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1.  Bone Cement Solidifiliation Influence the Limb Alignment and Gap Balance during TKA 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:109402.
Introduction. Mechanical alignment deviation after total knee arthroplasty is a major reason for early loosening of the prosthesis. Achieving optimum cement penetration during fixation of the femoral and tibial component is an essential step in performing a successful total knee arthroplasty. Bone cement is used to solidify the bone and prosthesis. Thickness imbalance of bone cement leads to the deviation of mechanical alignment. To estimate the influence of bone cement, a retrospective study was conducted. Materials and Methods. A total of 36 subjects were studied. All the TKA were performed following the standard surgical protocol for navigated surgery by medial approach with general anaesthesia. Prostheses were fixed by bone cement. Results. We compared the mechanical axis, flexion/extension, and gap balance before and after cementation. All the factors were different compared with those before and after cementation. Internal rotation was reached with statistical significance (P = 0.03). Conclusion. Bone cement can influence the mechanical axis, flexion/extension, and gap balance. It also can prompt us to make a change when poor knee kinematics were detected before cementation.
PMCID: PMC4320926
2.  Decreased serum level of NGF in alcohol-dependent patients with declined executive function 
The role of neurotrophic factors has been highlighted as a cause of decline in the cognitive function of alcohol-dependent patients. It is known that nerve-growth factor (NGF), one of the neurotrophins, is related to the growth and differentiation of nerve cells, as well as to a decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between decreased NGF levels and cognitive decline in alcohol-dependent patients. The serum concentration of NGF was measured in 38 patients with chronic alcohol dependence, and several neuropsychological tests were also performed for cognitive function assessment. The results indicated a significant correlation between serum NGF level and the trail-making test part B, which evaluates executive function, but did not show a significant correlation with other cognitive function tests. An increased serum level of NGF was associated with a decreased completion time in the trail-making test B, and this finding indicates that a high serum level of NGF is related to greater executive function. This finding may imply a protective role of NGF in preventing neuron damage among patients with alcohol dependence. Larger controlled studies will be necessary in the future to investigate this issue further.
PMCID: PMC4235489  PMID: 25419139
nerve-growth factor; alcohol dependence; executive function; trail-making test
3.  The Difference in Comorbidities and Behavioral Aspects between Internet Abuse and Internet Dependence in Korean Male Adolescents 
Psychiatry Investigation  2014;11(4):387-393.
This study examined the differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects in accordance with the severity of Internet addiction in male adolescents.
One hundred and twenty-five adolescents from four middle and high schools in Seoul were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups according to a diagnostic interview by psychiatrists. The psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects of subjects were evaluated through psychiatric clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Internet Addiction Test, and a self-reported questionnaire about behavioral aspects.
The psychiatric comorbidity distributions were significantly different in the abuse and dependence groups, particularly in terms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and mood disorder items. The Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Internet Addiction Test scores were also significantly different among the three groups. There were significant differences in 10 of the 20 items of the Internet Addiction Test between the non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups. There were significant differences in seven items between the non-addict and abuse groups, but no differences between subjects in the abuse and dependence groups. Significant differences were observed in three items between the abuse and dependence groups, but there were no significant differences between the non-addict and abuse groups. In terms of behavioral aspects, scores for abusive, sexual, and decreased social interest behaviors were highest in the dependence group, and lowest in the non-addict group. However, the behavioral aspects of decreased interpersonal relationships did not show this difference between groups.
This study suggests that there are differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects between adolescent males with characteristics of Internet abuse and Internet dependence.
PMCID: PMC4225202  PMID: 25395969
Internet abuse; Dependence; Comorbidity; Behavioral aspects
4.  Endostar, a Modified Recombinant Human Endostatin, Suppresses Angiogenesis through Inhibition of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e107463.
