Background Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare neoplasm of the peritoneal membrane that is causally related to asbestos exposure. Survival after treatment is poor. Current therapy involving hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has improved survival in selective patients. In the past, several prognostic factors have been identified in MPM patients and this has prompted the development of new therapies and patient management. Since BCL2, an antiapoptotic oncoprotein, is a favourable prognostic factor in breast cancer, we investigated to determine the significance of BCL2 in MPM. Materials and Methods Forty two archival patient tumour sections embedded in paraffin blocks were sectioned and subjected to immunohistochemistry to detect BCL2. The staining intensity and abundance was classified using standard procedures and classified into two groups (0-4 = low & 5-8 = high expression). The distribution of BCL2 groups was examined in the different clinicopathological categories to determine prognosis using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. Results: Univariate analysis revealed that in almost all clinicopathological categories, high BCL2 expression predisposed patients to a favourable prognosis. Independent of BCL2 expression, univariate analysis also showed that male gender, sarcomatoid histology, high PCI and age at diagnosis ≥ 60 years were associated poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis indicated that for all tumours, males and females, high BCL2 expression was associated with good prognosis. Further, independent of BCL2, age ≥ 60 years is an unfavourable prognostic factor. Conclusion: Expression of BCL2 may serve to distinguish prognosis within the individual clinicopathological categories. BCL2 is also an independent variable in all tumours, males and females, with high expression being associated with good prognosis.
BCL2; prognosis; peritoneal mesothelioma; survival
Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (PIC) has been consistently associated with high volume blood loss and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the introduction of a novel protocol to reduce blood loss and subsequent intra-operative transfusion in patients with high volume disease.
One hundred and thirty-one consecutive patients with high volume disease (peritoneal cancer index ≥16) who underwent CRS and PIC were evaluated. Group I consisted of the sixty patients (46%) treated before June 2006. Group II consistent of the seventy-one (54%) patients treated after June 2006 under the new protocol. The clinical and treatment-related data of patients in the two groups were compared.
Group II was associated with reduced intra-operative red blood cell transfusion (P<0.001), reduced cryoprecipitate transfusion (P=0.020), reduced platelet transfusion (P<0.001), reduced fresh frozen plasma transfusion (P=0.024), reduced operation length (P<0.001), reduced crystalloid administration (P<0.001) and reduced colloid administration (P<0.001). Group II was also associated with increased transfusion of FFP in the first half of the surgical intervention relative to the second half [FFP1st:FFP2nd ratio >1 (P<0.001)] and increased transfusion of RBC in the first half of the surgical intervention relative to the second half [RBC1st:RBC2nd ratio ≥1 (P=0.016)].
Early administration of fresh frozen plasma combined with restrictive fluid resuscitation may reduce overall intra-operative transfusion of RBC and other blood components.
Peritonectomy; cytoreductive surgery; perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy; morbidity; mortality; blood transfusion
Background: malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare peritoneal mesothelial neoplasm. Ki67 and BCL2 are established prognostic markers in several cancers. High Ki67 expression indicates tumour progression, whilst similar expression of BCL2 retards tumour replication. Traditionally, prognosis in MPM is gauged with a single biomarker assessed separately in a dichotomous manner. Here, we examine prognosis with dual biomarkers incorporated in a model to predict survival. Materials and methods: Forty two MPM archival patient tumours were screened for Ki67 and BCL2 by immunohistochemistry and evaluated using standard methods. Ki67 and BCL2 expression was incorporated into a prognostic model to develop Ki67-BCL2 index. Using this index, three hazard groups were identified (high, medium and low risk). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to assess the significance of these hazard groups in the various clinicopathological categories. Results: In all clinicopathological categories, high risk group showed poor prognosis compared to low risk group (p = < 0.001). Compared to medium risk, high risk group carried poor prognosis in all tumours, females, epitheloid tumours, peritoneal cancer index (PCI) < 20, ≥ 20, age at diagnosis (AAD) < 60, and ≥ 60 years. Independent of the Ki67-BCL2 index, male, sarcomatoid, PCI ≥ 20 and AAD ≥ 60 were poor prognostic factors. High risk group was an independent poor prognostic factor in all tumours, males, females and age < 60 years. The distribution of high risk: low risk group in male and female was 3: 2 and 2: 3, respectively, indicating a gender difference. Comparing hazard ratios generated by Ki67-BCL2 index to that of either Ki67 or BCL2, as a single prognostic biomarker, there was a reduction of HR values. Conclusion: Ki67-BCL2 index seems to suggest a more sensitive method of predicting prognosis. However, the current model needs further evaluation in an independent large cohort sample.
