Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a major regulator of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion in gonadotrope cell in the anterior pituitary gland. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that control gene expression by imperfect binding to the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mRNA at the post-transcriptional level. It has been proven that miRNAs play an important role in hormone response and/or regulation. However, little is known about miRNAs in the regulation of FSH secretion. In this study, primary anterior pituitary cells were treated with 100 nM GnRH. The supernatant of pituitary cell was collected for FSH determination by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 3 hours and 6 hours post GnRH treatment respectively. Results revealed that GnRH significantly promoted FSH secretion at 3 h and 6 h post-treatment by 1.40-fold and 1.80-fold, respectively. FSHβ mRNA at 6 h post GnRH treatment significantly increased by 1.60-fold. At 6 hours, cells were collected for miRNA expression profile analysis using MiRCURY LNA Array and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Consequently, 21 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated miRNAs were identified, and qPCR verification of 10 randomly selected miRNAs showed a strong correlation with microarray results. Chromosome location analysis indicated that 8 miRNAs were mapped to chromosome 12 and 4 miRNAs to chromosome X. Target and pathway analysis showed that some miRNAs may be associated with GnRH regulation pathways. In addition, In-depth analysis indicated that 10 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated miRNAs probably target FSHβ mRNA 3′-UTR directly, including miR-361-3p, a highly conserved X-linked miRNA. Most importantly, functional experimental results showed that miR-361-3p was involved in FSH secretion regulation, and up-regulated miR-361-3p expression inhibited FSH secretion, while down-regulated miR-361-3p expression promoted FSH secretion in pig pituitary cell model. These differentially expressed miRNAs resolved in this study provide the first guide for post-transcriptional regulation of pituitary gonadotrope FSH secretion in pig, as well as in other mammals.
Although cell-based studies have shown that γ-tocotrienol (γTE) exhibits stronger anticancer activities than other forms of vitamin E including γ-tocopherol (γT), the molecular bases underlying γTE-exerted effects remains to be elucidated. Here we showed that γTE treatment promoted apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy in human prostate PC-3 and LNCaP cancer cells. In search of potential mechanisms of γTE-provoked effects, we found that γTE treatment led to marked increase of intracellular dihydroceramide and dihydrosphingosine, the sphingolipid intermediates in de novo sphingolipid synthesis pathway, but had no effects on ceramide or sphingosine. The elevation of these sphingolipids by γTE preceded or coincided with biochemical and morphological signs of cell death and was much more pronounced than that induced by γT, which accompanied with much higher cellular uptake of γTE than γT. The importance of sphingolipid accumulation in γTE-caused fatality was underscored by the observation that dihydrosphingosine and dihydroceramide potently reduced the viability of both prostate cell lines or LNCaP cells, respectively. In addition, myriosin, a specific inhibitor of de novo sphingolipid synthesis, counteracted γTE-induced cell death. In agreement with these cell-based studies, γTE inhibited LNCaP xenograft growth by 53% (P<0.05), compared with 33% (P = 0.07) by γT, in nude mice. These findings provide a molecular basis of γTE-stimulated cancer-cell death and support the notion that elevation of intracellular dihydroceramide and dihydrosphingosine is likely a novel anticancer mechanism.
sphingolipids; vitamin E; tocopherol; autophagy; apoptosis
Serotonin (5-HT) is a central inhibitor of food intake in mammals. Thus far, the intracellular mechanisms for the effect of serotonin on appetite regulation remain unclear. It has been recently demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hypothalamus are a crucial integrative target for the regulation of food intake. To investigate the role of ROS in the serotonin-induced anorexigenic effects, conscious mice were treated with 5-HT alone or combination with Trolox (a ROS scavenger) or Apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) by acute intracerebroventricular injection. Both Trolox and Apocynin reversed the anorexigenic action of 5-HT and the 5-HT-induced hypothalamic ROS elevation. The mRNA and protein expression levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were dramatically increased after ICV injection with 5-HT. The anorexigenic action of 5-HT was accompanied by markedly elevated hypothalamic MDA levels and GSH-Px activity, while the SOD activity was decreased. Moreover, 5-HT significantly increased the mRNA expression of UCP-2 but reduced the levels of UCP-3. Both Trolox and Apocynin could block the 5-HT-induced changes in UCP-2 and UCP-3 gene expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the anorexigenic effect of 5-HT is mediated by the generation of ROS in the hypothalamus through an NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway.
