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1.  Inducible Costimulator Protein (Icos) Controls T Helper Cell Subset Polarization after Virus and Parasite Infection 
It has been shown that certain pathogens can trigger efficient T cell responses in the absence of CD28, a key costimulatory receptor expressed on resting T cells. Inducible costimulator protein (ICOS) is an inducible costimulator structurally and functionally related to CD28. Here, we show that in the absence of CD28 both T helper cell type 1 (Th1) and Th2 responses were impaired but not abrogated after infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Inhibition of ICOS in CD28-deficient mice further reduced Th1/Th2 polarization. Blocking of ICOS alone had a limited but significant capacity to downregulate Th subset development. In contrast, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, which are regulated to a minor and major extent by CD28 after LCMV and VSV infection, respectively, remained unaffected by blocking ICOS. Together, our results demonstrate that ICOS regulates both CD28-dependent and CD28-independent CD4+ subset (Th1 and Th2) responses but not CTL responses in vivo.
PMCID: PMC1887704  PMID: 10880526
ICOS; CD28; Th1/Th2; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis; LCMV
2.  Cd2 Sets Quantitative Thresholds in T Cell Activation 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1999;190(10):1383-1392.
It has been proposed that CD2, which is highly expressed on T cells, serves to enhance T cell–antigen presenting cell (APC) adhesion and costimulate T cell activation. Here we analyzed the role of CD2 using CD2-deficient mice crossed with transgenic mice expressing a T cell receptor specific for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-derived peptide p33. We found that absence of CD2 on T cells shifted the p33-specific dose–response curve in vitro by a factor of 3–10. In comparison, stimulation of T cells in the absence of lymphocyte function–associated antigen (LFA)-1–intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 interaction shifted the dose–response curve by a factor of 10, whereas absence of both CD2–CD48 and LFA-1–ICAM-1 interactions shifted the response by a factor of ∼100. This indicates that CD2 and LFA-1 facilitate T cell activation additively. T cell activation at low antigen density was blocked at its very first steps, as T cell APC conjugate formation, TCR triggering, and Ca2+ fluxes were affected by the absence of CD2. In vivo, LCMV-specific, CD2-deficient T cells proliferated normally upon infection with live virus but responded in a reduced fashion upon cross-priming. Thus, CD2 sets quantitative thresholds and fine-tunes T cell activation both in vitro and in vivo.
PMCID: PMC2195700  PMID: 10562314
adhesion; costimulation; virus; cross-priming; T cell

Results 1-2 (2)