Ki67; BCl2; prognosis; malignant peritoneal mesothelima
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is characteristically divided into two histopathological subtypes; disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (DPAM) and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis (PMCA). The latter is associated with a worse prognosis. However, even within the DPAM group, there is a considerable variation in outcome. In this study we investigate the role of baseline serum tumor markers CA 19-9, CEA and CA-125 in further stratifying survival.
Over 16 years, 218 patients with PMP were treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (PIC) at our institution. A CA-125 level of >35 U/L, CA 19-9 of >40 U/mL and CEA of >3 ng/mL were considered positive or elevated outside the laboratory reference range. The impact of clinicopathologic and treatment-related variables on overall survival (OS) was analyzed with the Kaplan Meier method. Survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. Variables deemed significant by univariate analyses were entered into multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model.
Within the DPAM group, the 5-year survival of patients who were CA 19-9 positive versus those with normal values were 58% and 90% respectively (P<0.001). Other variables found to negatively impact on OS in univariate analyses were completeness of cytoreduction (CC) score 2/3 (P<0.001), peritoneal cancer index (PCI) >25 (P<0.001) and male gender (P=0.017). In the Cox regression model, only CA 19-9 positivity was found to be an independent prognostic factor for OS (P=0.034). In addition to marker positivity, the absolute level of CA 19-9 was also prognostically significant. In patients with CA 19-9>1,000 U/mL, the 5-year survival was 23%, in contrast to 90% in patients with CA 19-9<100 U/mL (P<0.001).
In the PMCA cohort, only CC-score was found to be associated with OS (P<0.001).
Our study provides relevant prognostic information for the DPAM subtype in staging and prioritizing surgery; as even in apparently indolent disease, some patients have poorer survival. CA 19-9 elevation may also be useful in identifying patients who would potentially benefit from adjuvant therapy and/or closer post-operative surveillance.
The potential role of CA 19-9 in mediating tumor cell adhesion and disease progression in PMP should be further investigated to deepen our understanding of the disease’s inherent biological behavior. If a true relationship exists, CA 19-9 may be a conceivable target for immunotherapy.
Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9); pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP); disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (DPAM); peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis (PMCA)
Rectal cancer is a distinct subset of colorectal cancer where specialized disease-specific management of the primary tumor is required. There have been significant developments in rectal cancer surgery at all stages of disease in particular the introduction of local excision strategies for preinvasive and early cancers, standardized total mesorectal excision for resectable cancers incorporating preoperative short- or long-course chemoradiation to the multimodality sequencing of treatment. Laparoscopic surgery is also increasingly being adopted as the standard rectal cancer surgery approach following expertise of colorectal surgeons in minimally invasive surgery gained from laparoscopic colon resections. In locally advanced and metastatic disease, combining chemoradiation with radical surgery may achieve total eradication of disease and disease control in the pelvis. Evidence for resection of metastases to the liver and lung have been extensively reported in the literature. The role of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal metastases is showing promise in achieving locoregional control of peritoneal dissemination. This paper summarizes the recent developments in approaches to rectal cancer surgery at all these time points of the disease natural history.