Endostar, a novel modified recombinant human endostatin, is now widely studied for the treatment of diseases that are characterized or caused by pathological angiogenesis. However, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Endostar on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which has emerged as an important aspect of angiogenesis. We showed that Endostar significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion, and capillary-like tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we also demonstrated that Endostar suppressed β-catenin-dependent T cell factor transcriptional activity in increasing doses. Moreover, we found that Endostar treatment also restricted the stabilized mutant β-catenin-mediated increase in transcriptional activity, suggesting that Endostar exerts its inhibitory influence on Wnt/β-catenin signaling by targeting β-catenin or its downstream molecules. Western blot and immunofluorescence results revealed that Endostar significantly decreased nuclear and total β-catenin levels. Finally, we discovered that Endostar down-regulated cyclin D1 and VEGF, two proteins that are known as the downstream targets of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and that also play important roles in angiogenesis. Our findings suggested that Endostar inhibits angiogenesis and that the downregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may be involved in the inhibition of angiogenesis by Endostar. These results support the use of Endostar in further clinical applications.
PMCID: PMC4169397  PMID: 25232946
5.  A Novel Algorithm for Imbalance Data Classification Based on Neighborhood Hypergraph 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:876875.
The classification problem for imbalance data is paid more attention to. So far, many significant methods are proposed and applied to many fields. But more efficient methods are needed still. Hypergraph may not be powerful enough to deal with the data in boundary region, although it is an efficient tool to knowledge discovery. In this paper, the neighborhood hypergraph is presented, combining rough set theory and hypergraph. After that, a novel classification algorithm for imbalance data based on neighborhood hypergraph is developed, which is composed of three steps: initialization of hyperedge, classification of training data set, and substitution of hyperedge. After conducting an experiment of 10-fold cross validation on 18 data sets, the proposed algorithm has higher average accuracy than others.
PMCID: PMC4144305  PMID: 25180211
6.  Dynamic culture of a thermosensitive collagen hydrogel as an extracellular matrix improves the construction of tissue-engineered peripheral nerve 
Neural Regeneration Research  2014;9(14):1371-1378.
Tissue engineering technologies offer new treatment strategies for the repair of peripheral nerve injury, but cell loss between seeding and adhesion to the scaffold remains inevitable. A thermosensitive collagen hydrogel was used as an extracellular matrix in this study and combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to construct tissue-engineered peripheral nerve composites in vitro. Dynamic culture was performed at an oscillating frequency of 0.5 Hz and 35° swing angle above and below the horizontal plane. The results demonstrated that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells formed membrane-like structures around the poly-L-lactic acid scaffolds and exhibited regular alignment on the composite surface. Collagen was used to fill in the pores, and seeded cells adhered onto the poly-L-lactic acid fibers. The DNA content of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was higher in the composites constructed with a thermosensitive collagen hydrogel compared with that in collagen I scaffold controls. The cellular DNA content was also higher in the thermosensitive collagen hydrogel composites constructed with the thermosensitive collagen hydrogel in dynamic culture than that in static culture. These results indicate that tissue-engineered composites formed with thermosensitive collagen hydrogel in dynamic culture can maintain larger numbers of seeded cells by avoiding cell loss during the initial adhesion stage. Moreover, seeded cells were distributed throughout the material.
PMCID: PMC4160868  PMID: 25221594
nerve regeneration; peripheral nerve; biomaterials; extracellular matrix; tissue engineering; nerve scaffold; bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; thermosensitive collagen hydrogel; poly-L-lactic acid; dynamic culture; NSFC grant; neural regeneration
7.  Effects of Smoking Cessation on Gene Expression in Human Leukocytes of Chronic Smoker 
Psychiatry Investigation  2014;11(3):290-296.
The risks of cigarette smoking concerning higher systemic disease mortality are lessened by smoking cessation.
Microarray analysis compared the expression profiles of smokers who were successful and not successful at smoking cessation, with the goal of identifying genes that might serve as potential biomarkers or that might be valuable in elucidating distinct biological mechanisms. The mRNAs were isolated and compared from peripheral leukocytes of six smokers who were successful in cessation and six smokers who failed in smoking cessation.
