
There is increasing interest in the application of nanotechnology to solve the difficult problem of therapeutic administration of pharmaceuticals. Nanodiscs, composed of a stable discoidal lipid bilayer encircled by an amphipathic membrane scaffold protein that is an engineered variant of the human Apo A-I constituent of high-density lipoproteins, have been a successful platform for providing a controlled lipid composition in particles that are especially useful for investigating membrane protein structure and function. In this communication, we demonstrate that nanodiscs are effective in suppressing respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infection both in vitro and in vivo when self-assembled with the minor pulmonary surfactant phospholipid palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG). Preparations of nanodiscs containing POPG (nPOPG) antagonized interleukin-8 production from Beas2B epithelial cells challenged by RSV infection, with an IC50 of 19.3 μg/mL. In quantitative in vitro plaque assays, nPOPG reduced RSV infection by 93%. In vivo, nPOPG suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung, as well as IFN-γ production in response to RSV challenge. nPOPG also completely suppressed the histopathological changes in lung tissue elicited by RSV and reduced the amount of virus recovered from lung tissue by 96%. The turnover rate of nPOPG was estimated to have a halftime of 60–120 minutes (m), based upon quantification of the recovery of the human Apo A-I constituent. From these data, we conclude that nPOPG is a potent antagonist of RSV infection and its inflammatory sequelae both in vitro and in vivo.
nanodiscs; therapeutic delivery; anti-viral; innate immunity; phospholipids
Impaired airway mucosal immunity can contribute to increased respiratory tract infections in asthmatic patients, but the involved molecular mechanisms have not been fully clarified. Airway epithelial cells serve as the first line of respiratory mucosal defense to eliminate inhaled pathogens through various mechanisms, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways. Our previous studies suggest that impaired TLR2 function in TH2 cytokine–exposed airways might decrease immune responses to pathogens and subsequently exacerbate allergic inflammation. IL-1 receptor–associated kinase M (IRAK-M) negatively regulates TLR signaling. However, IRAK-M expression in airway epithelium from asthmatic patients and its functions under a TH2 cytokine milieu remain unclear.
We sought to evaluate the role of IRAK-M in IL-13–inhibited TLR2 signaling in human airway epithelial cells. Methods: We examined IRAK-M protein expression in epithelia from asthmatic patients versus that in normal airway epithelia. Moreover, IRAK-M regulation and function in modulating innate immunity (eg, TLR2 signaling) were investigated in cultured human airway epithelial cells with or without IL-13 stimulation.
IRAK-M protein levels were increased in asthmatic airway epithelium. Furthermore, in primary human airway epithelial cells, IL-13 consistently upregulated IRAK-M expression, largely through activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. Specifically, phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation led to c-Jun binding to human IRAK-M gene promoter and IRAK-M upregulation. Functionally, IL-13–induced IRAK-M suppressed airway epithelial TLR2 signaling activation (eg, TLR2 and human β-defensin 2), partly through inhibiting activation of nuclear factor κB.
Our data indicate that epithelial IRAK-M overexpression in TH2 cytokine–exposed airways inhibits TLR2 signaling, providing a novel mechanism for the increased susceptibility of infections in asthmatic patients.
IL-13; IL-1 receptor–associated kinase M; Toll-like receptor 2; airway epithelial cells
Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the airways and destruction of lung parenchyma. Repeated and sustained bacterial infections are clearly linked to disease pathogenesis (e.g., exacerbations) and a huge burden on health care costs. The airway epithelium constitutes the first line of host defense against infection and our previous study indicated that Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 (FABP5) is down regulated in airway epithelial cells of smokers with COPD as compared to smokers without COPD. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure down regulates FABP5, thus, contributing to a more sustained inflammation in response to bacterial infection. In this report, we show that FABP5 is increased following bacterial infection but decreased following CS exposure of primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. The goal of this study was to address FABP5 function by knocking down or overexpressing FABP5 in primary NHBE cells exposed to CS. Our data indicate that FABP5 down regulation results in increased P. aeruginosa bacterial load and inflammatory cytokine levels (e.g., IL-8) and decreased expression of the anti-bacterial peptide, β defensin-2. On the contrary, FABP5 overexpression exerts a protective function in airway epithelial cells against P. aeruginosa infection by limiting the production of IL-8 and increasing the expression of β defensin-2. Our study indicates that FABP5 exerts immunomodulatory functions in the airway epithelium against CS exposure and subsequent bacterial infection through its modulation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activity. These findings support the development of FABP5/PPAR-γ-targeted therapeutic approach to prevent airway inflammation by restoring antimicrobial immunity during COPD exacerbations.
