The disease activity score including 28 joints (DAS28), the simplified disease activity index and the clinical disease activity index (CDAI) were developed in order to provide a quantifiable measure of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity. Although inflamed hip joints greatly impact activities of daily living (ADL) and walking ability, the hip joint was not included in the DAS28, SDAI or CDAI assessments. Although excellent clinical results have been reported for total hip arthroplasty (THA) in RA patients, correlations between disease activity and hip function in RA patients after THA remain unknown.
We analysed the effect of RA disease activity on a hip function score in an observational cohort of RA patients after THA. Twenty-five registered RA patients who had undergone THA (33 joints) were included. Hip function was recorded and RA disease activity was measured on the same day. The mean age of the patients was 65.17 years. They were followed up for a mean of 5.24 years after surgery. The mean duration of disease following RA diagnosis for this patient group was 19.47 years. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) hip score was used as a clinical outcome measure for hip dysfunction. RA disease activity and health-related quality of life were measured using the DAS28, SDAI, CDAI and the modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ).
The mean JOA score for hip function was 80.48 at the final follow-up. The mean DAS28-ESR, DAS28-CRP, SDAI, CDAI and MHAQ measuring RA disease activity levels were 3.38, 2.65, 9.59, 8.63 and 0.44, respectively, at the final follow-up. There was a significant negative correlation between the JOA hip score and all disease activity assessments observed after THA (DAS-ESR [P = 0.0067], DAS-CRP [P = 0.0008]), SDAI [P = 0.0034], CDAI [P = 0.0003]) and MHAQ [P = 0.0002]).
We found significant negative correlations between JOA hip scores and all disease activity assessments in RA patients treated with THA.
We presented a very rare case of adult Fielding type I atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF). We performed awake manual reduction of the dislocation without need for anesthesia, achieving excellent outcomes, and no previous reports have described awake reduction without the need for anesthesia. AARF in this case was attributed to excessive extension and rotation forces applied to the cervical spine. For the management of adult Fielding type I AARF, early diagnosis and early reduction may lead to excellent outcomes.
Wide-margin resections are an accepted method for treating soft tissue sarcoma. However, a wide-margin resection sometimes impairs function because of the lack of normal tissue. To preserve the normal tissue surrounding a tumor, we developed a less radical (ie, without a wide margin) surgical procedure using adjunctive photodynamic therapy and acridine orange for treating soft tissue sarcoma. However, whether this less radical surgical approach increases or decreases survival or whether it increases the risk of local recurrence remains uncertain.
We determined the survival, local recurrence, and limb function outcomes in patients treated with a less radical approach and adjunctive acridine orange therapy compared with those who underwent a conventional wide-margin resection.
We treated 170 patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcoma between 1999 and 2009. Fifty-one of these patients underwent acridine orange therapy. The remaining 119 patients underwent a conventional wide-margin resection for limb salvage surgery. We recorded the survival, local recurrence, and functional score (International Society of Limb Salvage [ISOLS]) score) for all the patients.
The 10-year overall survival rates in the acridine orange therapy group and the conventional surgery group were 68% and 63%, respectively. The 10-year local recurrence rate was 29% for each group. The 5-year local recurrence rates for Stages II, III, and IV were 8%, 36%, and 40%, respectively, for the acridine orange group and 13%, 27%, and 33%, respectively, for the conventional surgery group. The average ISOLS score was 93% for the acridine orange group and 83% for the conventional therapy group.
Acridine orange therapy has the potential to preserve limb function without increasing the rate of local recurrence. This therapy may be useful for eliminating tumor cells with minimal damage to the normal tissue in patients with soft tissue sarcoma.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of the levels of evidence.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of bone cutting and implantation in minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty with image-free navigation.
The alignment of the tibial and femoral bone resection was measured in 40 knees during surgery. The alignment measurement was repeated after cementing the tibial and femoral components. We evaluated the cutting error and the implanting error.
