Introduction. Mechanical alignment deviation after total knee arthroplasty is a major reason for early loosening of the prosthesis. Achieving optimum cement penetration during fixation of the femoral and tibial component is an essential step in performing a successful total knee arthroplasty. Bone cement is used to solidify the bone and prosthesis. Thickness imbalance of bone cement leads to the deviation of mechanical alignment. To estimate the influence of bone cement, a retrospective study was conducted. Materials and Methods. A total of 36 subjects were studied. All the TKA were performed following the standard surgical protocol for navigated surgery by medial approach with general anaesthesia. Prostheses were fixed by bone cement.
Results. We compared the mechanical axis, flexion/extension, and gap balance before and after cementation. All the factors were different compared with those before and after cementation. Internal rotation was reached with statistical significance (P = 0.03). Conclusion. Bone cement can influence the mechanical axis, flexion/extension, and gap balance. It also can prompt us to make a change when poor knee kinematics were detected before cementation.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disorder, and a major cause of pain and disability among the elderly. Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) has been shown to be a key regulator of chondrocyte hypertrophy during skeletogenesis. The aims of present study were to investigate the expression of HDAC4 in normal and OA cartilage and its potential roles during OA pathogenesis.
The knee cartilage specimen (a total of 18, 12 female and 6 male) were obtained from primary OA patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and normal donors. By using immunohistochemistry staining, we detected the expression patterns of HDAC4 in OA cartilage and normal cartilage respectively. To assess the potential roles of HDAC4, HDAC4 expression in human chondrosarcoma cells (SW1353) was down-regulated by transfecting small interference RNA (siRNA), thereafter, cells were treated with IL-1β or TNF-α, and the expressions of several matrix-degrading enzymes and anabolic factors were examined by using quantitative PCR.
The expression of HDAC4 was observed in the OA cartilage, whereas it was barely detected in the normal cartilage. The extent of HDAC4 expression had a statistically negative correlation with OA severity. We further explored that the reduction of HDAC4 level led to a significant repression of proinflammation cytokines induced up-regulated expressions of matrix-degrading enzymes (MMP1 (Matrix metalloproteinase 1), MMP3 (Matrix metalloproteinase 3) , MMP13 (Matrix metalloproteinase 13), ADAMTS4 (aggrecanase 1) and ADAMTS5 (aggrecanase 2)) in SW1353 in vitro. Moreover, knockdown of HDAC4 inhibited the expression of some anabolic genes (such as aggrecan).
In this study, our findings suggest that the abnormal expression of HDAC4 in osteoarthritic cartilage might be implicated in promoting catabolic activity of chondrocyte, which is associated with OA pathogenesis. Thus, our findings give a new insight into the mechanism of articular cartilage damage, and indicate that HDAC4 might be a potential target for the therapeutic interventions of OA.
Osteoarthritis; HDAC4; Chondrocyte; Catabolism; Homeostasis
Inflammation can promote colon cancer. Mechanistic studies indicate that γ-tocopherol (γT), a major form of vitamin E in diets, has anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Here we investigated the effectiveness of γT and a mixture of tocopherols against colitis and colitis-promoted colon tumorigenesis in male BALB/c mice. γT or mixed tocopherols (at 0.1% diet) did not show any effect on colon tumorigenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM, 10mg/kg) with three cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS at 1.5–2.5%). γT failed to exhibit protection of severe colitis caused by three cycles of DSS at 2.5%. In contrast, when AOM-initiated carcinogenesis was promoted by relatively mild colitis induced by one-cycle DSS (1.5%), γT, but not mixed tocopherols, suppressed total multiplicity of macroscopic adenomas (P=0.06) and large adenomatous polyps (>2mm2, P<0.05) by 60% and 85%, respectively. γT also significantly decreased tumor multiplicity (>2mm2) induced by AOM with two cycles of 1.5% DSS even when dietary supplementation was started after AOM injection. Consistently, γT but not mixed tocopherols attenuated DSS (1.5%)-induced colon inflammation and damage as well as formation of atypical glandular hyperplasia. Mice supplemented with tocopherols had high fecal excretion of 13′-carboxychromanol, a long-chain vitamin E metabolite shown to have potent anti-inflammatory activities. Our study demonstrates that γT is able to alleviate moderate but not severe colitis and its promoted tumorigenesis, and indicates that inflammation severity should be considered in evaluating anticancer effectiveness of chemoprevention agents.