Two hundred ninety nine genes displayed significantly different expression; 196 genes were up-regulated and 103 genes were down-regulated in the success group compared to the failure group. Twenty four of these genes were identified with biological processes including immunity, cytoskeleton and cell growth/cycle. Real-time PCR confirmed the differential gene expression. The mRNA levels of HEPACAM family member 2 (HEPACAM2) and tropomodulin 1 (TMOD1) were significantly more expressed in the success group, while the mRNA ubiquitin specific peptides 18 (USP18) were significantly less expressed in the success group compared to the failure group.
The results suggest that smoking cessation can modulate cell adhesion and immune response by regulating expression levels of genes, especially HEPACAM2, TMOD1 and USP18, which have an important relationship with smoking cessation.
PMCID: PMC4124188  PMID: 25110502
Nicotine cessation; Microarray; Leucocytes; Real time PCR
8.  Genetic Association of CHRNB3 and CHRNA6 Gene Polymorphisms with Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale in Korean Population 
Psychiatry Investigation  2014;11(3):307-312.
Cholinergic nicotinic receptor (CHRN) gene family has been known to mediate the highly additive effects of nicotine in the body, and implicated nicotine dependence (ND) and related phenotypes. Previous studies have found that CHRNA6-CHRNB3 cluster polymorphisms were significantly associated with the risk of ND and various tobacco behaviors. The aim of study was to evaluate the genetic association of CHRNB3 and CHRNA6 polymorphisms with the risk of ND based on the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score and five subscales of nicotine dependence syndrome scale (NDSS) in Korean population.
Six SNPs in CHRNA6-CHRNB3 cluster were analyzed in 576 Korean subjects. Association analysis using logistic models and regression analysis with NDSS were performed.
There was no association in the case-control analysis, whereas all six SNPs were significantly associated with drive factor among NDSS in subgroup based on the FTND score. CHRNB3 rs4954 and CHRNA6 rs16891604 showed significant associations with NDSSF1 (drive) in dominant models among moderate to severe ND among smokers after correction (pcorr=0.02 and 0.001, respectively), whereas other four SNPs showed significant associations among mild ND after correction (pcorr=0.03-0.02 in dominant model).
This study showed that the genetic influence of CHRNB3-CHRNA6 cluster polymorphisms are found in a ND endophenotype (drive) using NDSS subscales, rather than the risk of ND in Korean population. Our findings might be the first report for the association of CHRNB3-CHRNA6 cluster with ND-related phenotypes in Korean and might offer an approach to elucidating the molecular mechanisms of ND and ND-related phenotypes.
PMCID: PMC4124190  PMID: 25110504
CHRNB3; CHRNA6; SNP; Nicotine dependence; NDSS
9.  P-Selectin: An Unpredicted Factor for Deep Vein Thrombosis after Total Hip Arthroplasty 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:783967.
Introduction. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a severe complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). It leads to acute pulmonary embolism, a life-threatening disease. P-selectin is a 140-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein. Elevated P-selectin was associated with 1.7-fold increase in the risk of venous thrombosis. Materials and Methods. To confirm the association, a total of 91 subjects who received primary total hip arthroplasty using lateral approach performed by one skilled orthopedic surgeon were studied. All the patients were consecutively enrolled at the Center of Diagnosis and Treatment for Joint Diseases, Drum Tower Hospital affiliated to the Medical School of Nanjing University from 2010 to 2012. All the subjects received venography 3–5 days after operation. We measured P-selectin by means of a highly sensitive sandwich ELISA technique and a commercially available test reagent set. Results. No significant association was detected between P-selectin and DVT (all P  values > 0.05). ΔsP-selectin was correlated with weight, APTT after operation, history of DVT, and diagnosis of primary disease ( P values were 0.03, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.02, resp.). Conclusion. P-selectin may not be a predicted factor for deep vein thrombosis after total hip arthroplasty.