Over the past decades China has made a great stride in controlling schistosomiasis, eliminating transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in 5 provinces and remarkably reducing transmission intensities in the rest of the seven endemic provinces. Recently, an integrated control strategy, which focuses on interventions on humans and bovines, has been implemented throughout endemic areas in China. This strategy assumes that a reduction in transmission of S. japonicum from humans and bovines to the intermediate Oncomelania snail host would eventually block the transmission of this parasite, and has yielded effective results in some endemic areas. Yet the transmission of S. japonicum is relatively complicated – in addition to humans and bovines, more than 40 species of mammalians can serve as potential zoonotic reservoirs. Here, we caution that some factors – potential roles of other mammalian reservoirs and human movement in sustaining the transmission, low sensitivity/specificity of current diagnostic tools for infections, praziquantel treatment failures, changes in environmental and socio-economic factors such as flooding in key endemic areas - may pose great obstacles towards transmission interruption of the parasite. Assessing potential roles of these factors in the transmission and implications for current control strategies aiming at transmission interruption is needed.
Schistosoma japonicum; Integrated control strategy; Transmission interruption
Clathrin has been widely recognized as a pivotal player in endocytosis, in which several adaptors and accessory proteins are involved. Recent studies suggested that clathrin is also essential for cell division. Here this review mainly focuses on the clathrin-dependent mechanisms involved in spindle assembly and chromosome alignment. In mitosis, clathrin forms a complex with phosphorylated TACC3 to ensure spindle stability and proper chromosome alignment. The clathrin-regulated mechanism in mitosis requires the crosstalk among clathrin, spindle assembly factors (SAFs), Ran-GTP and mitotic kinases. Meanwhile, a coordinated mechanism is required for role transitions of clathrin during endocytosis and mitosis. Taken together, the findings of the multiple functions of clathrin besides endocytosis have expanded our understanding of the basic cellular activities.
clathrin; endocytosis; mitosis; TACC3; spindle assembly; chromosome alignment
Background and objective: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in the regulation of ovarian function and ovarian cancer cell growth. In this study, we determined whether administration of the GnRH agonist (GnRHa), triporelin, prior to cisplatin treatment affects cisplatin and/or prevents cisplatin-induced ovarian damage. Methods: nu/nu mice were injected with ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cells intraperitoneally. After two weeks, the mice were treated with saline (control), cisplatin, GnRHa, or cisplatin plus GnRHa for four weeks. At the end of the experimental protocol, blood, tumor, ovary, and uterine tissues were resected for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemical analyses of Ki67, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and caspase-3, transmission electron microscopy of apoptosis, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). Results: Cisplatin treatment effectively inhibited tumor growth in mice treated with human ovarian cancer cells; however the treatment also induced considerable toxicity. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that Ki67 expression was reduced in cisplatin-treated mice compared to control (P<0.05), but there was no statistically significant differences between cisplatin-treated mice and cisplatin plus GnRHa-treated mice (P>0.05), while expressions of NF-κB and caspase-3 were reduced and induced, respectively, in cisplatin-treated mice and cisplatin plus GnRHa-treated mice. Apoptosis occurred in the GnRHa, cisplatin, and cisplatin plus GnRHa-treated mice, but not in control mice. Ovaries exposed to GnRHa in both GnRHa mice and cisplatin-treated mice (combination group) had significantly more primordial and growth follicles and serum levels of AMH than those in the control mice and cisplatin-treated mice (P<0.05). Conclusions: Administration of GnRHa to mice significantly decreased the extent of ovarian damage induced by cisplatin, but did not affect the anti-tumor activity of cisplatin.