Interleukin (IL)-6 has been shown to be a major contributing factor in growth and progression of ovarian cancer. The cytokine exerts pro-tumorigenic activity through activation of several signaling pathways in particular signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Hence, targeting IL-6 is becoming increasingly attractive as a treatment option in ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of minocycline on IL-6 and its signaling pathways in ovarian cancer. In vitro, minocycline was found to significantly suppress both constitutive and IL-1β or 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OH-E2)-stimulated IL-6 expression in human ovarian cancer cells; OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and CAOV-3. Moreover, minocycline down-regulated two major components of IL-6 receptor system (IL-6Rα and gp130) and blocked the activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways leading to suppression of the downstream product MCL-1. In female nude mice bearing intraperitoneal OVCAR-3 tumors, acute administration (4 and 24 h) of minocycline (30 mg/kg) led to suppression of IL-6. Even single dose of minocycline was effective at significantly lowering plasma and tumor IL-6 levels. In line with this, tumoral expression of p-STAT3, p-ERK1/2 and MCL-1 were decreased in minocycline-treated mice. Evaluation of the functional implication of minocycline on metastatic activity revealed the capacity of minocycline to inhibit cellular migration, invasion and adhesion associated with down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and 9. Thus, the data suggest a potential role for minocycline in suppressing IL-6 expression and activity. These effects may prove to be an important attribute to the upcoming clinical trials of minocycline in ovarian cancer.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is induced in peripheral tissues such as adipose tissue with obesity. The mechanism and function of NPY induction in fat are unclear. Given the evidence that NPY can modulate inflammation, we examined the hypothesis that NPY regulates the function of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in response to dietary obesity in mice. NPY was induced by dietary obesity in the stromal vascular cells of visceral fat depots from mice. Surprisingly, the induction of Npy was limited to purified ATMs from obese mice. Significant basal production of NPY was observed in cultured bone marrow derived macrophage and dendritic cells (DCs) and was increased with LPS stimulation. In vitro, addition of NPY to myeloid cells had minimal effects on their activation profiles. NPY receptor inhibition promoted DC maturation and the production of IL-6 and TNFα suggesting an anti-inflammatory function for NPY signaling in DCs. Consistent with this, NPY injection into lean mice decreased the quantity of M1-like CD11c+ ATMs and suppressed Ly6chi monocytes. BM chimeras generated from Npy−/− donors demonstrated that hematopoietic NPY contributes to the obesity-induced induction of Npy in fat. In addition, loss of Npy expression from hematopoietic cells led to an increase in CD11c+ ATMs in visceral fat with high fat diet feeding. Overall, our studies suggest that NPY is produced by a range of myeloid cells and that obesity activates the production of NPY in adipose tissue macrophages with autocrine and paracrine effects.
In mammals, males typically have shorter lives than females. This difference is thought to be due to behavioural traits which enhance competitive abilities, and hence male reproductive success, but impair survival. Furthermore, in many species males usually show higher parasite burden than females. Consequently, the intensity of selection for genetic factors which reduce susceptibility to pathogens may differ between sexes. High variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is believed to be advantageous for detecting and combating the range of infectious agents present in the environment. Increased heterozygosity at these immune genes is expected to be important for individual longevity. However, whether males in natural populations benefit more from MHC heterozygosity than females has rarely been investigated. We investigated this question in a long-term study of free-living Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), a polygynous mountain ungulate.
Here we show that male chamois survive significantly (P = 0.022) longer if heterozygous at the MHC class II DRB locus, whereas females do not. Improved survival of males was not a result of heterozygote advantage per se, as background heterozygosity (estimated across twelve microsatellite loci) did not change significantly with age. Furthermore, reproductively active males depleted their body fat reserves earlier than females leading to significantly impaired survival rates in this sex (P < 0.008). This sex-difference was even more pronounced in areas affected by scabies, a severe parasitosis, as reproductively active males were less likely to survive than females. However, we did not find evidence for a survival advantage associated with specific MHC alleles in areas affected by scabies.
Increased MHC class II DRB heterozygosity with age in males, suggests that MHC heterozygous males survive longer than homozygotes. Reproductively active males appear to be less likely to survive than females most likely because of the energetic challenge of the winter rut, accompanied by earlier depletion of their body fat stores, and a generally higher parasite burden. This scenario renders the MHC-mediated immune response more important for males than for females, which implies a relatively stronger selection pressure on MHC genes in males than in females.
MHC; Sex-specific selection; Heterozygosity advantage; Alpine chamois
Albendazole (ABZ) is a microtubule-targeting anthelmintic with a remarkable activity against a variety of human cancer cells. In this study, we examined if the antitumor activity of ABZ could be enhanced by its combination with other microtubule-binding agents.
The interactions between ABZ and microtubule-binding agents, paclitaxel, vinblastine, colchicine, and 2-methoxyestradiol were characterized using median effect analysis method in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and DU145 prostate cancer cell line. The mechanism underlying the synergistic interaction related to tubulin polymerization and apoptosis was then investigated. Finally, the effect of the combination therapy on the survival of HCT-116 tumor-bearing nude mice was evaluated.
Among the tested drugs, a synergistic anti-proliferative effect was observed with the combination of low concentrations of ABZ plus colchicine and ABZ plus 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME). Exploring the mechanism of the interaction between ABZ and 2ME revealed that the combination therapy synergistically activated the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Consistent with in vitro results, the combination of low concentration of ABZ with 2ME prolonged the survival of mice-bearing HCT-116 tumors. High concentration of ABZ in combination with 2ME, however, proved to be less effective than ABZ alone.