Airway bacterial infections are a major problem in lung diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis. Increased Th2 cytokines, such as IL-13, are observed in lung diseases and may contribute to bacterial infections. How Th2 cytokines affect bacterial infection remains unknown. MUC18, an adhesion molecule shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma, has been recently identified in airway epithelial cells of patients with COPD. We investigated MUC18 regulation by IL-13 and the role of MUC18 in bacterial adherence to epithelial cells. Human airway tissues, brushed bronchial epithelial cells from normal subjects and subjects with asthma, and epithelial cell lines (e.g., HEK293 cells) were used to study the regulation of MUC18 by IL-13 and the involvement of MUC18 in bacterial (e.g., Mycoplasma pneumoniae [Mp] and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae [NTHi]) adherence to epithelial cells. Asthmatic bronchial epithelium expressed higher levels of MUC18 than normal bronchial epithelium. IL-13 increased MUC18 in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from normal subjects and particularly from subjects with asthma. IL-13–induced MUC18 expression may be modulated in part through transcription factor specificity protein 1. Overexpression of human MUC18 in HEK293 cells increased cell-associated Mp and NTHi levels. Moreover, MUC18 was shown to directly interact with Mp and NTHi. These results for the first time show that an allergic airway milieu (e.g., IL-13) increases MUC18 expression, which may contribute to increased bacterial infection/colonization in asthma and other lung diseases.
airway epithelial cells; MUC18; IL-13; bacteria
Cigarette smoke (CS) is a highly complex mixture and many of its components are known carcinogens, mutagens, and other toxic substances. CS induces oxidative stress and cell death, and this cell toxicity plays a key role in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases.
We studied the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in human alveolar epithelial type I-like (ATI-like) cells. These are isolated type II cells that are differentiating toward the type I cell phenotype in vitro and have lost many type II cell markers and express type I cell markers. ATI-like cells were more sensitive to CSE than alveolar type II cells, which maintained their differentiated phenotype in vitro. We observed disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis and necrosis that were detected by double staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide or Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide and TUNEL assay after treatment with CSE. We also detected caspase 3 and caspase 7 activities and lipid peroxidation. CSE induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased expression of Nrf2, HO-1, Hsp70 and Fra1. Moreover, we found that Nrf2 knockdown sensitized ATI-like cells to CSE and Nrf2 overexpression provided protection against CSE-induced cell death. We also observed that two antioxidant compounds N-acetylcysteine and trolox protected ATI-like cells against injury by CSE.
Our study indicates that Nrf2 activation is a major factor in cellular defense of the human alveolar epithelium against CSE-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Therefore, antioxidant agents that modulate Nrf2 would be expected to restore antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes and to prevent CS-related lung injury and perhaps lessen the development of emphysema.
Rationale: Cigarette smoke (CS) is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, accounting for more than 90% of cases. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is much higher in the elderly, suggesting an age dependency. A prominent defense against the oxidant burden caused by CS is the glutathione (GSH) adaptive response in the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and tissue. However, as one ages the ability to maintain GSH levels declines.
Objectives: Examine the effect of aging on the GSH adaptive response to CS and resulting lung sensitization to inflammation and oxidation.
Methods: Both young (2 mo old) and aged (8, 13, 19, and 26 mo old) mice were used to study the effects of age on the GSH adaptive response after an acute exposure to CS.
Measurements and Main Results: Young mice had a robust sixfold increase in ELF GSH after a single exposure to CS. The GSH response to CS decreased as a function of age and diminishes in the older mice to only a twofold increase over air controls. As a consequence, levels of CS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide synthase, markers of inflammation, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, a marker of DNA oxidation, were elevated in the aged mice compared with the young mice. Additionally, depletion of ELF GSH with buthionine sulfoximine in young mice recapitulated changes in ELF tumor necrosis factor-α as seen in old mice.