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone; Cisplatin; Ovarian cancer; Animal experiment
There is increasing evidence suggesting that Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide, can interfere with the body’s natural weight control mechanisms to promote obesity. However, epidemiological studies for this are limited, especially for children.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the association between BPA exposure and body mass index (BMI) in school children. Three primary and three middle schools were randomly selected from 26 primary and 30 middle candidate schools in Changning District of Shanghai City in China. According to the BMI-based criteria by age and sex for screening of overweight or obese children, we randomly chose 20 obese, 10 overweight, and 30 normal weight children aged 8-15 years of age from each selected school. First morning urine was collected and total urine BPA concentrations were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to examine the association of urine BPA concentrations and daily intake estimates with BMI.
BPA was detected in 84.9% of urine samples with a geometric mean of 0.45 ng/mL. The daily intake estimates ranged from 0.03 μg/day to 1.96 μg/day with a geometric mean of 0.37 μg/day. The average urine BPA concentrations and daily intake estimates were similar for boys and girls, but significantly higher in older children than younger ones, and showed an increasing trend with BMI. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that urine BPA concentrations were significantly associated with increasing BMI values in all subjects after adjustment for age and sex and the results were similar before and after corrected by urine specific gravity. When stratified by age or sex, the associations remained significant in females and in those 8-11 years of age before corrected by specific gravity. Similar results were shown for the association between BMI and daily intake estimates.
There is a possibility that BPA exposure increases BMI in school children. Given the cross-sectional nature of this study, longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm BPA exposure as a contributor to increased BMI in children.
Bisphenol A; Urine; Body mass index; Obesity; School children
CD20-positive T-cell lymphoma is extremely rare and only two cases of CD20-positive NK/T-cell lymphoma with aggressive clinical courses have been described in the literature. We present a case of unusual NK/T-cell lymphoma with CD20 expression in nasal cavity occurring in an elder female patient. The patient had presented with left nasal cavity nodule for 10 years. CT scan revealed a mass was located at the left anterior nasal cavity and was observed to extend into the ethmoid sinus. There was no regional lymph node involvement. Biopsy was performed and microscopical inspection revealed the lesion was composed of small- to middle-size atypical lymphoid cell, histiocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils. The lymphoid cells were strongly immunoreactive to CD3, CD20, CD56, TIA-1 and granzyme-B. The Epstein-Barr virus genomes were also found in tumor cells by in situ hybridization. By genetic analysis, however, no clonal rearrangement of the T cell receptor-γ genes (TCRG), or the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene was found. A diagnosis of CD20-positive extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type was made. The patient refused chemotherapy, and had been only on regular follow-up for 6 months. There was no sign of enlargement of tumor and extra-nasal dissemination by whole body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) study. The accurate diagnosis of NK/T-cell lymphoma with CD20 expression is important, but the indolent behavior of the present case is more unusual. A long-term follow-up is suggested to be performed to inspect the progression for this tumor.
The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1320848277788495
NK/T cell lymphoma; Nasal type; CD20 expression; Differential diagnosis; Prognosis
A highly efficient hydrogen generation from formic acid/sodium formate aqueous solution catalyzed by in situ synthesized Pd/C with citric acid has been successfully achieved at room temperature. Interestingly, the presence of citric acid during the formation and growth of the Pd nanoparticles on carbon can drastically enhance the catalytic property of the resulted Pd/C, on which the conversion and turnover frequency for decomposition of formic acid/sodium formate system can reach the highest values ever reported of 85% within 160 min and 64 mol H2 mol−1 catalyst h−1, respectively, at room temperature. The present simple, low cost, but highly efficient CO-free hydrogen generation system at room temperature is believed to greatly promote the practical application of formic acid system on fuel cells.
