This paper examines dietary intake and body composition in ARV-naïve HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative SA women, as well as the impact of disease severity on these variables.
Baseline data from a longitudinal study assessing bone health in HIV-negative and HIV-positive pre-menopausal SA women over 18 years of age were used. Anthropometry and body composition, measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), were analysed together with dietary intake data assessed using an interviewer based qualitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).
Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa
Black, urban SA women were divided into three groups: HIV-negative (n=98), HIV-positive with preserved CD4 counts (HIV+ non-ARV; n=74) and HIV-positive with low CD4 counts due to start ARV treatment (HIV+ pre-ARV; n=75).
The prevalence of overweight and obesity was high in this population (59%). The HIV+ pre-ARV group was lighter and had a lower BMI than the other two groups (all p<0.001). Pre-ARV subjects also had lower fat and lean masses and % body fat than their HIV-negative and HIV+ non-ARV counterparts. After adjustment, there were no differences in macronutrient intakes across study groups; however, fat and sugar intakes were high and consumption of predominantly refined food items was common overall.
HIV-associated immunosuppression may be a key determinant of body composition in HIV-positive women. However, in populations with high obesity prevalence, these differences become evident only at advanced stages of infection.
HIV; diet; body composition; obesity
Young female adolescents under energetic stress gain lean mass and lose fat mass while older adolescents lose lean mass and maintain fat. These findings support the prediction of life history theory that adolescence represents a period of transition from investment in growth to investment in reproduction.
Background and objectives: Life history theory predicts a shift in energy allocation from growth to reproductive function as a consequence of puberty. During adolescence, linear growth tapers off and, in females, ovarian steroid production increases. In this model, acquisition of lean mass is associated with growth while investment in adiposity is associated with reproduction. This study examines the chronological and developmental predictors of energy allocation patterns among adolescent women under conditions of energy constraint.
Methodology: Fifty post-menarcheal adolescent women between 14 and 20 years old were sampled for weight and body composition at the beginning and end of 1 month in an energy-adequate season and 1 month in the subsequent energy-constrained season in a rural province of The Gambia.
Results: Chronologically and developmentally younger adolescent girls gain weight in the form of lean mass in both energy-adequate and energy-constrained seasons, whereas older adolescents lose lean mass under conditions of energetic stress (generalized estimating equation (GEE) Wald chi-square comparing youngest tertile with older two tertiles 9.750, P = 0.002; GEE Wald chi-square comparing fast- with slow-growing individuals for growth rate 19.806, P < 0.001). When energy is limited, younger adolescents lose and older adolescents maintain fat (GEE Wald chi-square for interaction of age and season 6.568, P = 0.010; GEE Wald chi-square comparing fast- with slow-growing individuals for interaction of growth rate and season 7.807, P = 0.005).
Conclusions and implications: When energy is constrained, the physiology of younger adolescents invests in growth while that of older adolescent females privileges reproductively valuable adipose tissue.
life history theory; puberty; body composition; reproductive ecology
Elevated C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 (C-FGF23) concentrations have been reported in Gambian children with and without putative Ca-deficiency rickets. The aims of this study were to investigate whether i) elevated C-FGF23 concentrations in Gambian children persist long term; ii) they are associated with higher intact FGF23 concentrations (I-FGF23), poor iron status and shorter 25-hydroxyvitamin D half-life (25OHD-t1/2); and iii) the persistence and predictors of elevated FGF23 concentrations differ between children with and without a history of rickets. Children (8–16 years, n=64) with a history of rickets and a C-FGF23 concentration >125 RU/ml (bone deformity (BD), n=20) and local community children with a previously measured elevated C-FGF23 concentration (LC+, n=20) or a previously measured C-FGF23 concentration within the normal range (LC−, n=24) participated. BD children had no remaining signs of bone deformities. C-FGF23 concentration had normalised in BD children, but remained elevated in LC+ children. All the children had I-FGF23 concentration within the normal range, but I-FGF23 concentration was higher and iron status poorer in LC+ children. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was the strongest negative predictor of I-FGF23 concentration (R2=18%; P=0.0006) and soluble transferrin receptor was the strongest positive predictor of C-FGF23 concentration (R2=33%; P≤0.0001). C-FGF23 and I-FGF23 concentrations were poorly correlated with each other (R2=5.3%; P=0.07). 25OHD-t1/2 was shorter in BD children than in LC− children (mean (s.d.): 24.5 (6.1) and 31.5 (11.5) days respectively; P=0.05). This study demonstrated that elevated C-FGF23 concentrations normalised over time in Gambian children with a history of rickets but not in local children, suggesting a different aetiology; that children with resolved rickets had a shorter 25OHD-t1/2, suggesting a long-standing increased expenditure of 25OHD, and that iron deficiency is a predictor of elevated C-FGF23 concentrations in both groups of Gambian children.