Conclusions: These data suggest that the age-related maladaptive response to CS sensitizes the lung to both inflammation and oxidation potentially contributing to the development of CS-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
smoking; antioxidants; inflammation; oxidation
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibroproliferative disease characterized by an accumulation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in the alveolar wall. Even though the pathogenesis of this fatal disorder remains unclear, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced differentiation and proliferation of myofibroblasts is recognized as a primary event. The molecular pathways involved in TGF-β signalling are generally Smad-dependent yet Smad-independent pathways, including phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), have been recently proposed. In this research we established ex-vivo cultures of human lung fibroblasts and we investigated the role of the PI3K/Akt pathway in two critical stages of the fibrotic process induced by TGF-β: fibroblast proliferation and differentiation into myofibroblasts. Here we show that the pan-inhibitor of PI3Ks LY294002 is able to abrogate the TGF-β-induced increase in cell proliferation, in α- smooth muscle actin expression and in collagen production besides inhibiting Akt phosphorylation, thus demonstrating the centrality of the PI3K/Akt pathway in lung fibroblast proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, for the first time we show that PI3K p110δ and p110γ are functionally expressed in human lung fibroblasts, in addition to the ubiquitously expressed p110α and β. Finally, results obtained with both selective inhibitors and gene knocking-down experiments demonstrate a major role of p110γ and p110α in both TGF-β-induced fibroblast proliferation and differentiation. This finding suggests that specific PI3K isoforms can be pharmacological targets in IPF.
Infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae in asthma can occur both acutely and chronically with an associated Th2 inflammatory response and/or increased numbers of bronchial mast cells. Mast cells have previously been shown to promote mycoplasma clearance in mice; however, it is unknown whether mast cells would aid M. pneumoniae clearance under allergic conditions.
Our aim was to determine the impact of allergic inflammation on mast cell-mediated lung M. pneumoniae clearance. Furthermore, as we have previously demonstrated an essential role for IL-6 in lung M. pneumoniae clearance we also investigated the role of mast cell-derived IL-6.
Mast cell deficient WBB6F1/J-KitW/KitW-v mice were challenged with ovalbumin to induce airway inflammation prior to M. pneumoniae infection. The role of mast cell-derived IL-6 in bacterial clearance was further investigated by reconstitution of mast cell deficient mice with IL-6-/- mast cells.
Allergic mast cell deficient mice exhibited increased lung M. pneumoniae burden compared to control littermates. Intravenous adoptive transfer of wild type and IL-6-/- mast cells significantly improved M. pneumoniae clearance in mast cell deficient mice. Acutely after M. pneumoniae infection, allergen-challenged mast cell deficient mice had increased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in the BAL fluid. The total number of neutrophils was also increased in mast cell deficient mice.
Our results establish that mast cells aid host defense against M. pneumoniae in an allergic setting and that while IL-6 is necessary for lung M. pneumoniae clearance, mast cell-derived IL-6 is not required.
Asthma; host defense; innate immunity; mast cells; Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Respiratory infections including Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) contribute to various chronic lung diseases. We have shown that mouse short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) protein was able to inhibit Mp growth. Further, airway epithelial cells increased SPLUNC1 expression upon Mp infection. However, the mechanisms underlying SPLUNC1 regulation remain unknown. In the current study, we investigated if SPLUNC1 production following Mp infection is regulated through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling.
Airway epithelial cell cultures were utilized to reveal the contribution of TLR2 signaling including NF-κB to SPLUNC1 production upon bacterial infection and TLR2 agonist stimulation.
Mp and TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 increased SPLUNC1 expression in tracheal epithelial cells from wild type, but not TLR2-/- BALB/c mice. RNA interference (short-hairpin RNA) of TLR2 in normal human bronchial epithelial cells under air-liquid interface cultures significantly reduced SPLUNC1 levels in Mp-infected or Pam3CSK4-treated cells. Inhibition and activation of NF-κB pathway decreased and increased SPLUNC1 production in airway epithelial cells, respectively.
