Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEDAC) is a cyst in the spinal canal that protrudes into the epidural space from a defect in the dura mater. Most cases are sporadic; however, three familial SEDAC cases have been reported, suggesting genetic etiological factors. All familial cases are associated with lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LDS), whose causal gene is FOXC2. However, FOXC2 mutation analysis has been performed in only 1 family, and no mutation analysis has been performed on sporadic (non-familial) SEDACs. We recruited 17 SEDAC subjects consisting of 2 familial and 7 sporadic cases and examined FOXC2 mutations by Sanger sequencing and structural abnormalities by TaqMan copy number assay. We identified 2 novel FOXC2 mutations in 2 familial cases. Incomplete LDS penetrance was noted in both families. Four subjects presented with SEDACs only. Thus, SEDAC caused by the heterozygous FOXC2 loss-of-function mutation should be considered a feature of LDS, although it often manifests as the sole symptom. Seven sporadic SEDAC subjects had no FOXC2 mutations, no symptoms of LDS, and showed differing clinical characteristics from those who had FOXC2 mutations, suggesting that other gene(s) besides FOXC2 are likely to be involved in SEDAC.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common spinal deformity, affecting around 2% of adolescents worldwide. Genetic factors play an important role in its etiology. Using a genome-wide association study (GWAS), we recently identified novel AIS susceptibility loci on chromosomes 10q24.31 and 6q24.1. To identify more AIS susceptibility loci relating to its severity and progression, we performed GWAS by limiting the case subjects to those with severe AIS. Through a two-stage association study using a total of ∼12,000 Japanese subjects, we identified a common variant, rs12946942 that showed a significant association with severe AIS in the recessive model (P = 4.00×10−8, odds ratio [OR] = 2.05). Its association was replicated in a Chinese population (combined P = 6.43×10−12, OR = 2.21). rs12946942 is on chromosome 17q24.3 near the genes SOX9 and KCNJ2, which when mutated cause scoliosis phenotypes. Our findings will offer new insight into the etiology and progression of AIS.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis and accounts for substantial morbidity and disability, particularly in the elderly. It is characterized by changes in joint structure including degeneration of the articular cartilage and its etiology is multifactorial with a strong postulated genetic component. We performed a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association (GWA) studies of 2,371 knee OA cases and 35,909 controls in Caucasian populations. Replication of the top hits was attempted with data from additional ten replication datasets. With a cumulative sample size of 6,709 cases and 44,439 controls, we identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 7q22 for knee OA (rs4730250, p-value=9.2×10−9), thereby confirming its role as a susceptibility locus for OA. The associated signal is located within a large (500kb) linkage disequilibrium (LD) block that contains six genes; PRKAR2B (protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta), HPB1 (HMG-box transcription factor 1), COG5 (component of oligomeric golgi complex 5), GPR22 (G protein-coupled receptor 22), DUS4L (dihydrouridine synthase 4-like), and BCAP29 (the B-cell receptor-associated protein 29). Gene expression analyses of the (six) genes in primary cells derived from different joint tissues confirmed expression of all the genes in the joint environment.
Danforth's short tail (Sd) is a semidominant mutation on mouse chromosome 2, characterized by spinal defects, urogenital defects, and anorectal malformations. However, the gene responsible for the Sd phenotype was unknown. In this study, we identified the molecular basis of the Sd mutation. By positional cloning, we identified the insertion of an early transposon in the Sd candidate locus approximately 12-kb upstream of Ptf1a. We found that insertion of the transposon caused overexpression of three neighboring genes, Gm13344, Gm13336, and Ptf1a, in Sd mutant embryos and that the Sd phenotype was not caused by disruption of an as-yet-unknown gene in the candidate locus. Using multiple knockout and knock-in mouse models, we demonstrated that misexpression of Ptf1a, but not of Gm13344 or Gm13336, in the notochord, hindgut, cloaca, and mesonephros was sufficient to replicate the Sd phenotype. The ectopic expression of Ptf1a in the caudal embryo resulted in attenuated expression of Cdx2 and its downstream target genes T, Wnt3a, and Cyp26a1; we conclude that this is the molecular basis of the Sd phenotype. Analysis of Sd mutant mice will provide insight into the development of the spinal column, anus, and kidney.
Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) is a congenital heterogeneous constellation of caudal anomalies that includes varying degrees of agenesis of the spinal column, anorectal malformations, and genitourinary anomalies. Its pathogenesis is unclear. However, it could be the result of excessive physiologic regression of the embryonic caudal region based on analyses of the various mouse mutants carrying caudal agenesis. Among the mouse mutants, the Danforth's short tail (Sd) mouse is considered a best model for human CRS. Sd is a semidominant mutation, characterized by spinal defects, urogenital defects, and anorectal malformations, thus showing phenotypic similarity to human CRS. Although Sd is known to map to mouse chromosome 2, little is known about the molecular nature of the mutation. Here, we demonstrate an insertion of one type of retrotransposon near the Ptf1a gene. This resulted in ectopic expression of Ptf1a gene in the caudal region of the embryo and downregulation of Cdx2 and its downstream targets, leading to characteristic phenotypes in Sd mouse. Thus, Sd mutant mice will provide insight into the development of the spinal column, anus, and kidney.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, spine and peripheral joints. However, the development of anklosing spondylitis is unclear. Human leukocyte antigens HLA-B27 and ERAP1 have been widely reported to be associated with AS susceptibility. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) showed that two new susceptibility loci between EDIL3 and HAPLN1 at 5q14.3 (rs4552569) and within ANO6 at 12q12 (rs17095830) contribute to the risk of AS in Han Chinese. In this study, we enrolled 475 AS patients and 475 healthy subjects to assess whether these genetic variations contribute to the susceptibility and the severity of AS in the Taiwanese population. The correlation between genetic polymorphisms, AS activity indexes, (namely, BASDAI, BASFI and BAS-G) and AS complications (uveitis and inflammatory bowel disease) were tested using the markers, rs4552569 and rs17095830. Although no association between rs4552569/rs17095830 genetic polymorphisms and AS susceptibility/severity was found, a significant association between rs17095830 and inflammatory bowel disease was observed in a Taiwanese population.
The brachyolmias constitute a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of skeletal dysplasias characterized by a short trunk, scoliosis and mild short stature1. Here, we identify a locus for an autosomal dominant form of brachyolmia on chromosome 12q24.1–12q24.2. Among the genes in the genetic interval, we selected TRPV4, which encodes a calcium permeable cation channel of the transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid family, as a candidate gene because of its cartilage-selective gene expression pattern. In two families with the phenotype, we identified point mutations in TRPV4 that encoded R616Q and V620I substitutions, respectively. Patch clamp studies of transfected HEK cells showed that both mutations resulted in a dramatic gain of function characterized by increased constitutive activity and elevated channel activation by either mechano-stimulation or agonist stimulation by arachidonic acid or the TRPV4-specific agonist 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4αPDD). This study thus defines a previously unknown mechanism, activation of a calcium-permeable TRP ion channel, in skeletal dysplasia pathogenesis.
Recent rapid advances in genetic research are ushering us into the genome sequence era, where an individual's genome information is utilized for clinical practice. The most spectacular results of the human genome study have been provided by genome-wide association studies (GWASs). This is a review of the history of GWASs as related to my work. Further efforts are necessary to make full use of its potential power to medicine.
genome; genome-wide association study; HapMap Project; Human Genome Project; single-nucleotide polymorphism
To address the need for standardization of osteoarthritis (OA) phenotypes by examining the effect of heterogeneity among symptomatic (SOA) and radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) phenotypes.
Descriptions of OA phenotypes of the 28 studies involved in the TREAT-OA consortium were collected. To investigate whether different OA definitions result in different association results, we created hip OA definitions used within the consortium in the Rotterdam Study-I and tested the association of hip OA with gender, age and BMI using one-way ANOVA. For radiographic OA, we standardized the hip, knee and hand ROA definitions and calculated prevalence's of ROA before and after standardization in 9 cohort studies. This procedure could only be performed in cohort studies and standardization of SOA definitions was not feasible at this moment.