FGF23; vitamin D half-life; rickets; iron status; children
Background: Limited evidence suggests that calcium intake before puberty influences adolescent height growth and the timing of puberty. Such an effect might be particularly marked in populations in whom low calcium intake, stunting, and delayed puberty are common.
Objective: The objective was to test whether 12 mo of calcium supplementation at age 8–12 y to increase intakes toward international recommendations had long-term effects on adolescent growth and pubertal development in rural Gambian children.
Design: This was a longitudinal study of 160 Gambian boys (n = 80) and girls (n = 80) who had participated in a 12-mo, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, calcium carbonate supplementation trial (1000 mg Ca/d, 5 d/wk) at age 8–12 y. Anthropometric measures were made every 1–2 y until age 21–25 y; pubertal status and menarche data were collected. Repeated-measures ANCOVA and Superimposition by Translation and Rotation Method (SITAR) growth models were used to assess the effects of treatment.
Results: In boys, midadolescent height growth was advanced in the calcium group, which resulted in greater stature at a mean age of 15.5 y (mean ± SEM: 2.0 ± 0.8 cm; P = 0.01) and an earlier age of peak height velocity by 7.4 ± 2.9 mo. Subsequently, the calcium group stopped growing earlier (P = 0.02) and was 3.5 ± 1.1 cm shorter (P = 0.002) at a mean age of 23.5 y. Weight and midupper arm circumference paralleled height. No significant effects were observed in girls, but a sex-by-supplement interaction on height growth could not be confirmed.
Conclusion: Calcium supplementation of boys in late childhood advanced the age of peak height velocity and resulted in shorter adult stature in a population in whom low calcium intakes and delayed puberty are common. This trial was registered at isrctn.org as ISRCTN28836000.
The randomised, double blind intervention trial ‘Optimising Vitamin D Status in Older People’ (VDOP) will test the effect of three oral dosages of vitamin D given for one year on bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of vitamin D metabolism, bone turnover and safety in older people. VDOP is funded by Arthritis Research UK, supported through Newcastle University and MRC Human Nutrition Research and sponsored by the Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.a
Vitamin D insufficiency is common in older people and may lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss, impairment of muscle function and increased risk of falls and fractures. Vitamin D supplementation trials have yielded conflicting results with regard to decreasing rates of bone loss, falls and fractures and the optimal plasma concentration of 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) for skeletal health remains unclear.
Older (≥70 years) community dwelling men and women are recruited through General Practices in Northern England and 375 participants are randomised to take 12,000 international units (IU), 24,000 IU or 48,000 IU of vitamin D3 orally each month for one year starting in the winter or early spring. Hip BMD and anthropometry are measured at baseline and 12 months. Fasting blood samples are collected at baseline and three-month intervals for the measurement of plasma 25OHD, parathyroid hormone (PTH), biochemical markers of bone turnover and biochemistry to assess the dose–response and safety of supplementation. Questionnaire data include falls, fractures, quality of life, adverse events and outcomes, compliance, dietary calcium intake and sunshine exposure.
This is the first integrated vitamin D supplementation trial in older men and women using a range of doses given at monthly intervals to assess BMD, plasma 25OHD, PTH and biochemical markers of bone turnover and safety, quality of life and physical performance. We aim to investigate the vitamin D supplementation and plasma 25OHD concentration required to maintain bone health and to develop a set of biochemical markers that reflects the effect of vitamin D on bone. This will aid future studies investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation on fracture risk.
#ISRCTN 35648481 (assigned 16 August 2012), EudraCT 2011-004890-10.
Vitamin D supplementation trial; Bone mineral density; 25 hydroxy vitamin D; Parathyroid hormone; Bone markers; Older people
Background: Dietary calcium intake in rural Gambian women is very low (∼350 mg/d) compared with international recommendations. Studies have suggested that calcium supplementation of women receiving low-calcium diets significantly reduces risk of pregnancy hypertension.
Objective: We tested the effects on blood pressure (BP) of calcium carbonate supplementation (1500 mg Ca/d) in pregnant, rural Gambian women.
Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled supplementation trial from 20 wk of gestation (P20) until delivery (calcium: n = 330; placebo; n = 332). BP and anthropometric measures were taken at P20 and then 4 weekly until 36 wk of gestation (P36), and infant anthropometric measures were taken at 2, 13, and 52 wk postdelivery.