Our data for the first time suggest that airway epithelial TLR2 signaling is pivotal in mycoplasma-induced SPLUNC1 production, thus improving our understanding of the aberrant SPLUNC1 expression in airways of patients suffering from chronic lung diseases with bacterial infections.
Airway epithelial cells are critical in host defense against bacteria including Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. β2-agonists are mainstay of COPD and asthma therapy, but whether β2-agonists directly affect airway epithelial host defense functions is unclear.
Epithelial cells from bronchial brushings of normal (n = 8), asthma (n = 8) and COPD (n = 8) subjects were grown in air-liquid interface cultures, and treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and/or Th2 cytokine IL-13, followed by Mp infection and treatment with β2-agonists albuterol and formoterol for up to seven days. Mp and host defense proteins short palate, lung, and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1) and β-defensin-2 were quantified. Expression of β2-adrenergic receptors was also measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR.
(R)- or racemic albuterol and (R,R)- or racemic formoterol significantly decreased Mp levels in normal and asthma epithelial cells. Normal cells treated with Mp and (R)- or racemic albuterol showed an increase in SPLUNC1, but not in β-defensin-2. COPD cells did not respond to drug treatment with a significant decrease in Mp or an increase in SPLUNC1. IL-13 attenuated drug effects on Mp, and markedly decreased SPLUNC1 and β2-adrenergic receptors.
These results for the first time show that β2-agonists enhance host defense functions of primary bronchial epithelial cells from normal and asthma subjects, which is attenuated by IL-13.
Genetic and environmental factors interact to initiate and even maintain the course of asthma. As one of the highly risky environmental factors, infections in predisposed individuals can promote asthma development and exacerbations and/or prolong symptoms. This review will describe our current understanding of the genetic markers of innate immunity in the induction and development of asthma, the diverse roles of infections in modulating allergic inflammation, host susceptibility to infections and subsequent acute exacerbations in an allergic setting, and the therapeutic or preventive implications of existing knowledge. Current challenges and future directions in basic and clinical research of asthma are also discussed.
airway inflammation; asthma; genetic variants; infection; innate immunity
Chronic cigarette smoking evokes a lung glutathione (GSH) adaptive response that results in elevated GSH levels in the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF). Currently, little is known about how the lung regulates or maintains steady-state levels of ELF GSH. Pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae can exacerbate airway inflammation and oxidative stress. The present study examined whether M. pneumoniae infections synergize with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to disrupt lung GSH adaptive responses. Mice were exposed separately and in combination to ETS and M. pneumoniae for 16 weeks. ETS exposure resulted in a doubling of ELF GSH levels, which was blocked in the M. pneumoniae-exposed mice. In addition, the ETS-plus-M. pneumoniae-exposed mice had elevated levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), resulting in a dramatic change in the ELF redox state that corresponded with an increase in lung tissue DNA oxidation. Similar findings were observed in human lung epithelial cells in vitro. Cells exposed separately or in combination to cigarette smoke extract and M. pneumoniae for 48 h had elevated apical levels of GSH compared to control cells, and these increases were blocked by M. pneumoniae and were also associated with increased cellular DNA oxidation. Further studies showed that M. pneumoniae exposure blocked ETS-induced increases in GSH reductase, an enzyme that recycles GSSG back to GSH, both in vitro and in vivo. These studies suggest that M. pneumoniae infection synergizes with ETS and suppresses the lung's ability to respond appropriately to environmental challenges leading to enhanced oxidative stress.
Acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major cause of mortality among humans. ALI is characterized by microvascular protein leakage, neutrophil influx, and expression of proinflammatory mediators, followed by severe lung damage. LPS binding to its receptors is the crucial step in the causation of these multistep events. LPS binding and signaling involves CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the relative contributions of CD14 and TLR4 in the induction of ALI and their therapeutic potentials are not clear in vivo. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the roles of CD14 and TLR4 in LPS-induced ALI to determine which of these molecules is the more critical target for attenuating ALI in a mouse model. Our results show that CD14 and TLR4 are necessary for low-dose (300-μg/ml) LPS-induced microvascular leakage, NF-κB activation, neutrophil influx, cytokine and chemokine (KC, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6) expression, and subsequent lung damage. On the other hand, when a 10-fold-higher dose of LPS (3 mg/ml) was used, these responses were only partially dependent on CD14 and they were totally dependent on TLR4. The CD14-independent LPS response was dependent on CD11b. A TLR4 blocking antibody abolished microvascular leakage, neutrophil accumulation, cytokine responses, and lung pathology with a low dose of LPS but only attenuated the responses with a high dose of LPS. These data are the first to demonstrate that LPS-induced CD14-depdendent and -independent (CD11b-dependent) signaling pathways in the lung are entirely dependent on TLR4 and that blocking TLR4 might be beneficial in lung diseases caused by LPS from gram-negative pathogens.