PMCID: PMC4095655  PMID: 25057500
10.  Comparison of Venous Thromboembolism after Total Hip Arthroplasty between Ankylosing Spondylitis and Osteoarthritis 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:712895.
Objective. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), an inflammatory rheumatic disease, will gradually lead to severe hip joint dysfunction. Total hip arthroplasty is a useful method to improve patients' quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence and risk factors of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) between AS and hip osteoarthritis. Methods. In a retrospective study, a total of 149 subjects who underwent cementless THA were studied. Clinical data, biochemical data, and surgery-related data were measured between AS and OA groups. Results. The incidence of DVT in AS group was lower than that of OA group, although no significant difference was detected (P = 0.89). The patients of AS group were much younger (P < 0.0001) and thinner (P = 0.018) compared with those of OA group. AS patients had higher ejection fraction (EF) (P = 0.016), higher platelet counts (P < 0.0001), and lower hypertension rate (P = 0.0004). The values of APTT, PT, and INR in AS patients were higher than those in OA patients (all P < 0.0001). The values of D-dimer and APTT were both significantly higher in DVT subjects than those in non-DVT subjects. Conclusion. AS patients potentially had a lower incidence of DVT compared with OA patients.
PMCID: PMC4065686  PMID: 24995324
11.  Latent class analysis on internet and smartphone addiction in college students 
This study aimed to classify distinct subgroups of people who use both smartphone and the internet based on addiction severity levels. Additionally, how the classified groups differed in terms of sex and psychosocial traits was examined.
A total of 448 university students (178 males and 270 females) in Korea participated. The participants were given a set of questionnaires examining the severity of their internet and smartphone addictions, their mood, their anxiety, and their personality. Latent class analysis and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were the statistical methods used.
Significant differences between males and females were found for most of the variables (all <0.05). Specifically, in terms of internet usage, males were more addicted than females (P<0.05); however, regarding smartphone, this pattern was reversed (P<0.001). Due to these observed differences, classifications of the subjects into subgroups based on internet and smartphone addiction were performed separately for each sex. Each sex showed clear patterns with the three-class model based on likelihood level of internet and smartphone addiction (P<0.001). A common trend for psychosocial trait factors was found for both sexes: anxiety levels and neurotic personality traits increased with addiction severity levels (all P<0.001). However, Lie dimension was inversely related to the addiction severity levels (all P<0.01).
Through the latent classification process, this study identified three distinct internet and smartphone user groups in each sex. Moreover, psychosocial traits that differed in terms of addiction severity levels were also examined. It is expected that these results should aid the understanding of traits of internet and smartphone addiction and facilitate further study in this field.
PMCID: PMC4038421  PMID: 24899806
sex difference; Eysenck personality type; psychosocial traits
12.  Changes of Plasma Adiponectin Levels after Smoking Cessation 
Psychiatry Investigation  2014;11(2):173-178.
Cigarette smoking is associated with a variety of health problems including cardiovascular, pulmonary, neoplasms, endocrinopathies including diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and chronic inflammation. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein that is closely associated with insulin sensitivity and the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of plasma adiponectin levels after smoking cessation.
Thirty seven smokers that wanted to stop smoking without any nicotine replacement therapy or medication were recruited for this study. Fifteen smokers succeeded in stopping smoking (validated by urine cotinine levels ≤50 ng/mL) and 22 smokers failed. Therefore, only the 15 that succeeded were included in the analysis. The plasma adiponectin levels were determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The mean age of the successful 15 was 35±9.3 years old. They were all males. The daily smoking habit was a mean of 13.5±5.4 cigarettes per day. The mean Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores were 55.6±9.6 and 2.9±1.9. During the study period of three months, the mean body mass index (BMI), body fat mass (BFM), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and body weight increased by 1.1 kg/m2, 3.0%, 0.02%, and 2.9 kg, respectively. The baseline mean adiponectin level in the subjects was 11.9±5.2 mg/L. The mean adiponectin levels measured at one and three months were 16.0±5.1 mg/L and 14.7±4.5 mg/L respectively. The mean plasma adiponectin levels of the successful group was significantly increased after four weeks when compared to the baseline (z=-2.401, p=0.016). However, the decrease in plasma adiponectin levels at one and three months was not statistically significant.