vitamin E; tocopherol; carboxychromanol; inflammation; colon cancer; colitis
Magnetic liposomes have been frequently used as nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging in recent years. Despite great potentials, their morphological/structural instability in the physiological environment still remains an intractable challenge for clinical applications. In this study, stable hybrid liposomal cerasomes (ie, liposomes partially coated with silica) which can co-encapsulate Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the anticancer drug paclitaxel were developed using thin film hydration method. Compared with the drug loaded liposomes, the paclitaxel-loaded magnetic cerasomes (PLMCs) exhibited much higher storage stability and better sustained release behavior. Cellular uptake study showed that the utilization of an external magnetic field significantly facilitated the internalization of PLMCs into cancer cells, resulting in potentiated drug efficacy of killing tumor cells. The T2 relaxivity (r2) of our PLMCs was much higher than that of free Fe3O4 nanoparticles, suggesting increased sensitivity in T2-weighted imaging. Given its excellent biocompatibility also shown in the study, such dual functional PLMC is potentially a promising nanosystem for effective cancer diagnosis and therapy.
MRI; paclitaxel; SPIO; superparamagnetic iron oxide
Acute sporadic hepatitis E (ASHE) cases induced by hepatitis E virus genotype 4 (HEV-4) are increasing in China. Our study aimed to estimate the duration of HEV-4 viraemia in Chinese ASHE.
A total of 619 serum specimens from 499 ASHE patients were examined for the presence of HEV RNA. The association between viraemia detection and serum sampling time was compared between subtypes. The cumulative probability of HEV viraemia detection was determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and the viraemia duration was estimated.
A total of 42.7% serum specimens were positive for HEV RNA and all the isolated strains were identified as genotype 4 and subsequently assigned to five subtypes. Among the patients infected with subtypes 4d and 4i, the time interval from the initiation of clinical symptoms to serum specimen sampling was shorter than that among the patients with subtypes 4a, 4b, and 4h. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted with 101 sequential specimens as well as with both 101 sequential specimens and 236 single negative specimens. The cumulative probability of HEV-4 viraemia detection was estimated to decline quickly to approximately 10% within 32 days after the initiation of clinical symptoms and then to decline very slowly to 5% by the 41st day and to zero by the 131st day.
The majority of ASHE cases maintain detectable HEV-4 viraemia within one month after onset, whereas a small portion of cases maintain long-term viraemia and may act as a reservoir for further transmission.
Hepatitis E virus; Genotype 4; Viraemia; Phylogenetic analysis; China
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), which is expressed in the liver, may be involved in both DNA methylation and DNA synthesis. It is also indicated as a potential risk factor of liver cancer in patients with chronic liver disease. To date, no study has been conducted on MTHFR and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using a population-based design. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene on the risk of primary liver cancer and their possible effect modifications on various environmental risk factors.
A population-based case–control study was conducted in Taixing, China. MTHFR C677T and A1298C were assayed by PCR-RFLP techniques.
The frequency of MTHFR 677 C/C wild homo-zygotes genotype was 25.8% in cases, which was lower than that in controls (34.5%). The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the MTHFR 677 C/T and T/T genotype were 1.66(95% CI: 1.06–2.61), 1.21(95% CI: 0.65–2.28) respectively when compared with the MTHFR 677 C/C genotype. Subjects carrying any T genotype have the increased risk of 1.55(95% CI: 1.01–2.40) for development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. A high degree of linkage disequilibrium was observed between the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms, with the D′ of 0.887 and p < 0.01. The MTHFR 677 any T genotype was suggested to have potentially more than multiplicative interactions with raw water drinking with p-value for adjusted interaction of 0.03.