The mean tibial cutting errors were 0.5 and 0.7° in the frontal and sagittal planes, respectively. The mean femoral cutting errors were 0.5 and 0.9° in the frontal and sagittal planes, respectively. The mean tibial implanting errors were 1.0 and 0.9° in the frontal and sagittal planes, respectively. The mean femoral implanting error was 0.7° in the frontal plane.
Computer-assisted navigation was useful in checking the alignment of both bone cut and cementation.
We describe four cases of delayed union in female patients with severe osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which were treated in a similar but less costly method to kyphoplasty. Due to domestic regulations, inflatable tamps for kyphoplasty are not available to every clinical orthopedists in Japan. In our clinical experience of four cases of delayed lumbar spine union between 2009 and 2010, we performed vertebroplasty using a reduction and spreading prod (Oyamada prod) for fracture reduction and a pediatric uromatic balloon (Medicon Co. Ltd.) to enlarge the pre-existing cavity. Our clinical results were comparable to those of kyphoplasty procedures performed in the USA. Our procedure could be used to overcome the shortage of medical supplies in developing countries or in countries such as Japan, which often prioritize financial concerns over providing optimal health care. Our method could serve as a useful compromise for moribund patients considering its cost efficiency.
Osteoporotic vertebral fracture; Kyphoplasty; Pediatric uromatic balloon; Cost-efficiency
Symptomatic Tarlov (perineural cysts) are uncommon. In the following hemodialysis case, cauda equina syndrome was not detected after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia untilthe patient reported a lack of sensation in the perianal area 14 days postoperatively. She had normal motor function of her extremities. A laminectomy and cyst irrigation was performed. After the operation, her sphincter disturbance subsided gradually and her symptoms had disappeared.
Cauda eqina syndrome; Perineural cyst; Hemodialysis
Neural-cadherin (N-cadherin) is one of the most important molecules involved in tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, and the maintenance of tissue integrity. Recently, the cleavage of N-cadherin has become a focus of attention in the field of cancer biology. Cadherin and their ectodomain proteolytic shedding play important roles during cancer progression. The aims of this study are to investigate the serum soluble N-cadherin (sN-CAD) levels in patients with malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, and to evaluate the prognostic significance of the sN-CAD levels.
We examined the level of serum sN-CAD using an ELISA in 80 malignant bone and soft tissue tumors (bone sarcoma, n = 23; soft tissue sarcoma, n = 50; metastatic cancer, n = 7) and 87 normal controls. The mean age of the patients was 51 years (range, 10–85 years) and the mean follow-up period was 43 months (range, 1–115 months).
The median serum sN-CAD level was 1,267 ng/ml (range, 135–2,860 ng/ml) in all patients. The mean serum sN-CAD level was 1,269 ng/ml (range, 360–2,860 ng/ml) in sarcoma patients, otherwise 1,246 ng/ml (range, 135–2,140 ng/ml) in cancer patients. The sN-CAD levels in patient were higher than those found in the controls, who had a median serum level of 108 ng/ml (range, 0–540 ng/ml). The patients with tumors larger than 5 cm had higher serum sN-CAD levels than the patients with tumors smaller than 5 cm. The histological grade in the patients with higher serum sN-CAD levels was higher than that in the patients with lower serum sN-CAD levels. A univariate analysis demonstrated that the patients with higher serum sN-CAD levels showed a worse disease-free survival rate, local recurrence-free survival rate, metastasis-free survival rate, and overall survival rate compared to those with lower serum sN-CAD levels. In the multivariate analysis, sN-CAD was an independent factor predicting disease-free survival.
sN-CAD is a biomarker for malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, and a potentially valuable pre-therapeutic prognostic factor in patients with bone and soft tissue sarcoma.
Sarcoma; Cadherin; Prognosis; Shedding; Biomarker
Zirconia was introduced as an alternative to alumina for use in the femoral head. The yttria stabilized zirconia material was improved by adding alumina. We evaluated highly cross-linked polyethylene wear performance of zirconia in total hip arthroplasty. The hypothesis was that alumina stabilized zirconia could decrease highly cross-linked polyethylene wear.