In this consortium, all studies with symptomatic OA phenotypes (knee, hip and hand) used a different definition and/or assessment of OA status. For knee, hip and hand radiographic OA 5, 4 and 7 different definitions were used, respectively. Different hip OA definitions do lead to different association results. For example, we showed in the Rotterdam Study-I that hip OA defined as “at least definite JSN and one definite osteophyte” was not associated with gender (p=0.22), but defined as “at least one definite osteophyte” was significantly associated with gender (p=3×10−9). Therefore, a standardization process was undertaken for radiographic OA definitions. Before standardization a wide range of ROA prevalence's was observed in the 9 cohorts studied. After standardization the range in prevalence of knee and hip ROA was small. Standardization of SOA phenotypes was not possible due to the case-control design of the studies.
Phenotype definitions influence the prevalence of OA and association with clinical variables. ROA phenotypes within the TREAT-OA consortium were standardized to reduce heterogeneity and improve power in future genetics studies.
Establishing the genetic basis of phenotypes such as skeletal dysplasia in model organisms can provide insights into biologic processes and their role in human disease.
We screened mutagenized mice and observed a neonatal lethal skeletal dysplasia with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Through genetic mapping and positional cloning, we identified the causative mutation.
Affected mice had a nonsense mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor interactor 11 gene (Trip11), which encodes the Golgi microtubule-associated protein 210 (GMAP-210); the affected mice lacked this protein. Golgi architecture was disturbed in multiple tissues, including cartilage. Skeletal development was severely impaired, with chondrocytes showing swelling and stress in the endoplasmic reticulum, abnormal cellular differentiation, and increased cell death. Golgi-mediated glycosylation events were altered in fibroblasts and chondrocytes lacking GMAP-210, and these chondrocytes had intracellular accumulation of perlecan, an extracellular matrix protein, but not of type II collagen or aggrecan, two other extracellular matrix proteins. The similarities between the skeletal and cellular phenotypes in these mice and those in patients with achondrogenesis type 1A, a neonatal lethal form of skeletal dysplasia in humans, suggested that achondrogenesis type 1A may be caused by GMAP-210 deficiency. Sequence analysis revealed loss-of-function mutations in the 10 unrelated patients with achondrogenesis type 1A whom we studied.
GMAP-210 is required for the efficient glycosylation and cellular transport of multiple proteins. The identification of a mutation affecting GMAP-210 in mice, and then in humans, as the cause of a lethal skeletal dysplasia underscores the value of screening for abnormal phenotypes in model organisms and identifying the causative mutations.
Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mass, decreased bone quality and increased predisposition to fracture. Genetic factors have been implicated in its etiology; however, the specific genes related to susceptibility to osteoporosis are not entirely known. To detect susceptibility genes for osteoporosis, we conducted a genome-wide association study in Japanese using ∼270,000 SNPs in 1,747 subjects (190 cases and 1,557 controls) followed by multiple levels of replication of the association using a total of ∼5,000 subjects (2,092 cases and 3,114 controls). Through these staged association studies followed by resequencing and linkage disequilibrium mapping, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs7605378 associated with osteoporosis. (combined P = 1.51×10−8, odds ratio = 1.25). This SNP is in a previously unknown gene on chromosome 2q33.1, FONG. FONG is predicted to encode a 147 amino-acid protein with a formiminotransferase domain in its N-terminal (FTCD_N domain) and is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues including bone. Our findings would give a new insight into osteoporosis etiology and pathogenesis.