We observed that the MTHFR 677 C/T genotype was associated with an increased risk of primary liver cancer in a Chinese population. The polymorphism of MTHFR 677 might modify the effects of raw water drinking on the risk of primary hepatocellular carcinoma.
MTHFR (5, 10-methylenetetralydrofolate reductase); Genetic polymorphism; Primary liver cancer; Case–control study; Effect modification
The purpose of our study was to examine the roles of green tea drinking, other risk and protective factors, and polymorphism of susceptibility genes such as GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and p53 codon 72 and their possible joint effects on the risk of stomach cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Taixing, China, including 206 newly diagnosed cases with stomach cancer and 415 healthy control subjects. Epidemiological data were collected by in-person interviews using a standard questionnaire. Polymorphisms of susceptibility genes were assayed by PCR-RFLP techniques. A multigenetic index was created by summing up the number of risk genotypes. The data were analyzed using the logistic regression model. A reverse association between green tea drinking and risk of stomach cancer was observed with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34–1.01). Dose-response relationship was shown (p-trend < 0.05). A higher score on the multigenetic index was associated with increased risk of stomach cancer with an adjusted OR of 2.21 (95% CI = 1.02–4.79) for those with at least 3 risk genotypes compared to those with <2 risk genotypes. Green tea drinking was suggested to have more than multiplicative interactions with alcohol consumption with an adjusted OR for interaction of 4.57 (95% CI = 1.62–12.89), and with higher multigenetic index with adjusted OR for interaction of 2.31 (95% CI = 0.88–6.03). The protective effect of green tea drinking was observed on the risk of stomach cancer and the possible effect modification by susceptibility genes was suggested.
stomach cancer; green tea; alcohol; genetic polymorphism; multigenetic index
Using density functional theory calculations, we have investigated the effects of biaxial tensile strain on the electronic and magnetic properties of partially hydrogenated graphene (PHG) structures. Our study demonstrates that PHG configuration with hexagon vacancies is more energetically favorable than several other types of PHG configurations. In addition, an appropriate biaxial tensile strain can effectively tune the band gap and magnetism of the hydrogenated graphene. The band gap and magnetism of such configurations can be continuously increased when the magnitude of the biaxial tensile strain is increased. This fact that both the band gap and magnetism of partially hydrogenated graphene can be tuned by applying biaxial tensile strain provides a new pathway for the applications of graphene to electronics and photonics.
Graphene; Band gap; Magnetism; Strain
Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary vitamin E is an important candidate intervention for asthma. Our group has shown that daily consumption of vitamin E (gamma tocopherol, γT) has anti-inflammatory actions in both rodent and human phase I studies. The objective of this study was to test whether γT supplementation could mitigate a model of neutrophilic airway inflammation in rats and in healthy human volunteers.
F344/N rats were randomized to oral gavage with γT versus placebo, followed by intranasal LPS (20 ug) challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung histology were used to assess airway neutrophil recruitment. In a phase IIa clinical study, 13 nonasthmatic subjects completed a double-blinded, placebo controlled crossover study where they consumed either a γT-enriched capsule or a sunflower oil placebo capsule. After 7 days of daily supplementation, they underwent an inhaled LPS challenge. Induced sputum was assessed for neutrophils 6 hours after inhaled LPS. The effect of γT compared to placebo on airway neutrophils post-LPS was compared using a repeated measures analysis of variance.
In rats, oral γT supplementation significantly reduced tissue infiltration (p<0.05) and accumulation of airway neutrophils (p<0.05) that are elicited by intranasal LPS challenge compared to control rats. In human volunteers, γT treatment significantly decreased induced sputum neutrophils (p=0.03) compared to placebo.
Oral supplementation with γT reduced airway neutrophil recruitment in both rat and human models of inhaled LPS challenge. These results suggest that γT is a potential therapeutic candidate for prevention or treatment of neutrophilic airway inflammation in diseased populations.