Although amorphous structures have been widely obtained in various multi-component metallic alloys, amorphization in pure metals has seldom been observed and remains a long-standing scientific curiosity and technological interest. Here we present experimental evidence of localized solid-state amorphization in bulk nanocrystalline nickel introduced by quasi-static compression at room temperature. High-resolution electron microscope observations illustrate that nano-scale amorphous structures present at the regions where severe deformation occurred, e.g. along crack paths or surrounding nano-voids. These findings have indicated that nanocrystalline structures are highly desirable for promoting solid-state amorphization, which may provide new insights for understanding the nature of the crystalline-to-amorphous transformation and suggested a potential method to produce elemental metallic glasses that have hardly been available hitherto through rapid solidification.
In 2004 an aggressive plan was instituted aiming to achieve nationwide transmission control of schistosomiasis by 2015. Here, we report a longitudinal study on the control of schistosomiasis in Anhui province, China. Using a mathematical model, we compared the effects of different control strategies implemented in the study area. During the 5-year study period, a 60.8% reduction in human prevalence was observed from 2005 (7.95%) to 2009 (3.1%), and snail infection decreased from 0.063% in 2005 to zero in 2009. Results of the model agree well with the first 3-year field observations and suggest continuous decrease in human infections in the last 2 years, whereas the last 2-year field observations indicated that human infections appeared to be stable even with continuous control. Our findings showed that the integrated control strategy was effective, and we speculated that other factors besides bovines might contribute to the local transmission of the disease.
Here, for the first time, we evaluate the hypothesis that the proliferative abilities of satellite cells (SCs) isolated from Lantang (indigenous Chinese pigs) and Landrace pigs, which differ in muscle characteristics, are different. SCs were isolated from the longissimus dorsi muscle of neonatal Lantang and Landrace pigs. Proliferative ability was estimated by the count and proliferative activity of viable cells using a hemocytometer and MTT assay at different time points after seeding, respectively. Cell cycle information was detected by flow cytometry. Results showed that there was a greater (P<0.05) number of SCs in Lantang pigs compared with Landrace pigs after 72 h of culture. The percentage of cell population in S phase and G2/M phases in Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05), while in G0/G1 phase was lower (P<0.05) in comparison with the Landrace pigs. The mRNA abundances of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin and Pax7 in SCs from Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05), while those of myostatin, Smad3 and genes in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway (with the exception of 4EBP1) were lower (P<0.05) than the Landrace pigs. Protein levels of MyoD, myogenin, myostatin, S6K, phosphorylated mTOR and phosphorylated eIF4E were consistent with the corresponding mRNA abundance. Collectively, these findings suggested that SCs in the two breeds present different proliferative abilities, and the proliferative potential of SCs in Lantang pigs is higher than in Landrace pigs.
To address the need for standardization of osteoarthritis (OA) phenotypes by examining the effect of heterogeneity among symptomatic (SOA) and radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) phenotypes.
Descriptions of OA phenotypes of the 28 studies involved in the TREAT-OA consortium were collected. To investigate whether different OA definitions result in different association results, we created hip OA definitions used within the consortium in the Rotterdam Study-I and tested the association of hip OA with gender, age and BMI using one-way ANOVA. For radiographic OA, we standardized the hip, knee and hand ROA definitions and calculated prevalence's of ROA before and after standardization in 9 cohort studies. This procedure could only be performed in cohort studies and standardization of SOA definitions was not feasible at this moment.
In this consortium, all studies with symptomatic OA phenotypes (knee, hip and hand) used a different definition and/or assessment of OA status. For knee, hip and hand radiographic OA 5, 4 and 7 different definitions were used, respectively. Different hip OA definitions do lead to different association results. For example, we showed in the Rotterdam Study-I that hip OA defined as “at least definite JSN and one definite osteophyte” was not associated with gender (p=0.22), but defined as “at least one definite osteophyte” was significantly associated with gender (p=3×10−9). Therefore, a standardization process was undertaken for radiographic OA definitions. Before standardization a wide range of ROA prevalence's was observed in the 9 cohorts studied. After standardization the range in prevalence of knee and hip ROA was small. Standardization of SOA phenotypes was not possible due to the case-control design of the studies.