Highly cross-linked polyethylene wear was measured with a computerized method (PolyWare) in 91 hips. The steady-state wear rates were measured based on the radiographs from the first year postoperatively to the final follow-up and were compared between hips with yttria stabilized zirconia and alumina stabilized zirconia.
The steady-state wear rate of highly cross-linked polyethylene against zirconia was 0.02 mm/year at a mean follow-up of 7 years. No significant difference was observed between groups with yttria stabilized zirconia and alumina stabilized zirconia.
Addition of alumina to the zirconia material failed to show further reduction of highly cross-linked polyethylene wear and our hypothesis was not verified.
Total hip arthroplasty; Zirconia; Highly cross-linked polyethylene; Wear; Transformation rate
Here, a case of Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) of the femur with an unusual clinical course is reported. At 20 years of age, the patient had undergone curettage of a bone tumor of the right femur which was diagnosed as ESFT. One cycle of chemotherapy with vincristine and cyclophosphamide and radiotherapy for a total dose of 40 Gy was administered. The patient did not develop any recurrence or metastases for the following 18 years, in spite of the inadequacy of the initial treatment. At 38 years of age, he was referred to our institution with right thigh pain that had persisted for several months. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging findings showed a mass lesion in his proximal femur extending to the soft tissue. An open biopsy was performed and the lesion was diagnosed as recurrence of ESFT, although a molecular biological investigation did not reveal any expression of the characteristic fusion genes that have previously been reported. The patient received standard multimodal therapy employing standard combination chemo-therapy for ESFT and wide surgical excision. The patient has been disease-free for 9 years since the treatment. This patient may have a rare subtype of ESFT with an unknown chromosomal translocation and relatively non-aggressive biological behavior.
Ewing’s sarcoma; recurrence; unusual clinical course
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis and accounts for substantial morbidity and disability, particularly in the elderly. It is characterized by changes in joint structure including degeneration of the articular cartilage and its etiology is multifactorial with a strong postulated genetic component. We performed a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association (GWA) studies of 2,371 knee OA cases and 35,909 controls in Caucasian populations. Replication of the top hits was attempted with data from additional ten replication datasets. With a cumulative sample size of 6,709 cases and 44,439 controls, we identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 7q22 for knee OA (rs4730250, p-value=9.2×10−9), thereby confirming its role as a susceptibility locus for OA. The associated signal is located within a large (500kb) linkage disequilibrium (LD) block that contains six genes; PRKAR2B (protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta), HPB1 (HMG-box transcription factor 1), COG5 (component of oligomeric golgi complex 5), GPR22 (G protein-coupled receptor 22), DUS4L (dihydrouridine synthase 4-like), and BCAP29 (the B-cell receptor-associated protein 29). Gene expression analyses of the (six) genes in primary cells derived from different joint tissues confirmed expression of all the genes in the joint environment.
CD155 was initially identified as a receptor for poliovirus. Several studies have demonstrated that CD155 overexpression in cancer cells is significant in their migration, invasion, proliferation and metastasis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the correlation between CD155 expression and the clinical aggressiveness of soft tissue tumors. The CD155 expression levels in 43 surgically-resected soft tissue tumors were evaluated using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The clinicopathogical factors affecting the expression levels of CD155 mRNA were investigated and the association between the expression levels of CD155 and patient prognosis was identified. The CD155 expression level was not correlated with the patient gender, site of the primary tumor, tumor depth, tumor size or presence of distant metastasis at presentation, but was correlated with patient age (Fisher’s exact test). The local recurrence-free survival rate for patients with a high CD155 expression level was observed to be significantly poorer compared with that of patients with low CD155 expression levels (P=0.0401). Moreover, a multivariate analysis indicated that a high CD155 expression level was an independent adverse prognostic factor for local recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 6.369; P=0.0328). The present study therefore suggests that the expression level of CD155 is a useful marker for predicting the local recurrence of soft tissue tumors.