Results: A total of 525 (calcium: n = 260; placebo: n = 265) women had BP measured at P36 and subsequently delivered a healthy term singleton infant. Mean compliance was 97%, and urinary calcium measures confirmed the group allocation. At P20, the mean (±SD) systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 101.2 ± 9.0 and 102.1 ± 9.3 mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 54.5 ± 7.3 and 55.8 ± 7.8 mm Hg, in the calcium and placebo groups, respectively. The intention-to-treat analysis that was adjusted for confounders showed no significant effect of calcium supplementation on the change between P20 and P36 (calcium compared with placebo; mean ± SEM) in SBP (−0.64 ± 0.65%; P = 0.3) or DBP (−0.22 ± 1.15%; P = 0.8). There was no significant effect of supplementation on BP, pregnancy weight gain, weight postpartum, or infant weight, length, and other measures of growth. However, the comparability of the original randomly assigned groups may have been compromised by the exclusion of 20.7% of women from the final analysis.
Conclusions: Calcium supplementation did not affect BP in pregnancy. This result may have been because the Gambian women were adapted to a low dietary calcium intake, and/or obesity, high gestational weight gain, high underlying BP, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and sedentary lifestyles were rare. This trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Register (www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/) as ISRCTN96502494.
Background: Calcium supplementation of pregnant Gambian women with a low calcium intake results in lower maternal bone mineral content in the subsequent lactation.
Objective: The objective was to investigate whether the lower bone mineral content persists long term.
Design: All women in the calcium supplementation trial (International Trial Registry ISRCTN96502494) who had been scanned with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 52 wk of lactation (L52; n = 79) were invited for follow-up when neither pregnant nor lactating for ≥3 mo (NPNL) or at 52 wk postpartum in a future lactation (F52). Bone scans and anthropometric and dietary assessments were conducted.
Results: Sixty-eight women participated (35 at both NPNL and F52 and 33 at only one time point): n = 59 NPNL (n = 31 calcium, n = 28 placebo) and n = 44 F52 (n = 24 calcium, n = 20 placebo). The mean (±SD) time from L52 was 4.9 ± 1.9 y for NPNL and 5.0 ± 1.3 y for F52. Size-adjusted bone mineral content (SA-BMC) was greater at NPNL than at L52 in the placebo group (P ≤ 0.001) but not in the calcium group (P for time-by-group interaction: lumbar spine, 0.002; total hip, 0.03; whole body, 0.03). No significant changes in SA-BMC from L52 to F52 were observed in either group. Consequently, the lower SA-BMC in the calcium group at L52 persisted at NPNL and F52 (P ≤ 0.001): NPNL (lumbar spine, −7.5 ± 0.7%; total hip, −10.5 ± 1.0%; whole body, −3.6 ± 0.5%) and F52 (lumbar spine, −6.2 ± 0.9%; total hip, −10.3 ± 1.4%; whole body, −3.2 ± 0.6%).
Conclusion: In rural Gambian women with a low-calcium diet, a calcium supplement of 1500 mg/d during pregnancy resulted in lower maternal bone mineral content in the subsequent lactation that persisted long term. This trial was registered at www/controlled-trials.com/mrct/ as ISRCTN96502494.
An analysis of early growth patterns in children from 54 resource-poor countries in Africa and Southeast Asia shows a rapid falloff in the height-for-age z score during the first 2 y of life and no recovery until ≥5 y of age. This finding has focused attention on the period −9 to 24 mo as a window of opportunity for interventions against stunting and has garnered considerable political backing for investment targeted at the first 1000 d. These important initiatives should not be undermined, but the objective of this study was to counteract the growing impression that interventions outside of this period cannot be effective. We illustrate our arguments using longitudinal data from the Consortium of Health Oriented Research in Transitioning collaboration (Brazil, Guatemala, India, Philippines, and South Africa) and our own cross-sectional and longitudinal growth data from rural Gambia. We show that substantial height catch-up occurs between 24 mo and midchildhood and again between midchildhood and adulthood, even in the absence of any interventions. Longitudinal growth data from rural Gambia also illustrate that an extended pubertal growth phase allows very considerable height recovery, especially in girls during adolescence. In light of the critical importance of maternal stature to her children's health, our arguments are a reminder of the importance of the more comprehensive UNICEF/Sub-Committee on Nutrition Through the Life-Cycle approach. In particular, we argue that adolescence represents an additional window of opportunity during which substantial life cycle and intergenerational effects can be accrued. The regulation of such growth is complex and may be affected by nutritional interventions imposed many years previously.
Three siblings, aged 12, 4 and 2 years, presented at a Gambian clinic with bone deformities. Radiographs of knees and wrists confirmed the presence of florid rickets. The family (including 2 unaffected siblings and the mother) were investigated for hereditary rickets.