Vitamin E; gamma-tocopherol; Endotoxin; Eosinophil; Neutrophil; Induced Sputum; Oxidative Stress; Nitrosative Stress; Rat; LPS
Introduction. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a severe complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). It leads to acute pulmonary embolism, a life-threatening disease. P-selectin is a 140-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein. Elevated P-selectin was associated with 1.7-fold increase in the risk of venous thrombosis. Materials and Methods. To confirm the association, a total of 91 subjects who received primary total hip arthroplasty using lateral approach performed by one skilled orthopedic surgeon were studied. All the patients were consecutively enrolled at the Center of Diagnosis and Treatment for Joint Diseases, Drum Tower Hospital affiliated to the Medical School of Nanjing University from 2010 to 2012. All the subjects received venography 3–5 days after operation. We measured P-selectin by means of a highly sensitive sandwich ELISA technique and a commercially available test reagent set. Results. No significant association was detected between P-selectin and DVT (all P values > 0.05). ΔsP-selectin was correlated with weight, APTT after operation, history of DVT, and diagnosis of primary disease ( P values were 0.03, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.02, resp.). Conclusion. P-selectin may not be a predicted factor for deep vein thrombosis after total hip arthroplasty.
Leukotrienes generated by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)–catalyzed reaction are key regulators of inflammation. In ionophore-stimulated (A23187; 1–2.5 μM) human blood neutrophils or differentiated HL-60 cells, vitamin E forms differentially inhibited leukotriene B4 (LTB4) with an IC50 of 5–20 μM for γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol (δT), and γ-tocotrienol, but a much higher IC50 for α-tocopherol. 13′-Carboxychromanol, a long-chain metabolite of δT, suppressed neutrophil- and HL-60 cell-generated LTB4 with an IC50 of 4–7 μM and potently inhibited human recombinant 5-LOX activity with an IC50 of 0.5–1 μM. In contrast, vitamin E forms had no effect on human 5-LOX activity but impaired ionophore-induced intracellular calcium increase and calcium influx as well as the subsequent signaling including ERK1/2 phosphorylation and 5-LOX translocation from cytosol to the nucleus, a key event for 5-LOX activation. Further investigation showed that δT suppressed cytosolic Ca2+ increase and/or LTB4 formation triggered by ionophores, sphingosine 1-phosphate, and lysophosphatidic acid but not by fMLP or thapsigargin, whereas 13′-carboxychromanol decreased cellular production of LTB4 regardless of different stimuli, consistent with its strong inhibition of the 5-LOX activity. These observations suggest that δT does not likely affect fMLP receptor-mediated signaling or store depletion-induced calcium entry. Instead, we found that δT prevented ionophore-caused cytoplasmic membrane disruption, which may account for its blocking of calcium influx. These activities by vitamin E forms and long-chain carboxychromanol provide potential molecular bases for the differential anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin E forms in vivo.
Objective. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), an inflammatory rheumatic disease, will gradually lead to severe hip joint dysfunction. Total hip arthroplasty is a useful method to improve patients' quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence and risk factors of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) between AS and hip osteoarthritis. Methods. In a retrospective study, a total of 149 subjects who underwent cementless THA were studied. Clinical data, biochemical data, and surgery-related data were measured between AS and OA groups. Results. The incidence of DVT in AS group was lower than that of OA group, although no significant difference was detected (P = 0.89). The patients of AS group were much younger (P < 0.0001) and thinner (P = 0.018) compared with those of OA group. AS patients had higher ejection fraction (EF) (P = 0.016), higher platelet counts (P < 0.0001), and lower hypertension rate (P = 0.0004). The values of APTT, PT, and INR in AS patients were higher than those in OA patients (all P < 0.0001). The values of D-dimer and APTT were both significantly higher in DVT subjects than those in non-DVT subjects. Conclusion. AS patients potentially had a lower incidence of DVT compared with OA patients.