Phenotype definitions influence the prevalence of OA and association with clinical variables. ROA phenotypes within the TREAT-OA consortium were standardized to reduce heterogeneity and improve power in future genetics studies.
The complex molecule of the title compound, [Co(C15H11N2O2)2(C3H10N2)2], has crystallographically imposed inversion symmetry. The CoII atom displays a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. In the phenytoin anion, the two phenyl rings form dihedral angles of 62.26 (8) and 57.47 (9)° with the central imidazole ring. Intramolecular N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur. In the crystal, N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming a three-dimensional network.
Vacuolar-type H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are macromolecular proton pumps that acidify intracellular cargos and deliver protons across the plasma membrane of a variety of specialized cells, including bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Extracellular acidification is crucial for osteoclastic bone resorption, a process that initiates the dissolution of mineralized bone matrix. While the importance of V-ATPases in osteoclastic resorptive function is well-defined, whether V-ATPases facilitate additional aspects of osteoclast function and/or formation remains largely obscure. Here we report that the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45 participates in both osteoclast formation and function. Using a siRNA-based approach, we show that targeted suppression of Ac45 impairs intracellular acidification and endocytosis, both are prerequisite for osteoclastic bone resorptive function in vitro. Interestingly, we find that knockdown of Ac45 also attenuates osteoclastogenesis owing to a reduced fusion capacity of osteoclastic precursor cells. Finally, in an effort to gain more detailed insights into the functional role of Ac45 in osteoclasts, we attempted to generate osteoclast-specific Ac45 conditional knockout mice using a Cathepsin K-Cre-LoxP system. Surprisingly, however, insertion of the neomycin cassette in the Ac45-FloxNeo mice resulted in marked disturbances in CNS development and ensuing embryonic lethality thus precluding functional assessment of Ac45 in osteoclasts and peripheral bone tissues. Based on these unexpected findings we propose that, in addition to its canonical function in V-ATPase-mediated acidification, Ac45 plays versatile roles during osteoclast formation and function.
Worldwide schistosomiasis continues to be a serious public health problem. Over the past five decades, China has made remarkable progress in reducing Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans to a relatively low level. Endemic regions are currently circumscribed in certain core areas where re-infection and repeated chemotherapy are frequent. At present, selective chemotherapy with praziquantel is one of the main strategies in China's National Schistosomiasis Control Program, and thus diagnosis of infected individuals is a key step for such control. In this paper we review the current status of our knowledge about diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis japonica. A simple, affordable, sensitive, and specific assay for field diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica is not yet available, and this poses great barriers towards full control of schistosomiasis. Hence, a search for a diagnostic approach, which delivers these characteristics, is essential and should be given high priority.
Schistosomiasis; Schistosoma japonicum; Parasitological examination; Immunodiagnosis; Chemotherapy
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common skeletal disease, which is characterized by abnormal seating of the femoral head in the acetabulum. Genetic factors play a considerable role in the etiology of DDH. Asporin (ASPN) is an ECM protein which can bind to TGF-β1 and sequentially inhibit TGF-β/Smad signaling. A functional aspartic acid (D) repeat polymorphism of ASPN was first described as an osteoarthritis-associated polymorphism. As TGF-β is well known as an important regulator in the development of skeletal components, ASPN may also be involved in the etiology of DDH. Our objective is to evaluate whether the D repeat polymorphism of ASPN is associated with DDH in Han Chinese.
The D repeat polymorphism was genotyped in 370 DDH patients and 445 control subjects, and the allelic association of the D repeat was examined.
From D11 to D18, eight alleles were identified. D13 allele is the most common allele both in control and DDH groups, the frequencies are 67.3% and 58.1% respectively. In the DDH group, a significantly higher frequency of the D14 allele and significantly lower frequency of D13 was observed. The association of D14 and D13 was found in both females and males after stratification by gender. There was no significant difference in any other alleles we examined.
Our results show an obvious association between the D repeat polymorphism of ASPN and DDH. It indicates that ASPN is an important regulator in the etiology of DDH.