The three affected siblings had biochemical features of hereditary hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) with normal plasma calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, hypophosphataemia, hyperphosphaturia and hypercalciuria. At presentation, two of the three affected siblings had an elevated fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) concentration. The mother and clinically unaffected siblings had largely normal biochemistry.
Genetic analysis of the SLC34A3 gene, encoding the type IIc sodium-phosphate cotransporter, in DNA samples from the siblings and their mother was conducted. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) S168F, E513V and L599L were identified. E513V and L599L had been previously identified as benign polymorphisms. S168F however, is a previously unreported variant. In silico mutation evaluation predicted that the S168F mutation causes changes in the protein product which are damaging to its function. In addition, the three clinically affected siblings were homozygous in the S168F variant whereas the unaffected family members were carriers.
This study describes a biochemical profile and complementary gene data consistent with a rare genetic hypophosphataemic rickets disease in a family from rural Gambia. To our knowledge, this study reports the first cases of HHRH in Africa and describes a novel causal mutation within the SLC34A3 gene.
► A Gambian family of 5 children where 3 siblings had florid rickets with suspected HHRH ► Biochemical profile of hypophosphataemia with elevated urinary phosphate and calcium excretion. ► Genetic analysis of the SLC34A3 gene indicated a novel mutation of S168F. ► The siblings with rickets were homozygous in S168F, the unaffected siblings were carriers. ► We report the first cases of hereditary hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria in Africa.
HHRH; Rickets; SLC34A3; Gene mutation; Africa
Menarcheal age is a key indicator of female maturity and development. Studies in many countries have reported a downward secular trend in age of menarche over the past century. This study presents data gained using the ‘status quo’ method and interval regression to estimate median menarcheal age of girls in a rural Gambian community. Cross-sectional studies carried out in 1989, 2000 and 2008 revealed a median menarcheal age of 16.06 (95% CI 15.67–16.45), 15.03 (95% CI 14.76–15.30) and 14.90 (95% CI 14.52–15.28), respectively. The average rate of decline of median age of menarche was amongst the most rapid yet reported, at 0.65 years of age per decade (p < 0.00001). There was no evidence for a change in the rate of decline over the two decades studied. These results probably reflect ongoing socio-economic development within the region.
Menarche; age; Gambia; secular trend; interval regression
Recent studies have described relationships between iron status and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) but the possible confounding effects of inflammation on iron status have not been considered. The aims of this study were a) to consider a relationship between FGF23 and inflammation b) to identify relationships between iron status and FGF23 whilst correcting for inflammation and c) to assess the relationship between changes in FGF23 and iron status after supplementation.
Study design and methodology
Blood samples from an iron supplementation study in children (n=79) were collected at baseline and after 3 months supplementation with iron sulphate. The children were from a rural Gambian population where rates of iron deficiency and infection/inflammation are high. This study identified cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between FGF23, inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)) and iron status (ferritin, haemoglobin, and zinc protoporphyrin). CRP ≥ 5 mg/dL was used to indicate inflammation and FGF23 ≥ 125 RU/mL was considered elevated.
FGF23 was not significantly correlated with CRP. At baseline, all markers of iron status were significantly correlated with FGF23. Ferritin was the strongest independent inverse predictor of FGF23 in subjects with and without elevated CRP (coefficient (SE)): All subjects=−0.57 (0.12), R2=22.3%, P≤0.0001; subjects with CRP < 5 mg/dL=−0.89 (0.14), R2=38.9%, P≤0.0001. FGF23 was elevated in 28% of children at baseline and 16% post supplementation (P=0.1). Improved iron status was associated with a decrease in FGF23 concentration in univariate (ferritin =−0.41 (0.11), R2=14.1%, P=0.0004; haemoglobin=−2.22 (0.64), R2=12.5%, P=0.0008; zinc protoporphyrin=1.12 (0.26), R2=18.6%, P≤0.0001) and multivariate analysis (R2=33.1%; ferritin=−0.36 (0.10), P=0.0007, haemoglobin = −1.83 (0.61), P=0.004, zinc protoporphyrin=0.62 (0.26), P=0.02).
Iron status rather than inflammation is a negative predictor of plasma FGF23 concentration. Improvements in iron status following iron supplementation are associated with a significant decrease in FGF23 concentration.
Fibroblast growth factor-23; Iron status; Inflammation; Africa; Iron supplementation
A relationship between iron and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) metabolic pathways has been proposed. Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in The Gambia and concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-23 FGF23 are elevated in a large percentage of Gambian children with rickets-like bone deformity.