CD155/PVR/Necl-5; soft tissue sarcoma; local recurrence; biomarker; prognosis
Studies have shown that ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) produces free radicals leading to lipid peroxidation and damage to skeletal muscle. The purposes of this study were 1) to assess the histological findings of gastrocnemius muscle (GC) and tibialis anterior muscle (TA) in I/R injury model mice, 2) to histologically analyze whether a single pretreatment of edaravone inhibits I/R injury to skeletal muscle in murine models and 3) to evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on these muscles.
C57BL6 mice were divided in two groups, with one group receiving 3 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of edaravone (I/R + Ed group) and the other group receiving an identical amount of saline (I/R group) 30 minutes before ischemia. Edaravone (3-methy-1-pheny1-2-pyrazolin-5-one) is a potent and novel synthetic scavenger of free radicals. This drug inhibits both nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation and the lipoxygenase pathway, in addition to having potent antioxidant effects against ischemia reperfusion. The duration of the ischemia was 1.5 hours, with reperfusion at either 24 or 72 hours (3 days). Specimens of gastrocnemius (GC) and anterior tibialis (TA) were removed for histological evaluation and biochemical analysis.
This model of I/R injury was highly reproducible in histologic muscle damage. In the histologic damage score, the mean muscle fibers and inflammatory cell infiltration in the I/R + Ed group were significantly less than the corresponding values of observed in the I/R group. Thus, pretreatment with edaravone was observed to have a protective effect on muscle damage after a period of I/R in mice. In addition, the mean muscle injury score in the I/R + Ed group was also significantly less than the I/R group. In the I/R + Ed group, the mean malondialdehyde (MDA) level was lower than in the I/R group and western-blotting revealed that edaravone pretreatment decreased the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression.
Edaravone was found to have a protective effect against I/R injury by directly inhibiting lipid peroxidation of the myocyte by free radicals in skeletal muscles and may also reduce the secondary edema and inflammatory infiltration incidence of oxidative stress on tissue.
Ischemia-reperfusion injury; Skeletal muscle; Free radical scavenger; Edaravone; iNOS
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a fraction of plasma in which several growth factors are concentrated at high levels. The active soluble releasate isolated following platelet activation of PRP (PRP-releasate) has been demonstrated to stimulate the metabolism of IVD cells in vitro. The in vivo effect of PRP-releasate on degenerated IVD remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the reparative effects of autologous PRP-releasate on degenerated intervertebral discs (IVDs).
To induce disc degeneration, New Zealand white rabbits (n = 12) received anular puncture in two noncontiguous discs. Autologous PRP and PPP (platelet-poor plasma) were isolated from fresh blood using two centrifugation techniques. Four weeks after the initial puncture, releasate isolated from clotted PPP or PRP (PPP- or PRP-releasate), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; control) was injected into the punctured discs. Disc height, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-mapping and histology were assessed.
Anular puncture produced a consistent disc narrowing within four weeks. PRP-releasate induced a statistically significant restoration of disc height (PRP vs. PPP and PBS, P<0.05). In T2-quantification, the mean T2-values of the nucleus pulposus (NP) and anulus fibrosus (AF) of the discs were not significantly different among the three treatment groups. Histologically, the number of chondrocyte-like cells was significantly higher in the discs injected with PRP-releasate compared to that with PBS.
The administration of active PRP-releasate induced a reparative effect on rabbit degenerated IVDs. The results of this study suggest that the use of autologous PRP-releasate is safe and can lead to a clinical application for IVD degeneration.