Parainfluenza virus is an important pathogen threatening the health of animals and human, which brings human many kinds of disease, especially lower respiratory tract infection involving infants and young children. In order to control the virus, it is necessary to fully understand the molecular basis resulting in the genetic diversity of the virus. Homologous recombination is one of mechanisms for the rapid change of genetic diversity. However, as a negative-strand virus, it is unknown whether the recombination can naturally take place in human PIV. In this study, we isolated and identified a mosaic serotype 3 human PIV (HPIV3) from in China, and also provided several putative PIV mosaics from previous reports to reveal that the recombination can naturally occur in the virus. In addition, two swine PIV3 isolates transferred from cattle to pigs were found to have mosaic genomes. These results suggest that homologous recombination can promote the genetic diversity and potentially bring some novel biologic characteristics of HPIV.
A general approach for discovering novel catabolic metabolites from a parent biocompound was developed and validated on metabolism of γ-tocopherol in human A549 cell. Method is based on LC-MS analysis of in vitro stable isotope labeled metabolites and assumes that a parent compound and its metabolites share a common functional group that can be derivatized by well-documented reagents. In this method, two equal aliquots of extracted metabolites are separately derivatized with isotope-coded (heavy) and non-isotope-coded (light) form of derivatizing reagent, mixed at 1:1 ratio and analyzed using LC-MS. The metabolites with common functional group are then easily recognized by determination of a chromatographically co-eluted pair of isotopomers (MS doublet peaks) with similar peak intensities and mass difference corresponding to the mass difference between heavy and light form of derivatization reagent. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated and validated by identification of products of γ-tocopherol catabolism in human A549 cell culture media using N-methyl-nicotinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (C1-NANHS) and N-methyl-d3-nicotinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (C1-d3-NANHS) derivatizing reagent. Overall four γ-tocopherol metabolites were identified including 9'-COOH, 11'-COOH, 13'-COOH and 13'-OH. In addition, the developed LC-MS method can also be used for the fast and sensitive quantitative analysis of γ-tocopherol and other forms of vitamin E related compounds.
Group Specific Internal Standard Technology (GSIST); Metabolite discovery; LC-MS; Stable isotope labeling; Vitamin E; Carboxychromanol; Tocopherol
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin are used for pain relief and chemoprevention against cancer, but frequently cause gastric mucosal injury. We examined whether combinations of aspirin and alpha-tocopherol (αT) or gamma-tocopherol (γT), two major forms of vitamin E, are better anti-inflammatories than aspirin alone and whether these combinations alleviate aspirin-associated side effects. In the carrageenan-induced air-pouch inflammation model in the rat, aspirin (150mg/kg) or a combination of aspirin and γT (33mg/kg) inhibited proinflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by 70% (P<0.02) at the inflammation site at six hours after inflammation was initiated. But at 18 hours, only the combination decreased exudate volume (15%, P<0.05), and showed modest inhibition of PGE2 (40%, P<0.07) and lactate dehydrogenase activity (30%, P=0.07), in the fluid collected at the inflammation site. γT but not αT spared aspirin-caused reduction of food intake, partially reversed aspirin-depressed gastric PGE2 and attenuated stomach lesions. Surprisingly, the combination of aspirin and αT (33mg/kg) did not show more benefits than aspirin alone, but worsened gastric injury and food-intake reduction. Our study demonstrated that a combination of aspirin and γT, but not αT, has some advantage over aspirin alone in the anti-inflammatory effect and attenuation of the aspirin-caused adverse effect. This combination may be useful to complement aspirin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions and cancer.
Vitamin E; NSAIDs; cyclooxygenase; PGE2; inflammation
We reviewed the clinical results of the past 7 years in order to investigate the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in nonunions of long bone fracture. Sixty-nine patients with 69 nonunions (22 femora, 28 tibiae, 13 humeri, 5 radii, and 1 ulna) were treated with extracorporeal shock waves. The technical parameters were 6,000 to 10,000 impulses at 28 kV (0.62 mJ/mm2 energy flux density) for the femur and tibia, 4,000 impulses at 24 kV for the humerus (0.56 mJ/mm2 energy flux density), and 3,000 impulses at 24 kV (0.56 mJ/mm2 energy flux density) for the radius and ulna. Sixty-six patients were followed up. The total successful rate of bony union was 75.4%. ESWT was successful in hypertrophic nonunions and seemed to have no evident effect in atrophic nonunions. We believe that extracorporeal shock wave therapy may be a good choice for nonunions of long bone fracture especially in hypertrophic nonunions.