Mortality associated with acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) remains high in humans, warranting improved treatment and prevention strategies. ALI is characterized by the expression of proinflammatory mediators and extensive neutrophil influx into the lung, followed by severe lung damage. Understanding the pathogenesis of LPS-induced ALI is a prerequisite for designing better therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we used microarrays to gain a global view of the transcriptional responses of the lung to LPS in a mouse model of ALI that mimics ALI in humans. A total of 71 inflammation-associated genes were up-regulated in LPS-treated lungs, including a chemokine, LPS-induced CXC chemokine (LIX), whose role in the induction of ALI is unknown. Most of the inflammatory genes peaked at 2 h post-LPS treatment. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR confirmed the LPS-induced up-regulation of selected genes identified by microarray analysis, including LIX. The up-regulation of LIX, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 was confirmed at the protein level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. To determine the role of LIX in the induction of ALI, we used both exogenous LIX and a LIX blocking antibody. Exogenous LIX alone elicited a neutrophil influx in the lungs, and the anti-LIX antibody attenuated the LPS-induced neutrophil accumulation in the lungs. Taken together, the results of our study demonstrate for the first time the temporal expression of inflammatory genes during LPS-induced ALI and suggest that early therapeutic intervention is crucial to attenuate lung damage. Moreover, we identified a role for LIX in the induction of ALI, and therefore LIX may serve as a novel therapeutic target for the minimization of ALI.
Airway mycoplasma infection may be associated with asthma pathophysiology. However, the direct effects of mycoplasma infection on asthma remain unknown. Using a murine allergic-asthma model, we evaluated the effects of different timing of airway Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection on bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), lung inflammation, and the protein levels of Th1 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and Th2 (interleukin 4 [IL-4]) cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. When mycoplasma infection occurred 3 days before allergen (ovalbumin) sensitization and challenge, the infection reduced the BHR and inflammatory-cell influx into the lung. This was accompanied by a significant induction of Th1 responses (increased IFN-γ and decreased IL-4 production). Conversely, when mycoplasma infection occurred 2 days after allergen sensitization and challenge, the infection initially caused a temporary reduction of BHR and then increased BHR, lung inflammation, and IL-4 levels. Our data suggest that mycoplasma infection could modulate both physiological and immunological responses in the murine asthma model. Our animal models may also provide a new means to understand the role of infection in asthma pathogenesis and give evidence for the asthma hygiene hypothesis.
To evaluate the effect of airborne particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) in winter on airway inflammation, water-soluble supernatant (Sup) and water-insoluble precipitate (Pre) in PM2.5 were inoculated in NC/Nga mice with high sensitivity to mite allergens. Sup with aluminum oxide was injected intraperitoneally for sensitization. Five days later, Sup, Pre or both Sup and Pre were inoculated via the nasal route five times for more sensitization and a challenge inoculation on the 11th day in NC/Nga mice. On the 12th day, mice were examined for airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), BALF cell count and IL-1β concentration, mRNA expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, chemokines such as eotaxin 1 and eotaxin 2, inflammasomal complex molecules such as IL-1β, caspase 1 and the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3) in lung tissue as well as histopathology. The synergistic effect of Sup and Pre was observed in terms of increases in AHR, BALF cells, the mRNA expression of IL-13, eotaxin1 and IL-1β, and the IL-1β concentration in BALF. Intracellular deposits of insoluble particulates were observed in macrophages around inflammatory granulation of the mouse group treated with Sup and Pre. These results suggest that PM2.5 can induce airway hyperresponsiveness in mice with genetically high sensitivity to mite allergens by an inflammasome-associated mechanism and synergistic action of insoluble particulates and soluble components.