Cytokines generated from macrophages contributes to pathogenesis of inflammation-associated diseases. Here we show that gamma-tocotrienol (γ-TE), a natural vitamin E form, inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) production without affecting TNFα, IL-10 or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) up-regulation in murine RAW267.4 macrophages. Mechanistic studies indicate that nuclear factor (NF)-κB, but not JNK, p38 or ERK MAP kinases, is important to IL-6 production and γ-TE treatment blocks NF-κB activation. In contrast, COX-2 appears to be regulated by p38 MAPK in RAW cells, but γ-TE has no effect on LPS-stimulated p38 phosphorylation. Despite necessary for IL-6, NF-κB activation by TNFα or other cytokines is not sufficient for IL-6 induction with exception of LPS. CCAAT-enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) appears to be involved in IL-6 formation, because LPS induces C/EBPβ up-regulation, which parallels IL-6 production, and knockdown of C/EBPβ with siRNA results in diminished IL-6. LPS but not individual cytokines is capable of stimulating C/EBPβ and IL-6 in macrophages. Consistent with its dampening effect on IL-6, γ-TE blunts LPS-induced up-regulation of C/EBPβ without affecting C/EBPδ. γ-TE also decreases LPS-stimulated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a C/EBPβ target gene. Compared with RAW267.4 cells, γ-TE shows similar or stronger inhibitory effects on LPS-triggered activation of NF-κB, C/EPBβ and C/EBPδ, and more potently suppresses IL-6 and G-CSF in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Our study demonstrates that γ-TE has anti-inflammatory activities by inhibition of NF-κB and C/EBPs activation in macrophages.
vitamin E; tocopherol; tocotrienol; inflammation; IL-6; C/EBPβ
Owing to the harmfulness and seriousness of Schistosomiasis japonica in China, the control and prevention of S. japonica transmission are imperative. As the unique intermediate host of this disease, Oncomelania hupensis plays an important role in the transmission. It has been reported that the snail population in Qiangliang Lake district, Dongting Lake Region has been naturally declining and is slowly becoming extinct. Considering the changes of environmental factors that may cause this phenomenon, we try to explore the relationship between circumstance elements and snails, and then search for the possible optimum scopes of environmental factors for snails.
Moisture content of soil, pH, temperature of soil and elevation were collected by corresponding apparatus in the study sites. The LISA statistic and GWR model were used to analyze the association between factors and mean snail density, and the values in high-high clustered areas and low-low clustered areas were extracted to find out the possible optimum ranges of these elements for snails.
A total of 8,589 snail specimens were collected from 397 sampling sites in the study field. Besides the mean snail density, three environmental factors including water content, pH and temperature had high spatial autocorrelation. The spatial clustering suggested that the possible optimum scopes of moisture content, pH, temperature of the soil and elevation were 58.70 to 68.93%, 6.80 to 7.80, 22.73 to 24.23°C and 23.50 to 25.97 m, respectively. Moreover, the GWR model showed that the possible optimum ranges of these four factors were 36.58 to 61.08%, 6.541 to 6.89, 24.30 to 25.70°C and 23.50 to 29.44 m, respectively.
The results indicated the association between snails and environmental factors was not linear but U-shaped. Considering the results of two analysis methods, the possible optimum scopes of moisture content, pH, temperature of the soil and elevation were 58.70% to 68.93%, 6.6 to 7.0, 22.73°C to 24.23°C, and 23.5 m to 26.0 m, respectively. The findings in this research will help in making an effective strategy to control snails and provide a method to analyze other factors.
Schistosomiasis japonica; Oncomelania hupensis; Environmental factors; Spatial clustering; GWR
Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has quantified the functioning of the autonomic regulation of the heart and heart's ability to respond. However, majority of studies on HRV report several differences between patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and healthy subjects, such as time-domain, frequency domain and nonlinear HRV measures. In the paper, we mainly presented a new approach to detect congestive heart failure (CHF) based on combination support vector machine (SVM) and three nonstandard heart rate variability (HRV) measures (e.g. SUM_TD, SUM_FD and SUM_IE). The CHF classification model was presented by using SVM classifier with the combination SUM_TD and SUM_FD. In the analysis performed, we found that the CHF classification algorithm could obtain the best performance with the CHF classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 100%, 100%, 100%, respectively.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major public health problems. Many studies have been performed to investigate the association between demographic and behavioral factors and HIV or HCV infection. However, some of the results of these studies have been in conflict.
