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1.  Lack of Association of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Gene Haplotypes with Bone Mineral Density, Bone Loss, or Risk of Fractures in Men 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2011;2011:243465.
Introduction. The association of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) with BMD and risk of fracture was suggested by a recent linkage study, but subsequent studies have been contradictory. We report the results of a study of the relationship between BMP2 genotypes and BMD, annual change in BMD, and risk of fracture in male subjects. Materials and Methods. We tested three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the BMP2 gene, including Ser37Ala SNP, in 342 Caucasian Englishmen, comprising 224 control and 118 osteoporotic subjects. Results. BMP2 SNP1 (Ser37Ala) genotypes were found to have similar low frequency in control subjects and men with osteoporosis. The major informative polymorphism, BMP2 SNP3 (Arg190Ser), showed no statistically significant association with weight, height, BMD, change in BMD at hip or lumbar spine, and risk of fracture. Conclusion. There were no genotypic or haplotypic effects of the BMP2 candidate gene on BMD, change in BMD, or fracture risk identified in this cohort.
doi:10.4061/2011/243465
PMCID: PMC3195445  PMID: 22013543
2.  Skeletal Site-Related Variation in Human Trabecular Bone Transcriptome and Signaling 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(5):e10692.
Background
The skeletal site-specific influence of multiple genes on bone morphology is recognised, but the question as to how these influences may be exerted at the molecular and cellular level has not been explored.
Methodology
To address this question, we have compared global gene expression profiles of human trabecular bone from two different skeletal sites that experience vastly different degrees of mechanical loading, namely biopsies from iliac crest and lumbar spinal lamina.
Principal Findings
In the lumbar spine, compared to the iliac crest, the majority of the differentially expressed genes showed significantly increased levels of expression; 3406 transcripts were up- whilst 838 were down-regulated. Interestingly, all gene transcripts that have been recently demonstrated to be markers of osteocyte, as well as osteoblast and osteoclast-related genes, were markedly up-regulated in the spine. The transcriptome data is consistent with osteocyte numbers being almost identical at the two anatomical sites, but suggesting a relatively low osteocyte functional activity in the iliac crest. Similarly, osteoblast and osteoclast expression data suggested similar numbers of the cells, but presented with higher activity in the spine than iliac crest. This analysis has also led to the identification of expression of a number of transcripts, previously known and novel, which to our knowledge have never earlier been associated with bone growth and remodelling.
Conclusions and Significance
This study provides molecular evidence explaining anatomical and micro-architectural site-related changes in bone cell function, which is predominantly attributable to alteration in cell transcriptional activity. A number of novel signaling molecules in critical pathways, which have been hitherto not known to be expressed in bone cells of mature vertebrates, were identified.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010692
PMCID: PMC2872667  PMID: 20502692
3.  Alkyl-Capped Silicon Nanocrystals Lack Cytotoxicity and have Enhanced Intracellular Accumulation in Malignant Cells via Cholesterol-Dependent Endocytosis 
Nanocrystals of various inorganic materials are being considered for application in the life sciences as fluorescent labels and for such therapeutic applications as drug delivery or targeted cell destruction. The potential applications of the nanoparticles are critically compromised due to the well-documented toxicity and lack of understanding about the mechanisms involved in the intracellular internalization. Here intracellular internalization and toxicity of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in human neoplastic and normal primary cells is reported. The capped nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity, and there is a marked difference in the rate and extent of intracellular accumulation of the nanoparticles between human cancerous and non-cancerous primary cells, the rate and extent being higher in the malignant cells compared to normal human primary cells. The exposure of the cells to the alkyl-capped nanocrystals demonstrates no evidence of in vitro cytotoxicity when assessed by cell morphology, apoptosis, and cell viability assays. The internalization of the nanocrystals by Hela and SW1353 cells is almost completely blocked by the pinocytosis inhibitors filipin, cytochalasin B, and actinomycin D. The internalization process is not associated with any surface change in the nanoparticles, as their luminescence spectrum is unaltered upon transport into the cytosol. The observed dramatic difference in the rate and extent of internalization of the nanocrystals between malignant and non-malignant cells therefore offers potential application in the management of human neoplastic conditions.
doi:10.1002/smll.200800903
PMCID: PMC2962801  PMID: 19058285
cells; fluorescence; nanoparticles; quantum dots; silicon

Results 1-3 (3)