Metachondromatosis (MC) is a rare, autosomal dominant, incompletely penetrant combined exostosis and enchondromatosis tumor syndrome. MC is clinically distinct from other multiple exostosis or multiple enchondromatosis syndromes and is unlinked to EXT1 and EXT2, the genes responsible for autosomal dominant multiple osteochondromas (MO). To identify a gene for MC, we performed linkage analysis with high-density SNP arrays in a single family, used a targeted array to capture exons and promoter sequences from the linked interval in 16 participants from 11 MC families, and sequenced the captured DNA using high-throughput parallel sequencing technologies. DNA capture and parallel sequencing identified heterozygous putative loss-of-function mutations in PTPN11 in 4 of the 11 families. Sanger sequence analysis of PTPN11 coding regions in a total of 17 MC families identified mutations in 10 of them (5 frameshift, 2 nonsense, and 3 splice-site mutations). Copy number analysis of sequencing reads from a second targeted capture that included the entire PTPN11 gene identified an additional family with a 15 kb deletion spanning exon 7 of PTPN11. Microdissected MC lesions from two patients with PTPN11 mutations demonstrated loss-of-heterozygosity for the wild-type allele. We next sequenced PTPN11 in DNA samples from 54 patients with the multiple enchondromatosis disorders Ollier disease or Maffucci syndrome, but found no coding sequence PTPN11 mutations. We conclude that heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in PTPN11 are a frequent cause of MC, that lesions in patients with MC appear to arise following a “second hit,” that MC may be locus heterogeneous since 1 familial and 5 sporadically occurring cases lacked obvious disease-causing PTPN11 mutations, and that PTPN11 mutations are not a common cause of Ollier disease or Maffucci syndrome.
Children with cartilage tumor syndromes form multiple tumors of cartilage next to joints. These tumors can occur inside the bones, as with Ollier disease and Maffuci syndrome, or on the surface of bones, as in the Multiple Osteochondroma syndrome (MO). In a hybrid syndrome, called metachondromatosis (MC), patients develop tumors both on and within bones. Only the genes causing MO are known. Since MC is inherited, we studied genetic markers in an affected family and found a region of the genome, encompassing 100 genes, always passed on to affected members. Using a recently developed method, we captured and sequenced all 100 genes in multiple families and found mutations in one gene, PTPN11, in 11 of 17 families. Patients with MC have one mutant copy of PTPN11 from their affected parent and one normal copy from their unaffected parent in all cells. We found that the normal copy is additionally lost in cartilage cells that form tumors, giving rise to cells without PTPN11. Mutations in PTPN11 were not found in other cartilage tumor syndromes, including Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome. We are currently working to understand how loss of PTPN11 in cartilage cells causes tumors to form.
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common skeletal disease, which is characterized by abnormal seating of the femoral head in the acetabulum. Genetic factors play a considerable role in the etiology of DDH. Asporin (ASPN) is an ECM protein which can bind to TGF-β1 and sequentially inhibit TGF-β/Smad signaling. A functional aspartic acid (D) repeat polymorphism of ASPN was first described as an osteoarthritis-associated polymorphism. As TGF-β is well known as an important regulator in the development of skeletal components, ASPN may also be involved in the etiology of DDH. Our objective is to evaluate whether the D repeat polymorphism of ASPN is associated with DDH in Han Chinese.
The D repeat polymorphism was genotyped in 370 DDH patients and 445 control subjects, and the allelic association of the D repeat was examined.
From D11 to D18, eight alleles were identified. D13 allele is the most common allele both in control and DDH groups, the frequencies are 67.3% and 58.1% respectively. In the DDH group, a significantly higher frequency of the D14 allele and significantly lower frequency of D13 was observed. The association of D14 and D13 was found in both females and males after stratification by gender. There was no significant difference in any other alleles we examined.
Our results show an obvious association between the D repeat polymorphism of ASPN and DDH. It indicates that ASPN is an important regulator in the etiology of DDH.
CS (chondroitin sulfate) is a glycosaminoglycan species that is widely distributed in the extracellular matrix. To understand the physiological roles of enzymes involved in CS synthesis, we produced CSGalNAcT1 (CS N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1)-null mice. CS production was reduced by approximately half in CSGalNAcT1-null mice, and the amount of short-chain CS was also reduced. Moreover, the cartilage of the null mice was significantly smaller than that of wild-type mice. Additionally, type-II collagen fibres in developing cartilage were abnormally aggregated and disarranged in the homozygous mutant mice. These results suggest that CSGalNAcT1 is required for normal CS production in developing cartilage.