The data of all entrants in the 11 national methadone clinics in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected from the national database. Several spatial regression models were used to analyze specific community characteristics associated with the prevalence of HIV and HCV infection at the township level. The study enrolled 6,417 adult patients. The prevalence of HIV infection, HCV infection and co-infection was 25.4%, 30.9%, and 11.0%, respectively. Prevalence exhibited stark geographical variations in the area studied. The four regression models showed Yi ethnicity to be associated with both the prevalence of HIV and of HIV/HCV co-infection. The male drug users in some northwestern counties had greater odds of being infected with HIV than female drug users, but the opposite was observed in some eastern counties. The ‘being in drug rehabilitation variable was found to be positively associated with prevalence of HCV infection in some southern townships, however, it was found to be negatively associated with it in some northern townships.
The spatial modeling creates better representations of data such that public health interventions must focus on areas with high frequency of HIV/HCV to prevent further transmission of both HIV and HCV.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis and its multifactorial nature has been increasingly recognized. Genetic factors play an important role in OA etiology and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms may be involved. This study tried to explore whether the ESR1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with primary knee OA in the Chinese Han population. Two SNPs, rs2234693 and rs9340799, were genotyped in 469 cases and 522 controls. Rs2234693 was associated with knee OA in the dominant genetic model (TT + TC versus CC) (P = 0.025) and a higher T allele frequency existed (P = 0.047) among females. The combined genotype (TT + TC) (P = 0.025) and T allele (P = 0.016) were related with mild knee OA only. For rs9340799, A allele was associated with knee OA in all subjects (P = 0.031) and females (P = 0.046). Statistical differences were detected in the dominant genetic model (AA + AG versus GG) among females (P = 0.030). The combined genotype (AA + AG) (P = 0.036) and A allele (P = 0.039) were merely correlated with mild knee OA. ESR1 gene is considerably associated with knee OA etiology in the Chinese Han population.
We induced gallstones in C57L mice fed with a high cholesterol diet and examined the expression of bile salt export pump (BSEP) on the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes and its relation with PKCα and HAX-1.Twenty-four gallstone-prone C57L mice were randomly assigned to receive a high cholesterol diet or a regular diet. Gallstone formation was recorded. BSEP, PKCα and phospho-PKCα expression was examined by immunoblotting assays. Co-expression of BSEP and HAX-1 was studied by immunofluorescent microscopy and immunoprecipitations. Gallstones were formed in all 12 mice fed with the high cholesterol diet. In Gallstone group, BSEP levels on the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes were markedly lower while a significant increase was observed in phosphorylated PKCα. Immunofluorescent microscopy showed that BSEP and HAX-1 were co-localized on the canalicular membrane, which was apparently enhanced by feeding with the high cholesterol diet. The immunoprecipitation assays further demonstrated that BSEP and HAX-1 showed enhanced interaction in the hepatocytes of mice fed with the high cholesterol diet. Cholesterol gallstone formation is associated with downregulation of BSEP expression on the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes with increased phosphorylation of PKCα. BSEP and HAX-1 show enhanced interaction with one another on the canalicular membrane during gallstone formation.
Gallstone; cholesterol; canaliculi; BSEP; HAX-1
HIV-, HCV- and HIV/HCV co-infections among drug users have become a rapidly emerging global public health problem. In order to constrain the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use, China has adopted a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) since 2004. Studies of the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and HCV infections at a local scale are sparse, which has critical implications for future MMTP implementation and health policies covering both HIV and HCV prevention among drug users in China. This study aimed to characterize geographic patterns of HIV and HCV prevalence at the township level among drug users in a Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Southwest of China.
Data on demographic and clinical characteristics of all clients in the 11 MMTP clinics of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected. A GIS-based geographic analysis involving geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics were employed to identify the geographic distribution pattern of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users.