We speculate that low iron status may be involved in the aetiology of Gambian rickets. The aim of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between haemoglobin, as a marker of iron status, and FGF23 in samples from children with and without a history of rickets-like bone deformities in The Gambia. We conducted a retrospective analysis of studies carried out from 2006 to 2008 in children from a rural community in The Gambia where iron deficiency anaemia is endemic and where elevated circulating concentrations of FGF23 have been found. To investigate the relationship between circulating FGF23 and haemoglobin concentrations we used an age-adjusted linear regression model on data from children < 18 y of age with a family or personal history of rickets-like bone deformity (BD) (n = 108) and from the local community (LC) (n = 382).
We found that circulating concentration of FGF23 was inversely correlated with haemoglobin concentration. This effect was more pronounced in BD children compared with LC children (interaction: P ≤ 0.0001). Anaemia and elevated FGF23 were more prevalent in BD children compared to LC children (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.0001 respectively).
In conclusion, there is a stronger relationship between FGF23 and haemoglobin in Gambian children with a history of rickets compared to local community children. This study provides support for the contention that iron may be involved in FGF23 metabolic pathways.
► We analysed data from Gambian children with and without a family history of rickets. ► Hb is negatively correlated with FGF23. ► This relationship is significantly steeper in children with a history of rickets. ► Iron status may be involved in FGF23 metabolic pathways. ► Iron status may contribute to the aetiology of Gambian rickets.
Iron deficiency; FGF23 metabolism; Gambian rickets
MAVIDOS is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713, registered 2008 Apr 11), funded by Arthritis Research UK, MRC, Bupa Foundation and NIHR.
Osteoporosis is a major public health problem as a result of associated fragility fractures. Skeletal strength increases from birth to a peak in early adulthood. This peak predicts osteoporosis risk in later life. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy is common (31% in a recent Southampton cohort) and predicts reduced bone mass in the offspring. In this study we aim to test whether offspring of mothers supplemented with vitamin D in pregnancy have higher bone mass at birth than those whose mothers were not supplemented.
Women have their vitamin D status assessed after ultrasound scanning in the twelfth week of pregnancy at 3 trial centres (Southampton, Sheffield, Oxford). Women with circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D levels 25-100 nmol/l are randomised in a double-blind design to either oral vitamin D supplement (1000 IU cholecalciferol/day, n = 477) or placebo at 14 weeks (n = 477). Questionnaire data include parity, sunlight exposure, dietary information, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. At 19 and 34 weeks maternal anthropometry is assessed and blood samples taken to measure 25(OH)-vitamin D, PTH and biochemistry. At delivery venous umbilical cord blood is collected, together with umbilical cord and placental tissue. The babies undergo DXA assessment of bone mass within the first 14 days after birth, with the primary outcome being whole body bone mineral content adjusted for gestational age and age. Children are then followed up with yearly assessment of health, diet, physical activity and anthropometric measures, with repeat assessment of bone mass by DXA at age 4 years.
As far as we are aware, this randomised trial is one of the first ever tests of the early life origins hypothesis in human participants and has the potential to inform public health policy regarding vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. It will also provide a valuable resource in which to study the influence of maternal vitamin D status on other childhood outcomes such as glucose tolerance, blood pressure, cardiovascular function, IQ and immunology.
Vitamin D; cholecalciferol; supplementation; trial; osteoporosis; DXA; pregnancy; neonate
We have previously reported on a case-series of children (n = 46) with suspected calcium-deficiency rickets who presented in The Gambia with rickets-like bone deformities. Biochemical analyses discounted vitamin D-deficiency as an aetiological factor but indicated a perturbation of Ca–P metabolism involving low plasma phosphate and high circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) concentrations.
A follow-up study was conducted 5 years after presentation to investigate possible associated factors and characterise recovery. 35 children were investigated at follow-up (RFU). Clinical assessment of bone deformities, overnight fasted 2 h urine and blood samples, 2-day weighed dietary records and 24 h urine collections were obtained. Age- and season-matched data from children from the local community (LC) were used to calculate standard deviation scores (SDS) for RFU children.
None of the RFU children had radiological signs of active rickets. However, over half had residual leg deformities consistent with rickets. Dietary Ca intake (SDS-Ca = − 0.52 (0.98) p = 0.04), dietary Ca/P ratio (SDS-Ca/P = − 0.80 (0.82) p = 0.0008) and TmP:GFR (SDS-TmP:GFR = − 0.48 (0.81) p = 0.04) were significantly lower in RFU children compared with LC children and circulating FGF23 concentration was elevated in 19% of RFU children. Furthermore an inverse relationship was seen between haemoglobin and FGF23 (R2 = 25.8, p = 0.004).