cartilage; chondroitin sulfate; collagen fibre; N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAcT); gene knockout; glycosaminoglycan; 2-AB, 2-aminobenzamide; C4st-1, chondrotin 4-sulfotransferase-1; ChPF, chondroitin polymerization factor; ChSy, chondroitin synthase; CS, chondroitin sulfate; CSGalNAcT, chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; CSPG, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan; E, embryonic day; ES, embryonic stem; Fam20b, family member 20B; G3pdh, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GAG, glycosaminoglycan; GlcUA, glucuronic acid; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; PCNA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PG, proteoglycan; RT, reverse transcription; TEM, transmission electron microscope
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common bone and joint disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent association studies have uncovered the genetic factors behind OA, its susceptibility genes, which would enable us to predict disease occurrence based on genotype information. However, most previous studies have evaluated the effects of only a single susceptibility gene, and hence prediction based on such information is not as reliable. Here, we constructed OA-prediction models based on genotype information from a case-control association study and tested their predictability.
We genotyped risk alleles of the three susceptibility genes, asporin (ASPN), growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), and double von Willebrand factor A domains (DVWA) for a total of 2,158 Japanese subjects (933 OA and 1,225 controls) and statistically analyzed their effects. After that, we constructed prediction models by using the logistic regression analysis.
When the effects of each allele were assumed to be the same and multiplicative, each additional risk allele increased the odds ratio (OR) by a factor of 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12 to 1.34). Individuals with five or six risk alleles showed significantly higher susceptibility when compared with those with zero or one, with an OR of 2.67 (95% CI, 1.46 to 4.87; P = 0.0020). Statistical evaluation of the prediction power of models showed that a model using only genotyping data had poor predictability. We obtained a model with good predictability by incorporating clinical data, which was further improved by rigorous age adjustment.
Our results showed that consideration of adjusted clinical information, as well as increases in the number of risk alleles to be integrated, is critical for OA prediction by using data from case-control studies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the OA-prediction model combining both genetic and clinical information.
The Shwachman–Bodian–Diamond syndrome (SBDS) gene is a causative gene for Shwachman–Diamond syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, bone marrow dysfunction and skeletal dysplasia. We report here on two patients with skeletal manifestations at the severest end of the phenotypic spectrum of SBDS mutations. An 11‐year‐old Japanese girl presented with neonatal respiratory failure necessitating lifelong ventilation support, severe short stature and severe developmental delay. She developed neutropenia in infancy, and decreased serum amylase was noted in childhood. A British boy was a stillbirth with pulmonary hypoplasia and hepatic fibrosis found on autopsy. Both cases had neonatal skeletal manifestations that included platyspondyly, lacy iliac crests and severe metaphysial dysplasia, and thus did not fall in the range of the known Shwachman–Diamond syndrome skeletal phenotype but resembled spondylometaphysial dysplasia (SMD) Sedaghatian type. The girl harboured a recurrent mutation (183TA→CT) and a novel missense mutation (79T→C), whereas the boy carried two recurrent mutations (183TA→CT and 258+2T→C). We also examined SBDS in one typical case with SMD Sedaghantian type and eight additional cases with neonatal SMD, but failed to discover SBDS mutations. Our experience expands the phenotypic spectrum of SBDS mutations, which, at its severest end, results in severe neonatal SMD.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease that has a definite genetic component. Only a few OA susceptibility genes that have definite functional evidence and replication of association have been reported, however. Through a genome-wide association study and a replication using a total of ∼4,800 Japanese subjects, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7775228 and rs10947262) associated with susceptibility to knee OA. The two SNPs were in a region containing HLA class II/III genes and their association reached genome-wide significance (combined P = 2.43×10−8 for rs7775228 and 6.73×10−8 for rs10947262). Our results suggest that immunologic mechanism is implicated in the etiology of OA.
Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element and it is abundant in connective tissues, however biological roles of Zn and its transporters in those tissues and cells remain unknown.
Here we report that mice deficient in Zn transporter Slc39a13/Zip13 show changes in bone, teeth and connective tissue reminiscent of the clinical spectrum of human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The Slc39a13 knockout (Slc39a13-KO) mice show defects in the maturation of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, and fibroblasts. In the corresponding tissues and cells, impairment in bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and TGF-β signaling were observed. Homozygosity for a SLC39A13 loss of function mutation was detected in sibs affected by a unique variant of EDS that recapitulates the phenotype observed in Slc39a13-KO mice.