A total of 6690 MMTP clients was analyzed. The prevalence of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections were 25.2%, 30.8%, and 10.9% respectively. There were significant global and local geographic autocorrelations for HIV-, HCV-, and co-infection. The Moran’s I was 0.3015, 0.3449, and 0.3155, respectively (P < 0.0001). Both the geographic autocorrelation analysis and the geographic scan statistical analysis showed that HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections in the prefecture exhibited significant geographic clustering at the township level. The geographic distribution pattern of each infection group was different.
HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections among drug users in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture all exhibited substantial geographic heterogeneity at the township level. The geographic distribution patterns of the three groups were different. These findings imply that it may be necessary to inform or invent site-specific intervention strategies to better devote currently limited resource to combat these two viruses.
HIV; HCV; Co-infection; Geographic distribution; Geographic autocorrelation analysis; Geographic scan statistic
Breast milk contains complex nutrients and facilitates the maturation of various biological systems in infants. Exosomes, membranous vesicles of endocytic origin found in different body fluids such as milk, can mediate intercellular communication. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-coding small RNAs of 18–25 nt which are known to be packaged in exosomes of human, bovine and porcine milk, may play important roles in the development of piglets.
In this study, exosomes of approximately 100 nm in diameter were isolated from porcine milk through serial centrifugation and ultracentrifugation procedures. Total RNA was extracted from exosomes, and 5S ribosomal RNA was found to be the major RNA component. Solexa sequencing showed a total of 491 miRNAs, including 176 known miRNAs and 315 novel mature miRNAs (representing 366 pre-miRNAs), which were distributed among 30 clusters and 35 families, and two predicted novel miRNAs were verified targeting 3’UTR of IGF-1R by luciferase assay. Interestingly, we observed that three miRNAs (ssc-let-7e, ssc-miR-27a, and ssc-miR-30a) could be generated from miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs). The top 10 miRNAs accounted for 74.5% (67,154 counts) of total counts, which were predicted to target 2,333 genes by RNAhybrid software. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses using DAVID bioinformatics resources indicated that the identified miRNAs targeted genes enriched in transcription, immunity and metabolism processes, and 14 of the top 20 miRNAs possibly participate in regulation of the IgA immune network.
Our findings suggest that porcine milk exosomes contain a large number of miRNAs, which potentially play an important role in information transfer from sow milk to piglets. The predicted miRNAs of porcine milk exosomes in this study provide a basis for future biochemical and biophysical function studies.
Porcine milk exosomes; Solexa sequencing; miRNA
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common developmental hip disorder, which ranges from mild acetabulum malformation to irreducible hip dislocation. A previous study suggested a significant association of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPPA2) with DDH susceptibility in Chinese Han population. But with the consideration of the sample size, the association was still debatable. To confirm the association of the reported single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PAPPA2, rs726252 with DDH, we conducted a case-control study in a larger number of subjects. We genotyped rs726252 in 697 DDH subjects and 707 control subjects by TaqMan assay. The association between this SNP and DDH was evaluated statistically. No significant difference was found in any comparison of genotype distribution nor allele frequency between cases and controls. Our replication study indicated that the association between rs726252 and DDH in Chinese Han population was debatable. The association between PAPPA2 and DDH should be evaluated by additional studies.
Injury of the PCL of the knee in adults usually results in rupture rather than avulsion fracture and avulsions usually occur at the tibial insertion.
We report an avulsion of the PCL with a femoral origin in a 22-year-old man who was injured by hyperflexion of the knee and was treated with arthroscopy. There were two parts in the partial osteochondral avulsion fracture of the PCL posteromedial (PM) bundle. One part was fixed with polydioxanone suture through drill holes and the other was removed. The fracture healed after 3 months and the knee was stable. At 11 months postoperatively the patient had returned to full-time work without pain or restrictions. The Lysholm II knee score was 95 points. Physical examination showed a negative posterior drawer sign.