The combination of low doses of ABZ and 2ME has shown promising results in our pre-clinical model. Additionally, the finding that the combination of two microtubule-binding agents that share the same binding site can act synergistically may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies in cancer treatment.
Albendazole; 2-Methoxyestradiol; Combination therapy; Microtubule-targeting agents
The complement C4 locus is in the class III region of the MHC, and exhibits copy number variation. Complement C4 null alleles have shown association with a number of diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, most studies to date have used protein immunophenotyping and not direct interrogation of the genome to determine C4 null allele status. Moreover, a lack of accurate C4 gene copy number (GCN) estimation and tight linkage disequilibrium across the disease-associated MHC haplotypes has confounded attempts to establish whether or not these associations are causal. We have therefore developed a high through-put paralog ratio test (PRT) in association with two restriction enzyme digest variant ratio tests (REDVRs) to determine total C4 GCN, C4A GCN, and C4B GCN. In the densely genotyped CEU cohort we show that this method is accurate and reproducible when compared to gold standard Southern blot copy number estimation with a discrepancy rate of 9%. We find a broad range of C4 GCNs in the CEU and the 1958 British Birth Cohort populations under study. In addition, SNP-C4 CNV analyses show only moderate levels of correlation and therefore do not support the use of SNP genotypes as proxies for complement C4 GCN.
complement C4; CNV; lupus; paralog ratio test
To review the two main approaches of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy delivery in ovarian cancer: postoperative adjuvant IP chemotherapy after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and intraoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).
A literature search was conducted to identify studies that employed postoperative adjuvant IP chemotherapy after CRS or combined CRS and intraoperative HIPEC in patients with ovarian cancer. Data of interest included chemotherapy protocol, morbidity and mortality, and survival data.
Three large randomized controlled trials comprising 707 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who received postoperative adjuvant IP chemotherapy were reviewed. Morbidity rate ranged from 56% to 94% in IP chemotherapy, and mortality rate ranged from 1% to 2%. Median disease-free survival ranged from 24 to 28 months, and overall survival ranged from 49 to 66 months. Planned chemotherapy completion rates ranged from 42% to 71%. Twenty-four nonrandomized studies that reported HIPEC comprised 1167 patients with both advanced and recurrent ovarian cancer. In patients with advanced ovarian cancer, mortality ranged from 0% to 5%, minor morbidity ranged from 16% to 90%, and major morbidity ranged from 0% to 40%. Median disease-free survival ranged from 13 to 56 months, and overall survival ranged from 14 to 64 months. Survival at 5 years ranged from 35% to 70%. In patients with recurrent ovarian cancer, the mortality rate ranged from 0% to 10%, minor morbidity ranged from 7% to 90%, and major morbidity ranged from 0% to 49%. Median disease-free survival ranged from 13 to 24 months and overall survival from 23 to 49 months. Survival at 5 years ranged from 12% to 54%.
There is level-one evidence suggesting the benefit of postoperative adjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy for patients with advanced ovarian cancer after cytoreductive surgery, albeit catheter-related complications resulted after treatment discontinuation. Studies report the use of HIPEC predominantly in the setting of recurrent disease and have demonstrated encouraging results, which merits further investigation in future clinical trials.
intraperitoneal chemotherapy; ovarian carcinoma; hyperthermic; intraoperative; cytoreductive surgery
AIM: To investigate whether hepatocytes isolated from macroscopically normal liver during hepatic resection for neoplasia could provide a novel source of healthy hepatocytes, including the development of reliable protocols for malignant cells removal from the hepatocyte preparation.
METHODS: Hepatocytes were procured from resected liver of 18 patients with liver tumors using optimised digestion and cell-enrichment protocols. Suspensions of various known quantities of the HT-29 tumor cell line and patient hepatocytes were treated or not with Ep-CAM-antibody-coated immunomagnetic beads in order to investigate the efficacy of tumor-purging by immunomagnetic depletion, using a semi-quantitative RT-PCR method developed to detect tumor cells. Immunomagnetic bead-treated or bead-untreated tumor cell-hepatocyte suspensions were transplanted intra-peritoneally in Balb/C nude mice to assess the rates of tumor development.