Hence, our results reveal a crucial role of SLC39A13/ZIP13 in connective tissue development at least in part due to its involvement in the BMP/TGF-β signaling pathways. The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-β signaling and connective tissue dysfunction.
Congenital dysplasia of the hip is an abnormal seating of the femoral head in the acetabulum, mainly caused by shallow acetabulum and lax joint capsule. Genetic factors play a considerable role in the pathogenesis of congenital dysplasia of the hip. The gene growth differentiate factor 5 (GDF5) has been implicated in skeletal development and joint morphogenesis in humans and mice. A functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5'-untranslated region of GDF5 (rs143383) was reported to be associated with osteoarthritis susceptibility. As a key regulator in morphogenesis of skeletal components and soft tissues in and around the joints, GDF5 may be involved in the aetiology and pathogenesis of congenital dysplasia of the hip. Our objective is to evaluate if the GDF5 SNP is associated with congenital dysplasia of the hip in people of Han Chinese origin.
The GDF5 SNP was genotyped in 338 children with congenital dysplasia of the hip and 622 control subjects.
The SNP was significantly associated with congenital dysplasia of the hip (p = 0.0037; odds ration (OR) = 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11 to 1.75). A significant difference was detected in female samples when stratified by gender (p = 0.0053; OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.91), and in hip dislocation when stratified by severity (p = 0.0078; OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.85).
Our results indicate that GDF5 is important in the aetiology of congenital dysplasia of the hip. To the authors' knowledge this is the first time that a definite association with the congenital dysplasia of the hip susceptibility has been detected.
CALM1 gene encodes calmodulin (CaM), an important and ubiquitous eukaryotic Ca2+-binding protein. Several studies have indicated that a deficient CaM function is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Using a convincing genome-wide association study, a Japanese group has recently demonstrated a genetic association between the CALM1 core promoter polymorphism (-16C/T transition SNP, rs12885713) and OA susceptibility. However, the subsequent association studies failed to provide consistent results in OA patients of differently selected populations. The present study is to evaluate the association of the -16C/T polymorphism with knee OA in a Chinese Han population.
A case-control association study was conducted. The polymorphism was genotyped in 183 patients who had primary symptomatic knee OA with radiographic confirmation and in 210 matched controls. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between patients and control subjects.
No significant difference was detected in genotype or allele distribution between knee OA and control groups (all P > 0.05). The association was also negative even after stratification by sex. Furthermore, no association between the -16C/T SNP genotype and the clinical variables age, sex, BMI (body mass index) and K/L (Kellgren/Lawrence) score was observed in OA patients.
The present study suggests that the CALM1 core promoter polymorphism -16C/T is not a risk factor for knee OA susceptibility in the Chinese Han population. Further studies are needed to give a global view of this polymorphism in pathogenesis of OA.
Conflicting findings on the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RHOB and TXNDC3 with susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis (OA) have been reported in European Caucasians. To examine the associations of these SNPs with OA in East Asian populations and to evaluate their global significance, we conducted two case-control studies in 955 Chinese and 750 Japanese patients.
We genotyped the previously implicated SNPs rs585017 (in RHOB) and rs4720262 (in TXNDC3) in patients with primary symptomatic knee OA with radiographic confirmation and in matched control individuals, and analyzed their associations. We further conducted a meta-analysis of the study findings together with those of previously reported European studies using the DerSimonian-Laird procedure.
A significant association of RHOB with knee OA was observed in male Chinese patients (P = 0.02). No significant associations were found for RHOB in any other comparisons in the East Asian populations. The association of TXNDC3 was replicated in Chinese female (P = 0.04) and Japanese (P = 0.03) patients, although none of these associations persisted after Bonferroni correction. Significant association (P = 0.02 for the allelic frequency) with nonsignificant heterogeneity was found in the East Asian replication study. No significant association was found in any comparison in the meta-analysis for all studies.
Our study replicates the association, previously reported in European Caucasians, of TXNDC3 with knee OA susceptibility in an East Asian population.