This study has shown differences in biochemical and dietary profiles between Gambian children with a history of rickets-like bone deformities and children from the local community. This study provided evidence in support of the calcium deficiency hypothesis leading to urinary phosphate wasting and rickets and identified glomerular filtration rate and iron status as possible modulators of FGF23 metabolic pathways.
► Low dietary calcium and eGFR in Gambian children with a history of rickets. ► High FGF23 and urinary phosphate loss in Gambian children with a history of rickets. ► Supports the calcium deficiency hypothesis as the aetiology of Gambian rickets. ► Iron status may be involved in FGF23 metabolic pathways.
Calcium; FGF23; Gambia; Kidney; Phosphate; Rickets
Background: Evidence suggests that increased maternal calcium intake during pregnancy may result in lower offspring blood pressure, prompting calls for more robust data in this field, particularly in settings of habitually low calcium intake.
Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of maternal calcium supplementation on blood pressure in offspring by recruiting children born after a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of calcium supplementation during pregnancy.
Design: Children (n = 389) from a rural area of The Gambia (mean age: 7.4 ± 1.2 y; range: 5–10 y), whose mothers received a calcium supplement (1500 mg Ca/d from 20 wk of gestation until delivery) or placebo, were followed up in West Africa. Blood pressure was assessed under standardized conditions with use of the Omron 705IT automated oscillometric device (Morton Medical Ltd, London, United Kingdom), and anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) measurements were also made.
Results: The analysis was restricted to 350 children born at term, which represented 64% of original trial births. There was no difference in systolic (adjusted mean difference: −0.04 mm Hg; 95% CI: −1.78, 1.69 mm Hg) or diastolic (adjusted mean difference: 0.25 mm Hg; 95% CI: −1.27, 1.77 mm Hg) blood pressure between children whose mothers had received calcium and those who received placebo. No interaction between childhood body mass index (in kg/m2; mean: 14.0) and maternal calcium supplementation was observed in this study.
Conclusion: Calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy in Gambian women with very low habitual calcium intakes may not result in lower offspring blood pressure at 5–10 y of age.
Vitamin D is an important determinant of bone health at all ages. The plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH D) and other metabolites are used as biomarkers for vitamin sufficiency and function. To allow for the simultaneous determination of five vitamin D metabolites, 25-OH D3, 25-OH D2, 24,25-(OH)2 D3, 1,25-(OH)2 D3, and 1,25-(OH)2 D2, in low volumes of human plasma, an assay using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was established. Plasma samples were spiked with isotope-labeled internal standards and pretreated using protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and a Diels–Alder derivatization step with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione. The SPE recovery rates ranged from 55% to 85%, depending on the vitamin D metabolite; the total sample run time was <5 min. Mass spectrometry was conducted using positive ion electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode on a quadrupole–quadrupole-linear ion trap instrument after pre-column addition of methylamine to increase the ionization efficiency. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were 1.6–4.1% and 3.7–6.8%, respectively. The limit of quantitation for these compounds was determined to be between 10 and 20 pg/mL. The 25-OH D results were compared with values obtained for reference materials (DEQAS). In addition, plasma samples were analyzed with two additional Diasorin antibody assays. All comparisons with conventional methods showed excellent correlations (r2 = 0.9738) for DEQAS samples, demonstrating the high degree of comparability of the new UHPLC-MS/MS technique to existing methods.
Vitamin D; Metabolites; Plasma; UHPLC; Tandem mass spectrometry; Quantification; Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)
Bone shape, mass, structural geometry, and material properties determine bone strength. This study describes novel software that uses peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) images to quantify cortical bone shape and investigates whether the combination of shape-sensitive and manufacturer's software enhances the characterization of tibiae from contrasting populations. Existing tibial pQCT scans (4% and 50% sites) from Gambian (n = 38) and British (n = 38) women were used. Bone mass, cross-sectional area (CSA), and geometry were determined using manufacturer's software; cross-sectional shape was quantified using shape-sensitive software. At 4% site, Gambian women had lower total bone mineral content (BMC: −15.4%), CSA (−13.4%), and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD: −19%), but higher cortical subcortical BMD (6.1%). At 50% site, Gambian women had lower cortical BMC (−7.6%), cortical CSA (−12.6%), and mean cortical thickness (−15.0%), but higher cortical BMD (4.9%) and endosteal circumference (8.0%). Shape-sensitive software supported the finding that Gambian women had larger tibial endosteal circumference (9.8%), thinner mean cortical thickness (−26.5%) but smaller periosteal circumference (−5.6%). Shape-sensitive software revealed that Gambian women had tibiae with shorter maximum width (−7.6%) and thinner cortices (−22% to −41.2%) and more closely resembled a circle or ellipse. Significant differences remained after adjusting for age, height, and weight. In conclusion, shape-sensitive software enhanced the characterization of tibiae in 2 contrasting groups of women.
pQCT; tibia; bone shape; Gambia; young women
Background: Mobilization of maternal bone mineral partly supplies calcium for fetal and neonatal bone growth and development.