RESULTS: Mean viable hepatocyte yield was 9.3 x 106 cells per gram of digested liver with mean viability of 70.5%. Immunomagnetic depletion removed tumor cells to below the RT-PCR detection-threshold of 1 tumor cell in 106 hepatocytes, representing a maximum tumor purging efficacy of greater than 400 000-fold. Transplanted, immunomagnetic bead-purged tumor cell-hepatocyte suspensions did not form peritoneal tumors in Balb/C nude mice. Co-transplantation of hepatocytes with tumor cells did not increase tumorigenesis of the tumor cells.
CONCLUSION: Immunomagnetic depletion appears to be an effective method of purging contaminating tumor cells to below threshold for likely tumorigenesis. Along with improved techniques for isolation of large numbers of viable hepatocytes, normal liver resected for neoplasia has potential as another clinically useful source of hepatocytes for transplantation.
Hepatocyte transplantation; Immunomagnetic purging; Isolation of hepatocytes
Due to its excellent safety profile, ease of administration, and economic considerations, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is becoming a preferred form of allergen specific immunotherapy. The efficacy of SLIT is still debated. The purpose of this act of practice trial is to evaluate quality of life outcomes in patients treated with SLIT. Fifty one patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis demonstrated by skin testing completed the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) at initiation, at four months and at 10–12 months of SLIT. Significant improvement (P < 0.05) on six of seven domain categories of the RQLQ questionnaire was noted. Total RQLQ scores also showed significant improvement. This study supports SLIT as a modality effective in controlling allergic symptoms.
The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a cell surface receptor which has a multifunctional task in the process of tumorigenesis including cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion. Many of the biological functions of uPAR necessitate interactions with other proteins. We have shown previously that uPAR interacts with HAX1 protein (HS-1-associated protein X-1). In the current study, to gain insight into the possible role of HAX1 overexpression in regulation of uPAR signal transduction pathway, several function assays were used. We found that, upon stimulation of uPAR, HAX1 colocalizes with uPAR suggesting a physiological role for HAX1 in the regulation of uPAR signal transduction. HAX1 overexpression augments cell proliferation and migration in uPAR-stimulated cells. Moreover, HAX1 over-expression augmented uPAR-induced cell adhesion to vitronectin as well as cellular invasion. Our results suggest that HAX1 over-expression may underlay a novel mechanism to regulate uPAR-induced functions in cancer cells.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of angiogenesis which drives endothelial cell survival, proliferation, and migration while increasing vascular permeability. Playing an important role in the physiology of normal ovaries, VEGF has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Essentially by promoting tumor angiogenesis and enhancing vascular permeability, VEGF contributes to the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis associated with malignant ascites formation, the characteristic feature of advanced ovarian cancer at diagnosis. In both experimental and clinical studies, VEGF levels have been inversely correlated with survival. Moreover, VEGF inhibition has been shown to inhibit tumor growth and ascites production and to suppress tumor invasion and metastasis. These findings have laid the basis for the clinical evaluation of agents targeting VEGF signaling pathway in patients with ovarian cancer. In this review, we will focus on VEGF involvement in the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer and its contribution to the disease progression and dissemination.
Angiogenesis; Bevacizumab; Malignant ascites; Ovarian cancer; Peritoneal carcinomatosis; Vascular endothelial growth factor
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex trait characterised by the production of a range of auto-antibodies and a diverse set of clinical phenotypes. Currently, ∼8% of the genetic contribution to SLE in Europeans is known, following publication of several moderate-sized genome-wide (GW) association studies, which identified loci with a strong effect (OR>1.3). In order to identify additional genes contributing to SLE susceptibility, we conducted a replication study in a UK dataset (870 cases, 5,551 controls) of 23 variants that showed moderate-risk for lupus in previous studies. Association analysis in the UK dataset and subsequent meta-analysis with the published data identified five SLE susceptibility genes reaching genome-wide levels of significance (Pcomb<5×10−8): NCF2 (Pcomb = 2.87×10−11), IKZF1 (Pcomb = 2.33×10−9), IRF8 (Pcomb = 1.24×10−8), IFIH1 (Pcomb = 1.63×10−8), and TYK2 (Pcomb = 3.88×10−8). Each of the five new loci identified here can be mapped into interferon signalling pathways, which are known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of SLE. These results increase the number of established susceptibility genes for lupus to ∼30 and validate the importance of using large datasets to confirm associations of loci which moderately increase the risk for disease.