Even though the decrease over the next two months was not significant, these findings, the increase of plasma level of adiponectin after smoking cessation, provide preliminary data for future research on the possible mechanisms associated with smoking cessation and changes in body metabolism.
PMCID: PMC4023092  PMID: 24843373
Smoking cessation; Nicotine; Tobacco; Adiponectin; Ghrelin; Leptin; Metabolism
13.  Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene with Susceptibility to Knee Osteoarthritis: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Han Population 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:151457.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis and its multifactorial nature has been increasingly recognized. Genetic factors play an important role in OA etiology and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms may be involved. This study tried to explore whether the ESR1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with primary knee OA in the Chinese Han population. Two SNPs, rs2234693 and rs9340799, were genotyped in 469 cases and 522 controls. Rs2234693 was associated with knee OA in the dominant genetic model (TT + TC versus CC) (P = 0.025) and a higher T allele frequency existed (P = 0.047) among females. The combined genotype (TT + TC) (P = 0.025) and T allele (P = 0.016) were related with mild knee OA only. For rs9340799, A allele was associated with knee OA in all subjects (P = 0.031) and females (P = 0.046). Statistical differences were detected in the dominant genetic model (AA + AG versus GG) among females (P = 0.030). The combined genotype (AA + AG) (P = 0.036) and A allele (P = 0.039) were merely correlated with mild knee OA. ESR1 gene is considerably associated with knee OA etiology in the Chinese Han population.
PMCID: PMC3977114  PMID: 24772413
14.  Is there a shared neurobiology between aggression and Internet addiction disorder? 
Purpose: Evidences indicate that Internet addiction disorder (IAD) has a higher risk of developing aggression and violent behavior. A few correlation studies between IAD and aggression have implicated a common biological mechanism. However, neurobiological approaches to IAD and aggression have not yet been studied. Methods: A literature search for studies for Internet addiction disorder or aggression was performed in the PubMed database and we selected articles about neurobiology of IAD or aggression. Results: This review includes (a) common neural substrates such as the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system between aggression and IAD; (b) common neuromodulators such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, opiate and nicotine between aggression and IAD. Conclusions: Through reviewing the relevant literature, we suggested the possibility of common neurobiology between the two psychiatric phenomena and direction of research on aggression in IAD.
PMCID: PMC4117279  PMID: 25215210
Internet; addiction; neurobiology; aggression
15.  Approach for Text Classification Based on the Similarity Measurement between Normal Cloud Models 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:784392.
The similarity between objects is the core research area of data mining. In order to reduce the interference of the uncertainty of nature language, a similarity measurement between normal cloud models is adopted to text classification research. On this basis, a novel text classifier based on cloud concept jumping up (CCJU-TC) is proposed. It can efficiently accomplish conversion between qualitative concept and quantitative data. Through the conversion from text set to text information table based on VSM model, the text qualitative concept, which is extraction from the same category, is jumping up as a whole category concept. According to the cloud similarity between the test text and each category concept, the test text is assigned to the most similar category. By the comparison among different text classifiers in different feature selection set, it fully proves that not only does CCJU-TC have a strong ability to adapt to the different text features, but also the classification performance is also better than the traditional classifiers.
PMCID: PMC3953649  PMID: 24711737
16.  Shared psychological characteristics that are linked to aggression between patients with Internet addiction and those with alcohol dependence 
Internet addiction (IA) is considered as one of behavioral addictions. Although common neurobiological mechanisms have been suggested to underlie behavioral addiction and substance dependence, few studies have directly compared IA with substance dependence, such as alcohol dependence (AD).