This longitudinal study aimed to identify risk factors for the incidence and progression of radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the inhabitants of Miyagawa village aged ≥65 years every two years between 1997 and 2007. Anteroposterior radiographs of both knees were graded for OA using the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grading system. Knee OA was defined as grade ≥2. We recorded the incidence of knee OA among participants in whom both knees changed from K/L grades 0 or 1 to ≥2 over a four-year follow-up period. We also recorded the progression of knee OA using this threshold among patients in whom one or both knees changed from K/L grades 2 or 3 to any higher grade over the follow-up period. Baseline data obtained from standard questionnaires, physical findings and X-rays included age, gender, body mass index (BMI), osteoporosis, Heberden’s nodes, knee range of motion (ROM), knee pain and cigarette smoking. The rates of incidence and progression of knee OA among 360 participants (241 women, 119 men) who fulfilled the study criteria were 4.0 and 6.0% per year, respectively. Female gender (odds ratio [OR] 2.849, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.170–6.944) and high BMI (OR 1.243, 95% CI 1.095–1.411) were significantly associated with the incidence of knee OA, and restricted knee ROM (OR 0.941, 95% CI 0.892–0.992) was significantly associated with knee OA progression. Patients with a low knee ROM relative to grade of radiographic knee OA require more careful follow-up than those with a higher ROM.
To address the need for standardization of osteoarthritis (OA) phenotypes by examining the effect of heterogeneity among symptomatic (SOA) and radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) phenotypes.
Descriptions of OA phenotypes of the 28 studies involved in the TREAT-OA consortium were collected. To investigate whether different OA definitions result in different association results, we created hip OA definitions used within the consortium in the Rotterdam Study-I and tested the association of hip OA with gender, age and BMI using one-way ANOVA. For radiographic OA, we standardized the hip, knee and hand ROA definitions and calculated prevalence's of ROA before and after standardization in 9 cohort studies. This procedure could only be performed in cohort studies and standardization of SOA definitions was not feasible at this moment.
In this consortium, all studies with symptomatic OA phenotypes (knee, hip and hand) used a different definition and/or assessment of OA status. For knee, hip and hand radiographic OA 5, 4 and 7 different definitions were used, respectively. Different hip OA definitions do lead to different association results. For example, we showed in the Rotterdam Study-I that hip OA defined as “at least definite JSN and one definite osteophyte” was not associated with gender (p=0.22), but defined as “at least one definite osteophyte” was significantly associated with gender (p=3×10−9). Therefore, a standardization process was undertaken for radiographic OA definitions. Before standardization a wide range of ROA prevalence's was observed in the 9 cohorts studied. After standardization the range in prevalence of knee and hip ROA was small. Standardization of SOA phenotypes was not possible due to the case-control design of the studies.
Phenotype definitions influence the prevalence of OA and association with clinical variables. ROA phenotypes within the TREAT-OA consortium were standardized to reduce heterogeneity and improve power in future genetics studies.
Malignant soft tissue tumors of the foot are extremely rare and thus can be prematurely excised without appropriate preoperative evaluation. The present study compares adverse effects between unplanned and planned surgical excisions.
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records, radiographs, pathology reports and pathological specimens of 14 consecutive patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the foot among 592 with sarcomas between 1973 and 2009. We then compared the incidence and clinical outcomes after unplanned (UT; n = 5) and planned (PT; n = 9) surgical excisions of foot sarcomas.
The most frequent diagnosis was synovial sarcoma (n = 4; 28.6%). The overall 5-year survival rates of the PT and UT groups were 65.6% and 60.0%, respectively, and the event-free 5-year survival rates were 63.5% and 40.0%, respectively. Event-free and overall survival rates did not significantly differ between the two groups. However, tumors were significantly larger in the PT group than in the UT group (p < 0.05).
Unplanned resection lead to a relatively worse prognosis and a likelihood of recurrence despite additional resections. We recommend that soft tumors of the foot should only be excised after appropriate preoperative evaluation regardless of the size of the tumor.
A 68-year-old diabetic man, who had been on dialysis for 3 years, suffered a five week history of severe back pain that was unresponsive to bed rest, analgesics, and bracing. The vertebral cleft formed by an injury gradually increased in size on sequential plain films. Hence, he underwent calcium phosphate cement-assisted percutaneous transpedicular balloon kyphoplasty to treat a painful interbody vacuum cleft. Immediate pain relief and firm bone union were obtained.
