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1.  Altered Leukotriene B4 metabolism in CYP4F18-deficient mice does not impact inflammation following renal ischemia 
Biochimica et biophysica acta  2014;1841(6):868-879.
Inflammatory responses to infection and injury must be restrained and negatively regulated to minimize damage to host tissue. One proposed mechanism involves enzymatic inactivation of the pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4, but it is difficult to dissect the roles of various metabolic enzymes and pathways. A primary candidate for a regulatory pathway is omega oxidation of leukotriene B4 in neutrophils, presumptively by CYP4F3A in humans and CYP4F18 in mice. This pathway generates ω, ω-1, and ω-2 hydroxylated products of leukotriene B4, depending on species. We created mouse models targeting exons 8 and 9 of the Cyp4f18 allele that allows both conventional and conditional knockout of Cyp4f18. Neutrophils from wild-type mice convert leukotriene B4 to 19-hydroxy leukotriene B4, and to a lesser extent 18-hydroxy leukotriene B4, whereas these products were not detected in neutrophils from conventional Cyp4f18 knockouts. A mouse model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury was used to investigate the consequences of loss of CYP4F18 in vivo. There were no significant changes in infiltration of neutrophils and other leukocytes into kidney tissue as determined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, or renal injury as assessed by histological scoring and measurement of blood urea nitrogen. It is concluded that CYP4F18 is necessary for omega oxidation of leukotriene B4 in neutrophils, and is not compensated by other CYP enzymes, but loss of this metabolic pathway is not sufficient to impact inflammation and injury following renal ischemia-reperfusion in mice.
doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.03.002
PMCID: PMC4013684  PMID: 24632148
Cytochrome P450; neutrophil; leukotriene B4; ω-hydroxylase; inflammation
2.  CD200R1 Supports HSV-1 Viral Replication and Licenses Pro-Inflammatory Signaling Functions of TLR2 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47740.
The CD200R1:CD200 axis is traditionally considered to limit tissue inflammation by down-regulating pro-inflammatory signaling in myeloid cells bearing the receptor. We generated CD200R1−/− mice and employed them to explore both the role of CD200R1 in regulating macrophage signaling via TLR2 as well as the host response to an in vivo, TLR2-dependent model, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. CD200R1−/− peritoneal macrophages demonstrated a 70–75% decrease in the generation of IL-6 and CCL5 (Rantes) in response to the TLR2 agonist Pam2CSK4 and to HSV-1. CD200R1−/− macrophages could neither up-regulate the expression of TLR2, nor assemble a functional inflammasome in response to HSV-1. CD200R1−/− mice were protected from HSV-1 infection and exhibited dysfunctional TLR2 signaling. Finally, both CD200R1−/− mice and CD200R1−/− fibroblasts and macrophages showed a markedly reduced ability to support HSV-1 replication. In summary, our data demonstrate an unanticipated and novel requirement for CD200R1 in “licensing” pro-inflammatory functions of TLR2 and in limiting viral replication that are supported by ex vivo and in vivo evidence.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047740
PMCID: PMC3474780  PMID: 23082204
3.  20-HETE Mediates Ozone-Induced, Neutrophil-Independent Airway Hyper-Responsiveness in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(4):e10235.
Background
Ozone, a pollutant known to induce airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), increases morbidity and mortality in patients with obstructive airway diseases and asthma. We postulate oxidized lipids mediate in vivo ozone-induced AHR in murine airways.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Male BALB/c mice were exposed to ozone (3 or 6 ppm) or filtered air (controls) for 2 h. Precision cut lung slices (PCLS; 250 µm thickness) containing an intrapulmonary airway (∼0.01 mm2 lumen area) were prepared immediately after exposure or 16 h later. After 24 h, airways were contracted to carbachol (CCh). Log EC50 and Emax values were then calculated by measuring the airway lumen area with respect to baseline. In parallel studies, dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg), or 1-aminobenzotriazol (ABT) (50 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneal injection to naïve mice 18 h prior to ozone exposure. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was administered 2 h prior. Cell counts, cytokine levels and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for lipid analysis were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from ozone exposed and control mice. Ozone acutely induced AHR to CCh. Dexamethasone or indomethacin had little effect on the ozone-induced AHR; while, ABT, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, markedly attenuated airway sensitivity. BAL fluid from ozone exposed animals, which did not contain an increase in neutrophils or interleukin (IL)-6 levels, increased airway sensitivity following in vitro incubation with a naïve PCLS. In parallel, significant increases in oxidized lipids were also identified using LC-MS with increases of 20-HETE that were decreased following ABT treatment.
Conclusions/Significance
These data show that ozone acutely induces AHR to CCh independent of inflammation and is insensitive to steroid treatment or cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. BAL fluid from ozone exposed mice mimicked the effects of in vivo ozone exposure that were associated with marked increases in oxidized lipids. 20-HETE plays a pivotal role in mediating acute ozone-induced AHR.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010235
PMCID: PMC2857875  PMID: 20422032
4.  The organization and consequences of eicosanoid signaling 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2003;111(8):1107-1113.
doi:10.1172/JCI200318338
PMCID: PMC152944  PMID: 12697726

Results 1-4 (4)