We compared patients with IA, AD, and healthy controls (HC) in terms of the Five Factor Model of personality and with regard to impulsiveness, anger expression, and mood to explore psychological factors that are linked to aggression. All patients were treatment-seeking and had moderate-to-severe symptoms.
The IA and AD groups showed a lower level of agreeableness and higher levels of neuroticism, impulsivity, and anger expression compared with the HC group, which are characteristics related to aggression. The addiction groups showed lower levels of extraversion, openness to experience, and conscientiousness and were more depressive and anxious than the HCs, and the severity of IA and AD symptoms was positively correlated with these types of psychopathology.
IA and AD are similar in terms of personality, temperament, and emotion, and they share common characteristics that may lead to aggression. Our findings suggest that strategies to reduce aggression in patients with IA are necessary and that IA and AD are closely related and should be dealt with as having a close nosological relationship.
PMCID: PMC3936872  PMID: 24559036
Internet addiction; Alcohol dependence; Aggression; Personality; Impulsiveness; Anger
17.  Research and Application for Grey Relational Analysis in Multigranularity Based on Normality Grey Number 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:312645.
Grey theory is an essential uncertain knowledge acquisition method for small sample, poor information. The classic grey theory does not adequately take into account the distribution of data set and lacks the effective methods to analyze and mine big sample in multigranularity. In view of the universality of the normal distribution, the normality grey number is proposed. Then, the corresponding definition and calculation method of the relational degree between the normality grey numbers are constructed. On this basis, the grey relational analytical method in multigranularity is put forward to realize the automatic clustering in the specified granularity without any experience knowledge. Finally, experiments fully prove that it is an effective knowledge acquisition method for big data or multigranularity sample.
PMCID: PMC3948588  PMID: 24701157
18.  A Replication Study for the Association of rs726252 in PAPPA2 with Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Chinese Han Population 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:979520.
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common developmental hip disorder, which ranges from mild acetabulum malformation to irreducible hip dislocation. A previous study suggested a significant association of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPPA2) with DDH susceptibility in Chinese Han population. But with the consideration of the sample size, the association was still debatable. To confirm the association of the reported single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PAPPA2, rs726252 with DDH, we conducted a case-control study in a larger number of subjects. We genotyped rs726252 in 697 DDH subjects and 707 control subjects by TaqMan assay. The association between this SNP and DDH was evaluated statistically. No significant difference was found in any comparison of genotype distribution nor allele frequency between cases and controls. Our replication study indicated that the association between rs726252 and DDH in Chinese Han population was debatable. The association between PAPPA2 and DDH should be evaluated by additional studies.
PMCID: PMC3930137  PMID: 24672801
19.  Antibacterial Effects of Blackberry Extract Target Periodontopathogens 
Background and Objective
Antimicrobial agents provide valuable adjunctive therapy for prevention and control of oral diseases. Limitations in their prolonged use have stimulated the search for new natural occurring agents with more specific activity and fewer adverse effects. Here we sought to determine the anti-bacterial properties of blackberry extract (BBE) in vitro against oral bacterial commensals and periodontopathogens.
Material and Methods
Effects of whole and fractionated BBE on the metabolism of 10 different oral bacteria were evaluated by colorimetric water-soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) assay. Bactericidal effects of whole BBE against F. nucleatum were determined by quantitating colony forming units (CFUs). Cytotoxicity was determined in oral epithelial (OKF6) cells.
BBE at 350-1,400 μg/mL reduced the metabolic activity of P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum and S. mutans. The reduced metabolic activity observed for F. nucleatum corresponded to a reduction in CFUs following exposure to BBE for as little as 1 hour, indicative of its bactericidal properties. An anthocyanin-enriched fraction of BBE reduced the metabolic activity of F. nucleatum but not P. gingivalis or S. mutans, suggesting the contribution of species specific agents in the whole BBE. Oral epithelial cell viability was not reduced following ≤ 6 h exposures to whole BBE (2.24-1400 μg/mL).