Objective: We investigated whether pregnant women with low calcium intakes may have a more extensive skeletal response postpartum that may compromise their short- or long-term bone health.
Design: In a subset of participants (n = 125) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (International Trial Registry: ISRCTN96502494) in pregnant women in The Gambia, West Africa, with low calcium intakes (≈350 mg Ca/d), we measured bone mineral status of the whole body, lumbar spine, and hip by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and measured bone mineral status of the forearm by using single-photon absorptiometry at 2, 13, and 52 wk lactation. We collected blood and urine from the subjects at 20 wk gestation and at 13 wk postpartum. Participants received calcium carbonate (1500 mg Ca/d) or a matching placebo from 20 wk gestation to parturition; participants did not consume supplements during lactation.
Results: Women who received the calcium supplement in pregnancy had significantly lower bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), and bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip throughout 12 mo lactation (mean ± SE difference: BMC = −10.7 ± 3.7%, P = 0.005; BA = −3.8 ± 1.9%, P = 0.05; BMD = −6.9 ± 2.6%, P = 0.01). The women also experienced greater decreases in bone mineral during lactation at the lumbar spine and distal radius and had biochemical changes consistent with greater bone mineral mobilization.
Conclusions: Calcium supplementation in pregnant women with low calcium intakes may disrupt metabolic adaptation and may not benefit maternal bone health. Further study is required to determine if such effects persist long term or elicit compensatory changes in bone structure.
2006 marked the centenary of the birth of Dr Elsie Widdowson, a pioneer of nutrition science. One of the hallmarks of Elsie Widdowson’s research was an integrative approach that recognised the importance of investigating the mechanisms underpinning a public health or clinical issue at all levels, looking into the physiology, comparative biology, intermediate metabolism and basic science. The theme of the present lecture, given in celebration of the work of Dr Widdowson, is mineral nutrition, with a particular focus on Ca, P and vitamin D. The contributions of Dr Widdowson to the early understanding of mineral nutrition are reviewed and the latest scientific findings in this rapidly-expanding field of research are presented.
Calcium; Elsie Widdowson; Mineral metabolism; Phosphorus; Vitamin D
The UK Food Standards Agency convened an international group of expert scientists to review the Agency-funded projects on diet and bone health in the context of developments in the field as a whole. The potential benefits of fruit and vegetables, vitamin K, early-life nutrition and vitamin D on bone health were presented and reviewed. The workshop reached two conclusions which have public health implications. First, that promoting a diet rich in fruit and vegetable intakes might be beneficial to bone health and would be very unlikely to produce adverse consequences on bone health. The mechanism(s) for any effect of fruit and vegetables remains unknown, but the results from these projects did not support the postulated acid–base balance hypothesis. Secondly, increased dietary consumption of vitamin K may contribute to bone health, possibly through its ability to increase the γ-carboxylation status of bone proteins such as osteocalcin. A supplementation trial comparing vitamin K supplementation with Ca and vitamin D showed an additional effect of vitamin K against baseline levels of bone mineral density, but the benefit was only seen at one bone site. The major research gap identified was the need to investigate vitamin D status to define deficiency, insufficiency and depletion across age and ethnic groups in relation to bone health.
Bone; Osteoporosis; Fracture; Calcium; Vitamin D; Vitamin K; Fruit and vegetables
Ethnic differences in bone metabolism have been reported and it has been suggested that these may be partly due to prolonged exposure to an elevated plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration or a decreased sensitivity to PTH. We explored ethnic differences in bone and mineral metabolism by 5 days of oral phosphate (P) loading to stimulate PTH secretion. Healthy older people from UK (B), The Gambia (G) and China (C), 15 individuals from each sex and ethnic group, were studied. Blood and urine samples were collected before and 2 h after P dose on days 1, 4 and 5 and on a control day. The induced changes (%) in PTH and markers of mineral and bone metabolism after 2 h and over 5 days were examined.
At baseline, PTH, 1,25(OH)2D and bone turnover markers were higher in Gambian subjects than in British and Chinese subjects (P ≤ 0.01).