Natural forms of vitamin E are metabolized by ω-hydroxylation and β-oxidation of the hydrophobic side chain to generate urinary-excreted 2-(β-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (CEHC) and CEHC conjugates (sulfate, glucuronide or glucoside). We have recently shown that sulfated long-chain carboxychromanols, the conjugated intermediate β-oxidation products, are formed from tocopherols and tocotrienols in human cells and in rats. CEHC conjugates have been quantified after being converted to its un-conjugated counterpart by sulfatase/glucuronidase. Although the enzymatic hydrolysis is critical for appropriate quantification of conjugated CEHC, it is not clear whether brief incubation of the plasma with sulfatases/glucuronidases results in complete de-conjugation of conjugated CEHC. Here we show that quantitative hydrolysis of the conjugated vitamin E metabolites in the plasma requires an extraction procedure using methanol/hexane (2ml/5mL) and an overnight sulfatase/glucuronidase hydrolysis. Using this procedure, we demonstrate that conjugated γ-CEHC and some sulfated long-chain carboxychromanols are fully deconjugated. In contrast, direct enzymatic hydrolysis of the whole plasma underestimates the conjugated metabolites by, at least, three fold. This protocol may be useful for the analysis of other conjugated phenolic compounds in complicated biological matrixes like plasma.
CEHC; sulfatase; glucuronidase; tocopherol; tocotrienol; metabolism
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has been increasing in China in recent years. The aim of this study is to estimate and compare the prevalence of MS among Chinese adults in Shanghai, one of the most economic developed areas in China, using definitions proposed by World Health Organization (WHO), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (modified ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF).
This cross-sectional study included 5,584 adults at age 20-79 randomly selected from Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China, through a three-stage sampling. All participants were interviewed in-person between April and July of 2008 to collect information on demographic and lifestyle characteristics. At the interview, anthropometry and blood pressure were measured and bio-specimens were collected.
The prevalence estimates for the MS increased with age for each definition in men and women, but the estimates varied greatly between the definitions and by sex. The prevalence of the MS was higher in men (20.2%) than in women (18.7%) using WHO definition but this sex difference was reversed when using the modified ATP III (28.4% for men vs. 35.1% for women) and the IDF (15.9% for men vs. 26.7% for women) criteria. The most common metabolic disorder in this population was dyslipidaemia, regardless of the definition used. Substantial agreement, estimated using the kappa statistic, was found between the modified ATP III and IDF definition, whereas the lowest agreement was observed between the WHO and ATP III criteria.
The MS is highly prevalent among Chinese adults in Pudong New Area of Shanghai and the most prevalent component was dyslipidemia. These findings underscore the importance of prevention and control efforts for the MS in this area and the need for a unified predictive definition for the syndrome for use by clinical practitioners and public health agencies.
In the title compound, C6H7IN2, the non-H atoms of the molecule are located on a crystallographic mirror plane; the H atoms of the methyl groups are therefore disordered over two positions of equal occupancy. In the crystal structure, short intermolecular I⋯N contacts [3.390 (3) Å] are found, linking the molecules into zigzag chains. In addition, there are intermolecular π–π stacking interactions between the pyrimidine rings of adjacent molecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5168 (10) Å], resulting in a two-dimensional supramolecular architecture.
Hepatitis E has been hypothesized as a zoonosis. However, there is no definite conclusion about which animal species contribute to hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in humans. In this study, HEV RNA was detected only in swine bile specimens and not in bile specimens collected from cattle, goats, or dogs. We postulate that swine are the main animal reservoir for HEV.