BBE alters the metabolic activity of oral periodontopathogens while demonstrating minimal effect on commensals. The specific antibacterial properties of BBE shown in this study along with its anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties previously demonstrated make this natural extract a promising target as an adjunct for prevention and/or complementary therapy of periodontal infections.
PMCID: PMC3540108  PMID: 22812456
Blackberry; oral bacteria; antibacterial effect; periodontitis; periodontopathogens; Fusobacterium nucleatum; topical antimicrobial
20.  Association of rs11190870 near LBX1 with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis susceptibility in a Han Chinese population 
European Spine Journal  2012;22(2):282-286.
To investigate whether rs11190870 near LBX1 correlates with the susceptibility or curve progression of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in a Han Chinese population.
A total of 949 AIS patients and 976 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. All the subjects were genotyped using the PCR-based invader assay. Case–control study and case-only study were performed to define the contribution of rs11190870 to predisposition and curve severity of AIS. Additionally, we further conducted a meta-analysis of the study findings together with those of previously reported studies.
A significant association of rs11190870 with AIS was observed in the Han Chinese population (P = 1.8 × 10−9; odd ratio = 1.51; 95 % confidence interval = 1.33–1.71), and AIS patients with TT genotype had a larger Cobb angle than those with TC or CC genotype (P = 0.005). The meta-analysis confirmed that the positive association of this SNP with AIS in the East Asian population.
The SNP rs11190870 near LBX1 is associated with both susceptibility and curve progression of AIS.
PMCID: PMC3555620  PMID: 23096252
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Han Chinese; rs11190870; Genetic; Etiology
21.  Arsenic Trioxide Induces Apoptosis in Human Platelets via C-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Activation 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86445.
Arsenic trioxide (ATO), one of the oldest drugs in both Western and traditional Chinese medicine, has become an effective anticancer drug, especially in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, thrombocytopenia occurred in most of ATO-treated patients with APL or other malignant diseases, and the pathogenesis remains unclear. Here we show that ATO dose-dependently induces depolarization of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, caspase-3 activation, and phosphotidylserine (PS) exposure in platelets. ATO did not induce surface expression of P-selectin and PAC-1 binding, whereas, obviously reduced collagen, ADP, and thrombin induced platelet aggregation. ATO dose-dependently induced c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, and JNK specific inhibitor dicumarol obviously reduced ATO-induced ΔΨm depolarization in platelets. Clinical therapeutic dosage of ATO was intraperitoneally injected into C57 mice, and the numbers of circulating platelets were significantly reduced after five days of continuous injection. The data demonstrate that ATO induces caspase-dependent apoptosis via JNK activation in platelets. ATO does not incur platelet activation, whereas, it not only impairs platelet function but also reduces circulating platelets in vivo, suggesting the possible pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia in patients treated with ATO.
PMCID: PMC3899281  PMID: 24466103
22.  The Smartphone Addiction Scale: Development and Validation of a Short Version for Adolescents 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83558.
This study was designed to investigate the revised and short version of the smartphone addiction scale and the proof of its validity in adolescents. In addition, it suggested cutting off the values by gender in order to determine smartphone addiction and elaborate the characteristics of smartphone usage in adolescents.
A set of questionnaires were provided to a total of 540 selected participants from April to May of 2013. The participants consisted of 343 boys and 197 girls, and their average age was 14.5 years old. The content validity was performed on a selection of shortened items, while an internal-consistency test was conducted for the verification of its reliability. The concurrent validity was confirmed using SAS, SAPS and KS-scale. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was conducted to suggest cut-off.