2 h after P loading, ionized calcium (iCa) decreased and PTH and plasma P (P) increased in all groups (P ≤ 0.01, n.s. between groups). Urinary P to creatinine ratio (uP/Cr) increased, the increase being greater in Chinese subjects than in British and Gambian subjects on days 4 and 5 (P ≤ 0.01). By day 5, fasting iCa was decreased and P increased in British and Gambian (P ≤ 0.01) but not in Chinese subjects. Fasting PTH and uP/Cr increased in all groups. There were ethnic differences in changes in bone markers, but the relationship with changes in PTH was comparable between groups.
In conclusion, ethnic differences in mineral metabolism in response to 5-day P loading were found. Chinese subjects showed a more rapid renal clearance of P than British and Gambian counterparts and there were differences between the groups in the skeletal response to P loading, but no evidence was found for resistance to the resorbing effects of PTH.
Phosphate; Parathyroid hormone; Bone markers; Bone and mineral metabolism; Ethnic differences
Africa is heterogeneous in latitude, geography, climate, food availability, religious and cultural practices, and skin pigmentation. It is expected, therefore, that prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varies widely, in line with influences on skin exposure to UVB sunshine. Furthermore, low calcium intakes and heavy burden of infectious disease common in many countries may increase vitamin D utilization and turnover. Studies of plasma 25OHD concentration indicate a spectrum from clinical deficiency to values at the high end of the physiological range; however, data are limited. Representative studies of status in different countries, using comparable analytical techniques, and of relationships between vitamin D status and risk of infectious and chronic diseases relevant to the African context are needed. Public health measures to secure vitamin D adequacy cannot encompass the whole continent and need to be developed locally.
Rickets; Osteomalacia; Vitamin D status; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; Vitamin D turnover; Calcium intake; Sunlight; Children
The growth and development of the human skeleton requires an adequate supply of many different nutritional factors. Classical nutrient deficiencies are associated with stunting (e.g. energy, protein, Zn), rickets (e.g. vitamin D) and other bone abnormalities (e.g. Cu, Zn, vitamin C). In recent years there has been interest in the role nutrition may play in bone growth at intakes above those required to prevent classical deficiencies, particularly in relation to optimising peak bone mass and minimising osteoporosis risk. There is evidence to suggest that peak bone mass and later fracture risk are influenced by the pattern of growth in childhood and by nutritional exposures in utero, in infancy and during childhood and adolescence. Of the individual nutrients, particular attention has been paid to Ca, vitamin D, protein and P. There has also been interest in several food groups, particularly dairy products, fruit and vegetables and foods contributing to acid–base balance. However, it is not possible at the present time to define dietary reference values using bone health as a criterion, and the question of what type of diet constitutes the best support for optimal bone growth and development remains open. Prudent recommendations (Department of Health, 1998; World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization, 2003) are the same as those for adults, i.e. to consume a Ca intake close to the reference nutrient intake, optimise vitamin D status through adequate summer sunshine exposure (and diet supplementation where appropriate), be physically active, have a body weight in the healthy range, restrict salt intake and consume plenty of fruit and vegetables.
Bone growth and development; Bone health; Nutritional factors; Dietary and lifestyle recommendations; Bone measurements in children
25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) half-life is a potential biomarker for investigating vitamin D metabolism and requirements. We performed a pilot study to assess the approach and practical feasibility of measuring 25(OH)D half-life after an oral dose. A total of twelve healthy Gambian men aged 18–23 years were divided into two groups to investigate the rate and timing of (1) absorption and (2) plasma disappearance after an 80 nmol oral dose of 25(OH)D2. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and, in the first group, every 2 h post-dose for 12 h, at 24 h, 48 h and on day 15. In the second group, fasting blood samples were collected on days 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21. Urine was collected for 2 h after the first morning void at baseline and on day 15. 25(OH)D2 plasma concentration was measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem MS/MS and corrected for baseline. Biomarkers of vitamin D, Ca and P metabolism were measured at baseline and on day 15. The peak plasma concentration of 25(OH)D2 was 9·6 (sd 0·9) nmol/l at 4·4 (sd 1·8) h. The terminal slope of 25(OH)D2 disappearance was identified to commence from day 6. The terminal half-life of plasma 25(OH)D2 was 13·4 (sd 2·7) d. There were no significant differences in plasma 25(OH)D3, total 1,25(OH)2D, parathyroid hormone, P, Ca and ionised Ca and urinary Ca and P between baseline and day 15 and between the two groups. The present study provides data on the plasma response to oral 25(OH)D2 that will underpin and contribute to the further development of studies to investigate 25(OH)D half-life.
25-Hydroxyvitamin D; Absorption; Half-life; Gambia