Hemodialysis; Adjacent vertebral fractures; Large vertebral cleft; Calcium phosphate cement
Intravenous antibiotics effectively reduce the prevalence of postoperative infection. However, Japanese orthopaedic surgeons have no consensus with regard to the optimal duration of prophylaxis. The aim of this study is to compare the outcome of one-day intravenous antibiotic administration with that of long-term intravenous antibiotic administration. Patients who underwent total hip or knee arthroplasty were divided into 2 groups to receive one of 2 prophylactic protocols retrospectively. Group A (223 patients) received intravenous antibiotics twice only on the day of surgery, whereas Group B (104 patients) received intravenous antibiotics for at least 3 days after surgery. We analyzed the wound infection rate and monitored liver and renal functions. None of these patients had a postoperative infection. No liver dysfunction and renal dysfunction were observed. One-day antibiotic infusion was as effective as long-term antibiotics in preventing infection after arthroplasty and achieved greater cost effectiveness.
Numerous studies have reported the survival of metastatic sarcoma patients who have undergone either a lung metastasectomy or chemotherapy. However, little is known with regards to the clinical course of patients with bone or soft tissue sarcomas who have succumbed to disease. This study aimed to analyze the metastatic patterns of sarcoma patients and to describe the clinical course after the detection of distant metastasis. We reviewed the clinical records of 255 patients with a diagnosis of sarcoma who were referred to our institution, and found 63 patients who succumbed due to metastasis. We examined the clinical features of the initially detected distant metastases, the subsequent clinical course up to the time of patient death and the survival time of patients who died of lung metastasis. Of the 63 patients who died of distant metastasis, 52 (83%) developed lung metastasis as the first metastatic site, while 22 (35%) developed extra-pulmonary metastasis. The majority (77%; 49 of 63 patients) died of primary metastasis. While all 18 bone sarcoma patients died of lung metastasis, 11 of the 45 soft tissue sarcoma patients died of extra-pulmonary metastasis. Six patients died of brain metastasis. The survival of the patients with lung metastasis was only approximately 6 months following the cessation of treatment, regardless of the type of treatment used. These results indicate that planned follow-up and treatment of sarcomas require a precise knowledge of tumor clinical behavior, particularly of the preponderant activity.
cause of death; metastasis; sarcoma
Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) occurs in approximately 1% of soft tissue sarcomas and 2–4% of all osteosarcomas. In particular, subcutaneous osteosarcoma is extremely rare, occurring in less than 10% of ESOS cases. This report presents a case of a subcutaneous tumor in the upper arm of a 79-year-old male. Imaging and pathological findings led to the conclusion that the soft tissue tumor should be diagnosed as subcutaneous osteosarcoma. Additionally, this case report documented the clinicopathological findings of the extraskeletal subcutaneous osteosarcoma in this case and discussed its clinical features by reviewing cases previously described in the literature.
osteosarcoma; subcutaneous tissue; extraskeletal
The anatomic femoral component and Harris-Galante porous II (HGPII) cup were developed to provide more reliable bone ingrowth. We performed 20 cementless total hip arthroplasties (THAs) with anatomic stem/HGPII cup with 22-mm head in 14 consecutive patients, and evaluated the clinical and radiological results for a mean follow-up of 12.8 years. The all-anatomically designed stem provided excellent clinical and radiographic results. Four acetabular components underwent revision: three for fracture of the locking mechanism and wear of the polyethylene liner and one for the locking mechanism failure with dislocation of the HGPII cup. The abduction angles of the four revised acetabular components were apparently higher. The survivorship 13 years after surgery was 78%. Our findings show good long-term results using the anatomic femoral component, while the HGPII cup combined with 22-mm head seems to have poor durability due to locking mechanism failure.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease that has a definite genetic component. Only a few OA susceptibility genes that have definite functional evidence and replication of association have been reported, however. Through a genome-wide association study and a replication using a total of ∼4,800 Japanese subjects, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7775228 and rs10947262) associated with susceptibility to knee OA. The two SNPs were in a region containing HLA class II/III genes and their association reached genome-wide significance (combined P = 2.43×10−8 for rs7775228 and 6.73×10−8 for rs10947262). Our results suggest that immunologic mechanism is implicated in the etiology of OA.