The 10 final questions were selected using content validity. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.911. The SAS-SV was significantly correlated with the SAS, SAPS and KS-scale. The SAS-SV scores of gender (p<.001) and self-evaluation of smartphone addiction (p<.001) showed significant difference. The ROC analysis results showed an area under a curve (AUC) value of 0.963(0.888–1.000), a cut-off value of 31, sensitivity value of 0.867 and specificity value of 0.893 in boys while an AUC value of 0.947(0.887–1.000), a cut-off value of 33, sensitivity value of 0.875, and a specificity value of 0.886 in girls.
The SAS-SV showed good reliability and validity for the assessment of smartphone addiction. The smartphone addiction scale short version, which was developed and validated in this study, could be used efficiently for the evaluation of smartphone addiction in community and research areas.
PMCID: PMC3877074  PMID: 24391787
23.  Salinomycin Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Autophagy in Cultured Osteoblastoma Cells: A Negative Regulator against Cell Apoptosis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e84175.
The malignant osteoblastoma has poor prognosis, thus the search for novel and more efficient chemo-agents against this disease is urgent. Salinomycin induces broad anti-cancer effects both in vivo and in vitro, however, its role in osteoblastoma is still not clear.
Key Findings
Salinomycin induced both apoptosis and autophagy in cultured U2OS and MG-63 osteoblastoma cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), or by RNA interference (RNAi) of light chain 3B (LC3B), enhanced salinomycin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Salinomycin induced a profound AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which was required for autophagy induction. AMPK inhibition by compound C, or by AMPKα RNAi prevented salinomycin-induced autophagy activation, while facilitating cancer cell death and apoptosis. On the other hand, the AMPK agonist AICAR promoted autophagy activation in U2OS cells. Salinomycin-induced AMPK activation was dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in osteoblastoma cells. Antioxidant n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited salinomycin-induced AMPK activation and autophagy induction.
Salinomycin activates AMPK-dependent autophagy in osteoblastoma cells, which serves as a negative regulator against cell apoptosis. AMPK-autophagy inhibition might be a novel strategy to sensitize salinomycin’s effect in cancer cells.
PMCID: PMC3866127  PMID: 24358342
24.  The Alcohol Hangover Research Group Consensus Statement on Best Practice in Alcohol Hangover Research 
Current drug abuse reviews  2010;3(2):116-126.
Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies.
PMCID: PMC3827719  PMID: 20712593
Alcohol hangover; methodology; guidelines; research
25.  Factors that affect substance users’ suicidal behavior: a view from the Addiction Severity Index in Korea 
In South Korea, it has not been easy to negotiate studies that target drug users who are being punished by law, and accordingly, no study on suicidal ideation among substance users has been accomplished yet. In this study, the factors that affect substance users’ suicidal ideation were confirmed.
It was based on the data collected from 'The 2009 Study on Substance-Dependent Individuals in Korea’ , which was conducted by The Catholic University of Korea in 2010 as a project sponsored by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea. This study targeted 523 former hospital inpatients, prison inmates, and persons under protective supervision who had used substances such as psychotropic drugs, marijuana, and narcotic agents, and were in the recovery stage at various treatment/rehabilitation centers. Student’s t and chi-square tests were used, and multivariate analysis was performed to examine the strength of the relationships between suicide ideation and various factors.
According to this study, 41% of these substance users planned suicide with suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was confirmed as associated with an unsatisfactory domestic environment, insufficient and unsatisfactory spare time experiences with others, emotional abuse, severe depression, and trouble with controlling violent behavior. Of the substance users who had planned to commit suicide, 56% attempted suicide. Their suicide attempts were shown to have been associated with insufficient protective supervision and the experiences of physical abuse, trouble with controlling violent behavior, and doctors’ prescriptions due to psychological or emotional problems.
Based on this analysis of the factors that affect suicidal behavior, preventive measures and strategies for substance user were suggested in this study.
PMCID: PMC4175090  PMID: 24220264
Substance use; Suicidal behavior; Suicidal ideation; Suicide attempts

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