Genome-wide association studies have revolutionised our ability to identify common susceptibility alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In complex diseases such as SLE, where many different genes make a modest contribution to disease susceptibility, it is necessary to perform large-scale association studies to combine results from several datasets, to have sufficient power to identify highly significant novel loci (P<5×10−8). Using a large SLE collection of 870 UK SLE cases and 5,551 UK unaffected individuals, we firstly replicated ten moderate-risk alleles (P<0.05) from a US–Swedish study of 3,273 SLE cases and 12,188 healthy controls. Combining our results with the US-Swedish data identified five new loci, which crossed the level for genome-wide significance: NCF2 (neutrophil cytosolic factor 2), IKZF1 (Ikaros family zinc-finger 1), IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8), IFIH1 (interferon-induced helicase C domain-containing protein 1), and TYK2 (tyrosine kinase 2). Each of these five genes regulates a different aspect of the immune response and contributes to the production of type-I and type-II interferons. Although further studies will be required to identify the causal alleles within these loci, the confirmation of five new susceptibility genes for lupus makes a significant step forward in our understanding of the genetic contribution to SLE.
Despite recent advances in the management of ovarian cancer, it remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to play a pivotal role in the progression of ovarian cancer leading to the eventual development of malignant ascites. On this basis, agents rendering VEGF ineffective by neutralizing VEGF (bevacizumab), blocking its receptors (aflibercept), or interfering with the postreceptor signaling pathways (sunitinib) provide us with the rational treatment options. These agents are generally used in combination with the standard chemotherapeutic drugs. Here, we discuss the basis of and the logic behind the use of these agents in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer, as well as their evaluation in different preclinical and clinical studies.
The Fcγ-receptor locus on chromosome 1q23 shows copy-number variation (CNV), and it has previously been shown that individuals with reduced numbers of copies of the Fcγ-receptor-IIIB gene (FCGR3B) have an increased risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is not understood whether the association arises from FCGR3B (CD16b) itself, is observed because of linkage disequilibrium with actual causal alleles and/or is an effect of CNV on flanking FCGR genes. Thus, we extended this previous work by genotyping the FCGR3B alleles NA1/NA2 and re-assaying CNV using a paralogue ratio test assay in a family study (365 families). We have developed a novel case/pseudo-control approach to analyse family data, as the phase of copy number (CN) is not known in parents and cannot always be inferred in offspring. The results, obtained by fitting logistic regression models, confirm the association of low CN of FCGR3B with SLE (P=0.04). The risk conferred by low copies (<2) was contingent on FCGR3B allotype, being greater for deletion of NA1 than the for lower-affinity NA2. The simpler model with just CN was rejected in favour of the biallelic-CN model (P=0.03). We observed a correlation (R2=0.75, P<0.0001) between FCGR3B CNV and neutrophil expression in both healthy controls and patients with SLE. Our results suggest that one mechanism by which CNV at this locus confers disease risk is directly as a result of reduced FcγRIIIb function, either because of reduced expression (related to CNV) or because of reduced affinity for its ligand (NA1/NA2 allotype).
FCGR3B; NA1/NA2; genetics; systemic lupus erythematosus; CNV
Pseudomyxoma peritonei following dissemination of appendicealmucinous neoplasms is slowly progressive but inevitably a lethal condition. It is locally invasive and does not lead to lymph node or distant metastasis making it amenable for more radical procedures. We present a case of pseudomyxoma peritonei treated by Cytoreductive surgery(CRS)and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy(HIPEC) with Mitomycin C (12.5mg/m2 ) at 41.50 C. This was followed by five cycles of early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) with 5FU (650 mg/m2) over 5 days. Patient underwent standard Peritonectomy procedure combined with resection of gallbladder, Spleen, subtotal colectomy and resection of part of small bowel. Blood loss during theprocedure was 4000ml. Histopathology revealed Pseudomyxoma peritonei (hybrid type). The patient recuperated well and was discharged and now is living a productive life. Peritonectomy with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy is the current standard of treatment for appendiceal tumors with peritoneal dissemination which offers a hope of disease free long survival in such patients.
Appendix; Mucinous tumors; Peritoneal dissemination; Pseudomyxoma peritonei; Peritonectomy; Intraperitoneal; Hyper thermic chemotherapy
Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare cancer with poor patient survival. Female gender has been identified as a positive prognostic factor. Recently, it has been suggested that the expression of estrogen receptor β in malignant mesothelioma leads to tumor suppression and a better prognosis.