We identified four other reported cases of PCL femoral origin avulsion fractures in adults. The subjects were 20 to 25 years old in four of five reports, including our patient. Three of the five patients had involvement of only the lateral cortex of the medial femoral condyle whereas two other patients including our patient, had an osteochondral fracture. The mechanism of PCL avulsion seems to be similar to that of a PCL rupture.
Purposes and Clinical Relevance
The hyperflexion injury may result in injury of the PM bundle of the PCL. Our case and one other in the literature suggest such avulsions need not involve the entire PCL.
The mechanism for nuclear envelope (NE) assembly is not fully understood. Importin-β and the small GTPase Ran have been implicated in the spatial regulation of NE assembly process. Here we report that chromatin-bound NLS (nuclear localization sequence) proteins provide docking sites for the NE precursor membrane vesicles and nucleoporins via importin-α and -β during NE assembly in Xenopus egg extracts. We show that along with the fast recruitment of the abundant NLS proteins such as nucleoplasmin and histones to the demembranated sperm chromatin in the extracts, importin-α binds the chromatin NLS proteins rapidly. Meanwhile, importin-β binds cytoplasmic NE precursor membrane vesicles and nucleoporins. Through interacting with importin-α on the chromatin NLS proteins, importin-β targets the membrane vesicles and nucleoporins to the chromatin surface. Once encountering Ran-GTP on the chromatin generated by RCC1, importin-β preferentially binds Ran-GTP and releases the membrane vesicles and nucleoporins for NE assembly. NE assembly is disrupted by blocking the interaction between importin-α and NLS proteins with excess soluble NLS proteins or by depletion of importin-β from the extract. Our findings reveal a novel molecular mechanism for NE assembly in Xenopus egg extracts.
nuclear assembly; nucleoplasmin; Ran GTPase; nuclear pore complex; importin
To investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of gynosaponins (GPs) in hyperlipidemic rats induced by high lipid diet.
Animal model of hyperlipidemia was established by high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, except the normal and model groups, rats in GPs groups were daily administered intragastrically with GPs (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), and rats in simvastatin group were daily administered intragastrically with simvastatin (10 mg/kg). It was measured that the contents of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in the serum, TG and TC in the liver during this experiment, respectively. The left lobe of liver was observed by histopathological staining, and the immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the effects on the effect of GPs on liver functions.
Compared with the model group, GPs groups could remarkably decrease the content of lipids, GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and MDA in the serum and TC and TG in the liver of the hyperlipidemic rats. The pathomorphological results of hepatic tissue showed that fatty degeneration and inflammatory reaction of GPs groups were lightened compared with the model group.
The results show that GPs has good effects on the treatment of hyperlipidemia induced by high lipid diet in rats. The possible anti-hyperlipidemia mechanism maybe those GPs can regulate the disorder of lipid metabolism as well as ameliorate hepatic function.
Gynosaponins; Hyperlipidemia; Lipid metabolism
Lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) is associated with both genetic and environmental factors and affects many people worldwide. A hallmark of LDD is loss of proteoglycan and water content in the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs. While some genetic determinants have been reported, the etiology of LDD is largely unknown. Here we report the findings from linkage and association studies on a total of 32,642 subjects consisting of 4,043 LDD cases and 28,599 control subjects. We identified carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 (CHST3), an enzyme that catalyzes proteoglycan sulfation, as a susceptibility gene for LDD. The strongest genome-wide linkage peak encompassed CHST3 from a Southern Chinese family–based data set, while a genome-wide association was observed at rs4148941 in the gene in a meta-analysis using multiethnic population cohorts. rs4148941 lies within a potential microRNA-513a-5p (miR-513a-5p) binding site. Interaction between miR-513a-5p and mRNA transcribed from the susceptibility allele (A allele) of rs4148941 was enhanced in vitro compared with transcripts from other alleles. Additionally, expression of CHST3 mRNA was significantly reduced in the intervertebral disc cells of human subjects carrying the A allele of rs4148941. Together, our data provide new insights into the etiology of LDD, implicating an interplay between genetic risk factors and miRNA.