We report the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian woman who is alive and disease-free seven years after the initial diagnosis and treatment of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.
This patient's long survival may be attributable to a combination of factors, including minimal disease, complete cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy plus the estrogen receptor β positivity of the tumor.
We evaluate the long-term survival of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) treated with systemic chemotherapy regimens, and the impact of the of the retrospective peritoneal disease severity score (PSDSS) on outcomes.
One hundred sixty-seven consecutive patients treated with PC from colorectal cancer between years 1987-2006 were identified from a prospective institutional database. These patients either received no chemotherapy, 5-FU/Leucovorin or Oxaliplatin/Irinotecan-based chemotherapy. Stratification was made according to the retrospective PSDSS that classifies PC patients based on clinically relevant factors. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and comparison with the log-rank test.
Median survival was 5 months (95% CI, 3-7 months) for patients who had no chemotherapy, 11 months (95% CI, 6-9 months) for patients treated with 5 FU/LV, and 12 months (95% CI, 4-20 months) for patients treated with Oxaliplatin/Irinotecan-based chemotherapy. Survival differed between patients treated with chemotherapy compared to those patients who did not receive chemotherapy (p = 0.026). PSDSS staging was identified as an independent predictor for survival on multivariate analysis [RR 2.8 (95%CI 1.5-5.4); p < 0.001].
A trend towards improved outcomes is demonstrated from treatment of patients with PC from colorectal cancer using modern systemic chemotherapy. The PSDSS appears to be a useful tool in patient selection and prognostication in PC of colorectal origin.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease which behaves as a complex genetic trait. At least 20 SLE risk susceptibility loci have been mapped using both candidate gene and genome-wide association strategies. The gene encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL18, has been reported as a candidate gene showing an association with SLE. This pleiotropic cytokine is expressed in a range of immune cells and has been shown to induce interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α. Serum interleukin-18 has been reported to be elevated in patients with SLE. Here we aimed to densely map single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across IL18 to investigate the association across this locus. We genotyped 36 across IL18 by Illumina bead express in 372 UK SLE trios. We also genotyped these SNPs in a further 508 non-trio UK cases and were able to accurately impute a dense marker set across IL18 in WTCCC2 controls with a total of 258 SNPs. To improve the study's power, we also imputed a total of 158 SNPs across the IL18 locus using data from an SLE genome-wide association study and performed association testing. In total, we analysed 1818 cases and 10 770 controls in this study. Our large well-powered study (98% to detect odds ratio = 1.5, with respect to rs360719) showed that no individual SNP or haplotype was associated with SLE in any of the cohorts studied. We conclude that we were unable to replicate the SLE association with rs360719 located upstream of IL18. No evidence for association with any other common variant at IL18 with SLE was found.
SH2B1 is a SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein expressed in both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Neuronal SH2B1 controls body weight; however, the functions of peripheral SH2B1 remain unknown. Here, we studied peripheral SH2B1 regulation of insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We generated TgKO mice expressing SH2B1 in the brain but not peripheral tissues. Various metabolic parameters and insulin signaling were examined in TgKO mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The effect of SH2B1 on the insulin receptor catalytic activity and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/IRS-2 dephosphorylation was examined using in vitro kinase assays and in vitro dephosphorylation assays, respectively. SH2B1 was coexpressed with PTP1B, and insulin receptor–mediated phosphorylation of IRS-1 was examined.
Deletion of peripheral SH2B1 markedly exacerbated HFD-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance in TgKO mice. Insulin signaling was dramatically impaired in muscle, liver, and adipose tissue in TgKO mice. Deletion of SH2B1 impaired insulin signaling in primary hepatocytes, whereas SH2B1 overexpression stimulated insulin receptor autophosphorylation and tyrosine phosphorylation of IRSs. Purified SH2B1 stimulated insulin receptor catalytic activity in vitro. The SH2 domain of SH2B1 was both required and sufficient to promote insulin receptor activation. Insulin stimulated the binding of SH2B1 to IRS-1 or IRS-2. This physical interaction inhibited tyrosine dephosphorylation of IRS-1 or IRS-2 and increased the ability of IRS proteins to activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway.
SH2B1 is an endogenous insulin sensitizer. It directly binds to insulin receptors, IRS-1 and IRS-2, and enhances insulin sensitivity by promoting insulin receptor catalytic activity and by inhibiting tyrosine dephosphorylation of IRS proteins.